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SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR USING TRIAC

ABSTRACT

The following method proposes speed control of separately excited DC Motor using
semiconductor devices like TRIAC and DIAC Devices. It also explains how we can control the
speed of separately excited dc motor for various purposes. There are different types of speed
control of separately excited DC motor for example; field control and armature control method.
Also the speed control of dc motor it may use in different applications, such as {lathes, fans,
pumps, disc and band saw drive requiring moderate, torques, Electric traction, high speed tools,
etc}.

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION OF DC MOTOR :-


In this section will discuss about separately excited DC motor. Direct current (DC) motors
converts electrical energy into mechanical energy and they works on dc supply.

Type of DC motors
1.1.1 Separately excited dc motor.
1.1.2 Permanent magnet type dc motor.
1.1.3 Shunt wound DC motor.
1.1.4 DC series wound motors.
1.1.5 Compound DC motor.

1.1.1 Separately excited dc motor :-

In this section we will discuss about the separately excited dc motor. Like other DC motors,
these motors also have both stator and rotor. Stator refers to the static part of motor, which
consists of the field windings. And the rotor is the moving armature which contains armature
windings or coils. Separately excited dc motor has field coils similar to that of shunt wound dc
motor. The name suggests the construction of this type of motor. Usually, in other DC motors,
the field coil and the armature coil both are energized from a single source. The field of them
does not need any separate excitation. But, in separately excited DC motor, separate supply
Provided for excitation of both field coil and armature coil.

Figure below shows the separately excited dc motor


Here, the field coil is energized from a separate DC voltage source and the armature coil is also
energized from another source. Armature voltage source may be variable but, independent
constant DC voltage is used for energizing the field coil. So, those coils are electrically isolated
from each other, and this connection is the specialty of this type of DC motor.

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Equations Of Voltage, current and power for DC motors


In a separately excited motor, armature and field windings are excited form two different dc
supply voltages. In this motor
• Armature current Ia = Line current = IL = I
• Back emf developed , Eb = V – I Ra
where V is the supply voltage and Ra is the armature resistance.
• Power drawn from main supply , P = VI
• Mechanical power developed ,Pm = Power input to armature – power loss in armature

The development of high performance motor drives is very important in industrial applications.
Generally, a high performance motor drive system must have good dynamic speed command
tracking and load regulating response. DC motors have long been the primary means of electric
traction. DC motor is considered a SISO system having torque/speed characteristics compatible
with most mechanical loads. This makes a D.C motor controllable over a wide range of speeds
by proper adjustment of its terminal voltage. Recently, brushless D.C motors, induction motors,
and synchronous motors have gained widespread use in electric traction. However, there is a
persistent effort towards making them behave like dc motors through innovative design and
control strategies. Hence dc motors are always a good proving ground for advanced control
algorithm because the theory is extendable to other types of motors. Many practical control
issues (motor control problems):Variable and unpredictable inputs, Noise propagation along a
series of unit processes, Unknown parameters, Changes in load dynamics Under these
conditions, the conventional constant gain feedback controller fails to maintain the performance
of the system at acceptable levels. The incorporation of feed forward in artificial neural networks
is important for several reasons the dynamical properties of the system, and in practice it may
improve the performance. They are generally present in most nonlinear dynamical system and
can be used to implement specific structures.

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1.1.2 Permanent Magnet DC Motor :-

The permanent magnet DC motor consists of an armature winding as in case of an usual motor,
but does not necessarily contain the field windings. The construction of these types of DC motor
are such that, radially magnetized permanent magnets are mounted on the inner periphery of the
stator core to produce the field flux.
The rotor on the other hand has a conventional DC armature with commutator segments and
brushes. The diagrammatic representation of a permanent magnet DC motor is given below. The
torque equation of DC motor suggests Here φ is always constant, as permanent
magnets of required flux density are chosen at the time of construction and can’t be changed
there after. For a permanent magnet DC motor Where, Ka1 = Ka.φ which is
another constant. In this case the torque of DC Motor can only be changed by controlling
armature supply.

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1.1.3 Shunt Wound DC Motor :-

In case of a shunt wound DC motor or more specifically shunt wound self excited DC motor,
the field windings are exposed to the entire terminal voltage as they are connected in parallel to
the armature winding as shown in the figure below. To understand the characteristic of these
types of DC motor,lets consider the basic voltage equation given by

[Where, E, Eb, Ia, Ra are the supply voltage, back emf, armature current and armature resistance
respectively]

[since back emf increases with flux φ and angular speed ωω] Now substituting Eb from equation
(2) to equation (1) we get,

The torque equation of a DC motor resembles,

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This is similar to the equation of a straight line, and we can graphically representing the torque
speed characteristic of a shunt wound self excited DC motor as the shunt wound DC motor is a
constant speed motor, as the speed does not vary here with the variation of mechanical load on
the output.

1.1.4 Series Wound DC Motor :-

In case of a series wound self excited DC motor or simply series wound DC motor, the entire
armature current flows through the field winding as its connected in series to the armature
winding. The series wound self excited DC motor is diagrammatically represented below for
clear understanding.

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Now to determint the torque speed characteristic of these types of DC motor, lets get to the
torque speed equation. From the circuit diagram we can see that the voltage equation gets
modified to

Where as back emf remains Eb = kaφω Neglecting saturation we get,

[ since field current = armature current]

From equation (5) and (6)

From this equation we obtain the torque speed characteristic as

In a series wound DC motor, the speed varies with load. And operation wise this is its main
difference from a shunt wound DC motor.

1.1.5 Compound Wound DC Motor :-


The compound excitation characteristic in a DC motor can be obtained by combining the
operational characteristic of both the shunt and series excited DC motor. The compound wound
self excited DC motor or simply compound wound DC motor essentially contains the field
winding connected both in series and in parallel to the armature winding as show in the figure
below:

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The excitation of compound wound DC motor can be of two types depending on the nature of
compounding.

Cumulative Compound DC Motor


When the shunt field flux assists the main field flux, produced by the main field connected in
series to the armature winding then its called cumulative compound DC motor.

Differential Compound DC Motor


In case of a differentially compounded self excited DC motor i.e. differential compound DC
motor, the arrangement of shunt and series winding is such that the field flux produced by the
shunt field winding diminishes the effect of flux by the main series field winding.

The net flux produced in this case is lesser than the original flux and hence does not find much of
a practical application.

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Characteristic of the self excited DC motor is shown in the figure.

Both the cumulative compound and differential compound DC motor can either be of short shunt
or long shunt type depending on the nature of arrangement.

Short Shunt DC Motor


If the shunt field winding is only parallel to the armature winding and not the series field
winding then its known as short shunt DC motor or more specifically short shunt type compound
wound DC motor compound wound DC motor.

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Long Shunt DC Motor


If the shunt field winding is parallel to both the armature winding and the series field winding
then it’s known as long shunt type compounded wound DC motor or simply long shunt DC
motor. Short shunt and long shunt type motors have been shown in the diagram below.

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1.2 INTRODUCTION OF TRIAC :-

The TRIAC is a three terminal semiconductor device for controlling current. It gains its name
from the term TRIode for Alternating Current.It is effectively a development of the SCR or
thyristor, but unlike the thyristor which is only able to conduct in one direction, the TRIAC is a
bidirectional device.Speed Control of DC Motor Using TRIAC. DC motors are widely used in
industry because of its low cost, less complex control structure and wide range of speed and
torque. With the increasing use of power semiconductor units, the speed control of DC motor is
increasingly getting sophisticated and precise. A TRIAC is a bidirectional thyristor with three
Terminals. Its three terminals are designated as MT1 (main terminal),MT2 & gate by G. Triac
can be turned on in each half cycle of the applied voltage by applying a positive or negative
voltage to the gate with respect to the terminal 1.To successfully trigger a TRIAC, Gate current
must come from the main terminal 2 side of the circuit

The TRIAC is a component that is effectively based on the thyristor. It provides AC switching
for electrical systems. Like the thyristor, the TRIACs are used in many electrical switching
applications. They find particular use for circuits in light dimmers, etc., where they enable both
halves of the AC cycle to be used. This makes them more efficient in terms of the usage of the
power available. While it is possible to use two thyristors back to back, this is not always cost
effective for low cost and relatively low power applications.It is possible to view the operation of
a TRIAC in terms of two thyristors placed back to back. One of the drawbacks of the TRIAC is
that it does not switch symmetrically. It will often have an offset, switching at different gate
voltages for each half of the cycle. This creates additional harmonics which is not good for EMC
performance and also provides an imbalance in the system.In order to improve the switching of
the current waveform and ensure it is more symmetrical is to use a device external to the TRIAC
to time the triggering pulse.A DIAC placed in series with the gate is the normal method of
achieving this.

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2. LITURATURE SURVEY
At the most basic level, electric motors exist to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.
This is done by way of two interacting magnetic fields -- one stationary, and another attached to
a part that can move. A number of types of electric motors exist, but most BEAMbots
use DC motors1 in some form or another. DC motors have the potential for very
high torque capabilities (although this is generally a function of the physical size of the motor),
are easy to miniaturize, and can be "throttled" via adjusting their supply voltage. DC motors are
also not only the simplest, but the oldest electric motors.The basic principles of electromagnetic
induction were discovered in the early 1800's by Oersted, Gauss, and Faraday. By 1820, Hans
Christian Oersted and Andre Marie Ampere had discovered that an electric current produces a
magnetic field. The next 15 years saw a flurry of cross-Atlantic experimentation and innovation,
leading finally to a simple DC rotary motor. A number of men were involved in the work, so
proper credit for the first DC motor is really a function of just how broadly you choose to define
the word "motor."

Michael Faraday (U.K.)

Fabled experimenter Michael Faraday decided to confirm or refute a number of speculations


surrounding Oersted's and Ampere's results. Faraday set to work devising an experiment to
demonstrate whether or not a current-carrying wire produced a circular magnetic field around it,
and in October of 1821 succeeded in demonstrating this.Faraday took a dish of mercury and
placed a fixed magnet in the middle; above this, he dangled a freely moving wire (the free end of
the wire was long enough to dip into the mercury). When he connected a battery to form
a circuit, the current-carrying wire circled around the magnet. Faraday then reversed the setup,
this time with a fixed wire and a dangling magnet -- again the free part circled around the fixed
part. This was the first demonstration of the conversion of electrical energy into motion, and as a
result, Faraday is often credited with the invention of the electric motor. Bear in mind, though,
that Faraday's electric motor is really just a lab demonstration, as you can't harness it for useful
work.Also note that if you plan on repeating this experiment yourself, you should use salt water
(or some similar nontoxic but conductive liquid) for the fluid, rather than mercury. Mercury can
be very hazardous to your health, and requires stringent precautions on its use. The BBC has
instructions on building just such a device using salt water here.

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Joseph Henry (U.S.)

It took ten years, but by the summer of 1831 Joseph Henry had improved on Faraday's
experimental motor. Henry built a simple device whose moving part was a straight electromagnet
rocking on a horizontal axis. Its polarity was reversed automatically by its motion as pairs of
wires projecting from its ends made connections alternately with two electrochemical cells. Two
vertical permanent magnets alternately attracted and repelled the ends of the electromagnet,
making it rock back and forth at 75 cycles per minute.Henry considered his little machine to be
merely a "philosophical toy," but nevertheless believed it was important as the first
demonstration of continuous motion produced by magnetic attraction and repulsion. While being
more mechanically useful than Faraday's motor, and being the first real use of electromagnets in
a motor, it was still by and large a lab experiment.For pictures of Henry's motor, as well as more
information on his further explorations, check out the Smithsonian Institution's write-up on him
(part of the Joseph Henry Papers Project) here.

William Sturgeon (U.K.)

Just a year after Henry's motor was demonstrated, William Sturgeon invented the commutator,
and with it the first rotary electric motor -- in many ways a rotary analogue of Henry's oscillating
motor. Sturgeon's motor, while still simple, was the first to provide continuous rotary motion and
contained essentially all the elements of a modern DC motor. Note that Sturgeon used horseshoe
electromagnets to produce both the moving and stationary magnetic fields (to be specific, he
built a shunt wound DC motor).The BBC has a good set of instructions on building a replica of
this motor here. Triacs are not a component often used in RF and microwave circuit design, but
being conversant in its operation could make you popular at nerd parties.

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3. CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION

Construction diagram of DC motor as shown in figure. In this project we use the separately
excited DC motor. The devices are use like a resistors, commutation circuit, TRIAC, DIAC,
variable resistor, capecitors, DC motor. The commutation circuit are used to communicate the
path from one path to another path. DIAC is used to triggering the TRIAC. TRIAC (Triode for AC) is
the semiconductor device widely used in power control and switching applications. It finds applications
in switching, phase control, chopper designs, brilliance control in lamps, speed control in fans, motors
etc. The power control system is designed to control the distribution level of AC or DC. Such power
control systems can be used to switch power to appliances manually or when temperature or light levels
go beyond a preset level.

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TRIAC is equivalent to two SCRs connected in inverse parallel with the gates connected
together. As a result, the TRIAC functions as a Bidirectional switch to pass the current in both
directions once the gate is triggered. TRIAC is a three terminal device with a Main terminal1 (
MT1), Main terminal 2( MT2) and a Gate. The MT1 and MT2 terminals are used to connect the
Phase and Neutral lines while the Gate is used to feed the triggering pulse. The Gate can be
triggered either by a positive voltage or negative voltage. When the MT2 terminal gets a positive
voltage with respect to the MT1 terminal and the Gate gets a positive trigger, then the left SCR
of the TRIAC triggers and circuit completes. But if the polarity of the voltage at the MT2 and
MT1 terminals is reversed and a negative pulse is applied to the Gate, then the right SCR of
Triac conducts. When the Gate current is removed, the TRIAC switches off. So a minimum
holding current I must be maintained at the gate to keep the TRIAC conducting. The DIAC
circuit symbol is generated from the two triangles held between two lines as shown below. In
some way this demonstrates the structure of the device which can be considered also as two
junctions.

Circuit symbol for the DIAC


The two terminals of the device are normally designated either Anode 1 and Anode 2 or Main
Terminals 1 and 2, i.e. MT1 and MT2.The DIAC is essentially a diode that conducts after a 'break-
over' voltage, designated VBO, is exceeded.When the device exceeds this break-over voltage, it enters
the region of negative dynamic resistance. This results in a decrease in the voltage drop across the diode
with increasing voltage. Accordingly there is a sharp increase in the level of current that is conducted by
the device. The diode remains in its conduction state until the current through it drops below what is
termed the holding current, which is normally designated by the letters IH. Below the holding current,
the DIAC reverts to its high-resistance (non-conducting) state. Its behaviour is bi-directional and
therefore its operation occurs on both halves of an alternating cycle. Commutation is the process by
which we can turn OFF a thyristor. So the process of switching OFF a thyristor or SCR is known as
Commutation.As we know that once a thyristor starts conducting then it continue to conduct till the
current flowing through it reduced below the holding current. In commutation we mainly reduce
thyristor's current from holding current.
There are two methods of commutation of thyristors :
1.Natural-Commutation.
2.Forced-Commutation.

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1.Natural Commutation:
The process of turning off a thyristor without using any external circuits is known as Natural
commutation. This type of commutation is only possible in AC Applications. When using A.C.
Supply, the current passing through the device is alternating. This alternating current go to peak
positive value , passes through its zero and then go through peak negative value. When the
alternating quantity at zero then the current passing through the device also zero and at same
time a reverse polarity develops across the thyristor. This will quickly Turn OFF the thyristor.
This process of commutation is known as Natural Commutation as no external circuits or
components are used. This method is only applicable when using A.C. Supply. This is not
possible to get this work on D.C. Because D.C. is a unidirectional quantity and doesn't change its
direction as a result there is no change in polarity voltage that is required to Turn OFF the
thyristor.
2. Forced Commutation :
The process of turning OFF a thyristor or SCR by using external circuits is known as Forced
Commutation. This method of commutation is used for D.C. Commutation. When using D.C.
supply, we make use of external circuit and other active/passive components to reduce the
passing current's value below holding current. That means we forces the forward current to come
to zero value. Therefore it is called forced commutation. The circuit used for this commutation
method is known as commutation circuit and the components that are used in the circuitry , are
known as commutating components.

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4. ADVANTAGES
 Armature voltage control method gives good speed regulation and high efficiency - the
speed of the dc motor depends on the back emf (directly proportional) and the flux (inversely
proportional).Therefore, to change the speed of the dc motor we keep the flux constant and
change the back emf of the motor. The way to change the back of the motor is to change the
armature voltage. This is called as armature voltage control of dc motor. In old days we used to
do it using resistor. changing the voltage drop in the resistor we change the armature voltage.
 Large speed range- DC drives are DC motor speed control systems. Since the speed of
a DC motor is directly proportional to armature voltage and inversely proportional to motor flux
(which is a function of field current), either armature voltage or field current can be used to
control speed.
 TRIAC is a bi-directional device. So we can control the power delivered to load in both the
half cycles- The TRIAC is a three terminal semiconductor device for controlling current. It gains
its name from the term TRIode for Alternating Current. It is effectively a development of the
SCR or thyristor, but unlike the thyristor which is only able to conduct in one direction,
the TRIAC is a bidirectional device.

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5. DISADVANTAGES

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6. APPLICATION
1.The separately excited dc motors are generally used for paper machines, diesel electric
propulsion of ships, In steel rolling mills, etc.

2.TRIACs are used in numerous applications such as light dimmers, speed controls for electric
fans and other electric motors and in the modern computerized control circuits of numerous
household small and major appliances. They can be used both into AC and DC circuits however
the original design was to replace the utilization of two SCRs in AC circuits.There are two
families of TRIACs, which are mainly used for application purpose, they are BT136, BT139.

3.For Motor Control.

4.As a static switch.

5.In Lamp dimmer and heating control.

6.Temperature controller.

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7. CONCLUSION
This paper explains a brief theory about how to control the speed of a separately excited dc
motor with the help of TRIAC and DIAC. It also explains various types of methods and the use
of speed control of dc motor in the machinery used in the industrial factories.It also explains
actual working of TRIAC to control the speed of DC motor and the use of speed control DC
motor in the machinery used in the industrial area.

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8. REFERENCES
• Power Electronic by J.S.Katre.
• Electrical Engineering Portal.
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DC -motor
• J.B.Gupta, publishers of engg.2010-11 edition.
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DC_motor

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