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SPACECRAFT WITH

ELECTRIC PROPULSION

Prepared by: Mark Angelo C. Purio


Student # 18595908
Spacecraft With Electric Propulsion
Spacecraft Launch End Of Thruster Spacecraft Thruster
Propellant Comment
Name Date Life Type Customer Prime

Magnetoplas Electric Propulsion


Space Flyer 18 Mar 13 Jan ISAS /
madynamic Hydrazine ISAS Experiment, 43395
Unit (SFU) 1995 1996 NASDA
thruster pulses of operation

Station-keeping,
Hall effect ISA
VENµS 2 Aug 2017 Xenon Rafael fine attitude control
thruster CNES
and orbit change

Experimental
ARGOS 23 Feb 31 Jul Rocket military satellite,
Arcjet Ammonia USAF
(P91-1) 1999 2003 Research co. Electric Propulsion
Space Experiment
SPACE FLYER UNIT
• a spacecraft which was launched by
Japan on Mar. 18, 1995
• was launched from Tanegashima
Space Center from a H-II vehicle. It
was carrying testing materials and
research data that held value to
NASA.
• retrieved the data from the Space
Flyer Unit by Space Shuttle
Endeavour on Jan. 20th, 1996
(which was 10 months after the
Space Flyer Unit was launched.
• Joint effort by the Institute of Space
and Astronautical Science, the
National Space Development
Agency, and Ministry of
International Trade and Industry.
Magnetoplasmadynamic
(MPD) Arcjet Space Propulsion
• The operational principle is pulsed high current
arc & charge is initiated between a centered
cathode and segmented coaxial anodes to ionize
the hydrazine decomposed gas flowing through
these electrodes.
• Each segmented anode
connected to each pulse-
forming- network was
employed so as to
distribute am discharges
azimuthally uniform
Magnetoplasmadynamic
(MPD) Arcjet Space Propulsion
• The electromagnetic thrust is generated by the
coupling of the current flowing from the anode
to the cathode and the self-induced magnetic
field in the azimuthal direction.

• Besides this axial thrust, the compression force


in the radially inward direction concentrates a
high density high temperature plasma at the
cathode tip to produce a nozzle-like expansion
thrust.
EPEX ( Electric Propulsion Experiment)
Mass < 41 kg Allocated
Power < 430 W Allocated
Exp. Period 46 rev Allocated

Propellant N2H4 < 130 g Loaded


PFN Capacity 2,240 uF ¼ of full capacity
Pulse Width 150 us ¼ of full width
Repetition 0.5 – 1.8 Hz Variable in 4 steps
Discharge Current 6 kA Top value
Thrust-to-power > 20 mN/kW Top value
Specific Impulse > 1,000 sec Top Value
Commands 9 Allocated
Data Rate < 625 bps Allocated
Safety Compliance NASA STS NHB 1700.7B
VENµS
• Vegetation and Environment monitoring on a
New Micro-Satellite (VENµS) is a near polar sun-
synchronous orbit microsatellite being jointly
built by the Israeli Space Agency and CNES.
• The project was signed upon in April 2005 and
was launched on the 2nd of August 2017
• The microsatellite, which set to cost the ISA
US$20 million and CNES €10 million, will be
designed and built by IAI and Rafael under ISA's
supervision.
• For the mission, CNES is responsible for
supplying the superspectral camera and the
science mission center.
• The ISA is responsible for the satellite control
center, the technological mission and payload
(Israeli Hall effect Thruster and autonomous
mission), the spacecraft, and the launcher
interface.
Hall Effect Thruster
• An electrical propulsion system allows for
minimizing the mass of hydrazine chemical
propellant while achieving flexible orbital
maneuvers that can be affected online,
considerably extending the lifetime.
• In order to reduce the mission's risk, Venµs is also
equipped with a redundant common chemical
propulsion system.
IHET THRUSTER
(Israeli Hall Effect Thruster)
Thruster operating principles
• Xe gas directed to distribution channel (Anode)
• Electrons emitted from cathode, collide with Xe
atoms, and ionizing them.
• Applied magnetic field, spiral electrons in the
thruster channel.
• Electric field accelerate ions out of the channel.
• Ions neutralization at exit by electrons from the
cathode.
IHET THRUSTER
(Israeli Hall Effect Thruster)
ARGOS
• The Advanced Research and Global
Observation Satellite (ARGOS), not to be
confused with the Argos System which
employs mostly NOAA satellites, was
launched on 23 Feb 1999 carrying nine
payloads for research and development
missions by nine separate researchers.
• ARGOS was launched from SLC-2W,
Vandenberg AFB, CA, atop a Boeing Delta
II (7920-10). Construction of the spacecraft
bus and integration of the satellite's
payloads was accomplished by Boeing at
their Seal Beach, CA facility.
• The program was funded and led by the
DoD's Space Test Program (STP) as mission
P91-1 (the first STP mission contract
awarded in 1991).
Arcjet Thruster
• AKA: P91-1.
• Status: Operational 1999.
• First Launch: 1999-02-23.
• Last Launch: 1999-02-23.
• Number: 1 .
• Thrust: 2.00 N (0.40 lbf).
• Gross mass: 2,720 kg (5,990 lb).
• Specific impulse: 800 s.
Arcjet Thruster
• It carried an electric propulsion experiment,
ionospheric instruments, a space dust experiment,
and the NRL's USA hard X-ray astronomy
detectors for X-ray binary star timing
observations.
• ARGOS was built by Boeing/Seal Beach. The
ARGOS satellite was built by Space & Missile
system Center (SMC), Los Angeles AFB, CA
under the program P-91-1. ARGOS carried nine
DoD space experiments to orbit, most notably the
ESEX Arcjet thruster.
ESEX (Electric Propulsion Space Experiment)
• The ESEX experiment flew once in 1999 on board the
ARGOS satellite.
• ESEX was the first High Power Electric Propulsion
flight. The system operated on 30 kW with about 26
kW to the thruster.
• The experiment was powered by 205 kg of silver zinc
batteries built by Eagle Pitcher Company of Joplin, Mo.
At the time this was the highest power subsystem ever
flown in space.
References
1. “List of spacecraft with electric propulsion - Wikipedia.” [Online]. Available:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_spacecraft_with_electric_propulsion. [Accessed: 05-Oct-
2018].
2. J. McDowell, “Satellite Catalog,” Jonathan’s Sp. Page.
3. K. Toki, Y. Shimuzu, and K. Kuriki, “Electric propulsion experiment (EPEX) of a repetitively pulsed
MPD thruster system onboard space flyer unit (SFU),” 25th Int. Electr. Propuls. Conf., pp. 749–755,
1997.
4. CNES and ISA to work together on VENµS mission. CNES Press.
5. Vega launcher achieves on-target deployment of Earth-imaging satellites. Spaceflight now, 2017.
6. Venus satellite. CNES.
7. L. Kit, “Flight VV10: Vega to Launch Earth Observation Satellites For Italy, France And Israel,” 2017.
8. “IHET Thruster,” 2014.
9. Fact Sheet : USAF SMC’s Space Development and Test Wing. .
10. C. Peat, “ARGOS - Orbit,” Heaven. Above, Dec. 2013.
11. M. Wade, “Argos,” 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.astronautix.com/a/argos.html. [Accessed:
08-Oct-2018].