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ENGINEERING HYDROLOGY

Prof. Rajesh Bhagat


Asst. Professor
Civil Engineering Department
Yeshwantrao Chavan College Of Engineering
Nagpur

B. E. (Civil Engg.) M. Tech. (Enviro. Engg.)


GCOE, Amravati VNIT, Nagpur

Mobile No.:- 8483003474 / 8483002277


Email ID:- rajeysh7bhagat@gmail.com
Website:- www.rajeysh7bhagat.wordpress.com
Unit-III

1) Runoff: Runoff, sources and component, classification of streams, factors


affecting runoff, Estimation Methods. Measurement of discharge of a stream by Area-
slope and Area-velocity methods.

2) Hydrograph: Flood hydrographs and its components, Base flow & Base flow
separation, S-Curve technique, unit hydrograph, synthetic hydrograph. Instantaneous
Unit hydrograph.

2
HYDROGRAPH:-
1) A plot of the discharge in stream against time chronologically.
2) Depending upon unit of time involved:
1) Annual hydrograph
2) Monthly hydrograph
3) Seasonal hydrograph
4) Flood hydrograph or storm hydrograph or hydrograph: it shows stream
flow due to storm over catchment. It is used flooding characteristics of
stream.
 Above Hydrograph 1,2,3 are called long term hydrograph and are used for
longed term studies like calculating the surface potential of stream, reservoir
studies, drought studies.
3
HYDROGRAPH

storm of Duration D
Precipitation
P

tl
tp peak flow

Discharge
Q baseflow
new baseflow

w/o rainfall

DTEL 6
Watershed
Urbanization
Factors affecting Hydrograph:
1) Size
2) Shape
3) Slope
4) Drainage density
5) Land use or vegetation
6) Rainfall intensity
7) Rainfall duration
8) Direction of storm movement

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Hydrograph:
1) Hydrograph is a graphical variation of discharge against time.
2) It is a response of a given catchment to a rainfall input.
3) The discharge noted in hydrograph is the combined effect of surface runoff,
interflow & base flow.
4) If two storms occurs in a catchment such that the 2nd one doesn’t start before
the direct runoff due to 1st one has ceased, we get a singled peaked
hydrograph.

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Hydrograph:
1) If however, the second storm start before the direct runoff due to 1st storm has
ceased, (complex storm) then multipeak hydrograph are obtained.

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1) A1ABCDEE1 is called hydrograph due to isolated storm I1.
2) AB is rising limb or concentration curve.
3) BCD is crest curve.
4) DE is falling curve or recession curve.
5) C is point of crest or peak.
6) E is end of direct runoff.
7) EA’ is the hydrograph in the period of ground water recession.
8) A’ is beginning of direct runoff due to 2nd storm.

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1) T is base period of 1st storm hydrograph.
2) A1AEE1 is the base flow contribution to total discharge.
3) ABCDE direct runoff contribution to total discharge.
4) G1 is the centre of mass of rainfall.
5) G2 is the centre of mass of hydrograph.
6) TL = lag time.
7) tpk = time of peak from starting point A

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Hydrograph Separation:
1) In hydrological analysis it is necessary to obtain Direct Runoff Hydrograph
(DRH) from Total Storm Hydrograph (TSH).
2) To separate DRH from TSH, various methods are available.

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1) The flood data and base flow in a storm are estimated for a storm in a
catchment area of 600 km2. calculate the effective rainfall.

Time in Days 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Discharge (m3/s) 20 63 151 133 90 63 44 29 20 20

Base flow (m3/s) 20 22 25 28 28 26 23 21 20 20

15
Ordinates of DRH after the separation of the base flow are:

Time in Days 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Discharge (m3/s) 20 63 151 133 90 63 44 29 20 20

Base flow (m3/s) 20 22 25 28 28 26 23 21 20 20

Ordinates of DRH 0 41 126 105 62 37 21 8 0 0


after the separation of
the base flow

Plot the DRH for given Ordinate.


Volume of DRH = rainfall excess x catchment area
Rainfall excess = (Volume of DRH / Catchment Area)

16
Ordinates of DRH after the separation of the base flow are:

Time in Days 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Discharge (m3/s) 20 63 151 133 90 63 44 29 20 20

Base flow (m3/s) 20 22 25 28 28 26 23 21 20 20

Ordinates of DRH 0 41 126 105 62 37 21 8 0 0


after the separation of
the base flow

Volume of DRH = rainfall excess x catchment area


Rainfall excess = (Volume of DRH / Catchment Area)
Volume of DRH = direct runoff = (41 + 126 + 105 + 62 + 37 + 21 + 8) x 1
= 400 m3/s = 34560000 m3/day = 34560000 m3
Rainfall excess = (Volume of DRH / Catchment Area)
Rainfall excess = (34560000/ (600 x 106)) = 0.0576 m = 5.76 cm 17
Excess Rainfall & Effective Rainfall:-
1) Excess rainfall: if the initial losses and infiltration subtracted from the total
rainfall, the remaining portion of rainfall is called rainfall excess. Surface
runoff occurs only when there is rainfall excess.
Rainfall excess = Total rainfall – Φ.t

1) Effective rainfall: it is that portion of rainfall which cause direct runoff. As


direct runoff includes both surface runoff and interflow, the effective rainfall is
slightly greater than rainfall excess.
Effective rainfall = (direct runoff volume / area of catchment)

Interflow is small, so direct runoff is equal to surface runoff & therefore they are
18
used synonymously.
Effective Rainfall Hyetograph:-
1) When initial losses and filtration losses are subtracted from the rainfall
hyetograph, we get Effective Rainfall Hyetograph (ERH).
2) It is also known as Hyetograph of rainfall excess.
3) Direct Runoff Hydrograph (DRH) is the result of Effective Rainfall
Hyetograph (ERH).
4) Area under ERH x Catchment area = Runoff Volume = Area under direct DRH

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2) A storm over catchment of area 5 km2 had a duration of 14 hours. If the Φ
index for the catchment is 0.4 cm/hr, determine the effective rainfall
hyetograph and the volume of direct runoff from the catchment due to the
storm. The mass curve of rainfall of the storm are as below.

Time from start of storm, 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14


Hr
Accumulated rainfall, cm 0 0.6 2.8 5.2 6.7 7.5 9.2 9.6

20
Hour Accumulated Time Depth of Φ x (time ER, Intensity
rainfall, cm interval, rainfall, interval) cm of ER,
hour cm cm/hr
0 0 - - - - -
2 0.6 2 0.6 0.8 0 0
4 2.8 2 2.2 0.8 1.4 0.7
6 5.2 2 2.4 0.8 1.6 0.8
8 6.7 2 1.5 0.8 0.7 0.35
10 7.5 2 0.8 0.8 0 0
12 9.2 2 1.7 0.8 0.9 0.45
14 9.6 2 0.4 0.8 0 0

Plot the hyetograph for above Intensity of ER against time.

Area under ERH x Catchment area = Direct Runoff Volume


Total Effective Rainfall = (0.7 + 0.8 + 0.35 + 0.45) x 2 = 4.6 cm
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Direct runoff volume = (4.6 / 100 ) x 5 x 1000000) = 230000 m3
Unit Hydrograph:
1) The Unit Hydrograph of the catchment is defined as hydrograph of direct
runoff (DRH) results from 1cm depth of effective rainfall occurring uniformly
over the catchment at a uniform rate during a specified period of time (D-hr).
2) Thus we can have 6-Hr Unit Hydrograph, 12-Hr Unit Hydrograph, etc.
3) 6-Hr unit hydrograph will have an effective rainfall intensity of 1/6 cm/hr.

22
Unit Hydrograph:
1) The D-hr Unit Hydrograph, D should not be more than any of the following:
1) Time of concentration
2) Lag time
3) Period of rise

2) Volume of water contained inside the unit hydrograph (ie area of unit of
hydrograph) is equal to (1cm x catchment area)

23
Unit Hydrograph:
Assume that a 6-hour unit hydrograph(UH) of a catchment has been derived,
whose ordinates are given in the following table and a corresponding
graphical representation is shown in Figure.
Time, 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84
Hr
Discharge, 0 5 15 50 120 201 173 130 97 66 40 21 9 3.5 2
m3/s

24
Unit Hydrograph:
2) Assume further that the effective rainfall hyetograph(ERH) for a given storm
on the region has been given as in the following table.

Time, Hrs 0 6 12 18
Effective rainfall, cm 0 2 4 3

3) This means that in in the first 6 hours, 2cm excess rainfall has been recorded,
4cm in the next 6 hour & 3cm in the next.
4) Direct runoff hydrograph can then be calculated by the three separate
hydrograph for three excess rainfalls by multiplying the ordinates of the 6hr-
unit hydrograph by corresponding rainfall amounts.

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27
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Sample calculation for the example solved graphically is given table
Time, UH Direct runoff Direct runoff due Direct runoff due Direct runoff
Hrs Ordinates, due to 2cm to 4cm excess to 3cm excess hydrograph,
m3/s excess rainfall rainfall in second rainfall in third m3/s
in first 6hrs 6hrs 6hrs
0 0 0 0 0 0
6 5 10 0 0 10
12 15 30 20 0 50
18 50 100 60 15 175
24 120 240 200 45 485
30 201 402 480 150 1032
36 173 346 804 360 1510
42 130 260 692 603 1555
48 97 194 520 519 1233
54 66 132 388 390 910
60 40 80 264 291 635
66 21 42 160 198 400
72 9 18 84 120 222
78 3.5 7 36 63 106
84 2 4 14 27 45
90 0 8 10.5 18.5
29
96 0 0 6 6
3) The ordinates of 6 hr unit hydrograph of a catchment is given below:

Time, 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 69
Hr
Ordinates 0 25 50 85 125 160 185 160 110 60 36 25 16 8 0
of 6 hr UH

Derive the flood hydrograph in the catchment due to the storm given below:

Time from start of storm (hr) 0 6 12 18


Accumulated Rainfall 0 3.5 11 16.5

The storm loss rate for the catchment is estimated 0.25 cm/hr. The base flow
can be assumed to be 15 m3/s at the beginning and increasing by 2.0 m3/s
for every 12 hours till the end of the direct runoff hydrograph.

30
Time interval of storm (hr) 6 12 18
Accumulated Rainfall 3.5 11 16.5
Rainfall 3.5 7.5 5.5
Loss @ 0.25cm/Hr for 6 Hrs 1.5 1.5 1.5
Effective Rainfall, cm 2 6 4

Due to unequal time interval of UH ordinates, a few entries have to be interpolated


to complete the table.

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Time, Ordinates DRH due DRH due to DRH due to Ordinates of Base Flow, Ordinates of
Hr of UH to 2cm ER 6cm ER 4cm ER Final DRH m3/s Flood
Hydrograph,
m3/s
A B C =(B x 2) D = (B x 6) E = (Bx4) F=(C+D+E) G H=(G+F)

0 0 0 0 0 0 15 15
3 25 50 0 0 50 15 65
6 50 100 0 0 100 15 115
9 85 170 150 0 320 15 335
12 125 250 300 0 550 17 567
15 160 320 510 100 930 17 947
18 185 370 750 200 1320 17 1337
21 172.5 345 960 340 1645 17 1662
24 160 320 1110 500 1930 19 1949
27 135 270 1035 640 1945 19 1694
30 110 220 960 740 1920 19 1939
36 60 120 660 640 1420 21 1441
42 36 72 360 440 872 21 893
48 25 50 216 240 506 23 529
54 16 32 150 144 326 23 349
60 8 16 96 100 212 25 237
66 0 0 48 64 112 25 137
69 0 32 32 27 59
72 0 0 27 27
75
78
81

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Derivation Unit Hydrograph from Flood Hydrograph of Isolated
Storm:
4) The following are the ordinates of the flood hydrograph from a catchment
area of 780 km2 due to 6 hr storm. Derive the 6 hr unit hydrograph of the
basin.
Time, 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78
Hr
Discharge, 40 64 215 360 405 350 270 205 145 100 70 50 40
m3/s

Assume the base flow of 40 m3/s.


Direct Surface runoff = (64-40) + (215-40) + (360-40) + (405-40) + (350-40) +
(270-40) + (205-40) + (145-40) + (100-40) + (70-40) + (50-40)
Direct Surface runoff = 1794 m3/s
DRH in depth = ((1794 x 6 x60 x 60) / (780 x 106)) x 100 33
= 4.968 cm (Rain Excess)
Derivation Unit Hydrograph from Flood Hydrograph of Isolated
Storm:
4) The following are the ordinates of the flood hydrograph from a catchment
area of 780 km2 due to 6 hr storm. Derive the 6 hr unit hydrograph of the
basin.
Time, 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78
Hr
Discharge, 40 64 215 360 405 350 270 205 145 100 70 50 40
m3/s

Therefore the ordinates of UH are obtained by dividing the ordinates of DRH


hydrograph by rain excess 4.968 cm to get ordinates of UH.
Time, 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78
Hr
Direct 0 24 175 320 365 310 230 165 105 60 30 10 0
Runoff
(Ordinates 0 4.83 35.22 64.42 74.47 62.4 46.29 33.21 21.13 12.077 6.04 2.01 340
of UH)
Discharge,
m3/s
5) The peak of flood hydrograph due to a 3 Hr duration isolated storm in a
catchment is 270 m3/s. The total depth of rainfall is 5.9cm. Assuming an
average infiltration losses of 0.3 cm/hr and a constant base flow of 20 m3/s
estimates the peak of the 3 hr unit hydrograph of this catchment. If the area
of catchment is 567 km2 determine the base width of 3 hr unit hydrograph
by assuming it to be triangular in shape.
Duration of Rainfall Excess = 3 Hr
Total Depth of Rainfall = 5.9 cm
Loss @ 0.3 cm/Hr for 3 hours = 0.3 x 3 = 0.9 cm
Rainfall Excess = 5 cm
Peak Flood Hydrograph = 270 m3/s
Base flow = 20 m3/s
Peak of DRH = 270 – 20 = 250 m3/s
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Peak of 3 Hr Unit Hydrograph = (peak of DRH / Rainfall Excess) = 250 / 5 = 50 m3/s
5) The peak of flood hydrograph due to a 3 Hr duration isolated storm in a
catchment is 270 m3/s. The total depth of rainfall is 5.9cm. Assuming an
average infiltration losses of 0.3 cm/hr and a constant base flow of 20 m3/s
estimates the peak of the 3 hr unit hydrograph of this catchment. If the area
of catchment is 567 km2 determine the base width of 3 hr unit hydrograph
by assuming it to be triangular in shape.
Let B = base width of 3 hr Unit Hydrograph
Volume represented by the area of UH = Volume of 1 cm depth over the catchment
Area of UH = Area of catchment x 1 cm
Peak of 3 Hr Unit Hydrograph = 50 m3/s
Area of catchment = 567 km2
(1/2) B x 50 x 60 x 60 = 567 x 106 x (1/100)
B = 63 Hours
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6) Determine the ordinates of flood hydrograph of 3 successive storms of 4
hr duration, each producing rainfall of 3 cm, 4 cm and 2 cm respectively.
Φ-index = 0.25 cm/hr and base flow is 10 m3/sec.
Time (T) Ordinates of 4 I II III DRH Base Ordinates Flood
(Hrs.) hr. UH storm storm storm O flow hydrograph
R=2 R=3 R=1
cm cm cm
0 0 0 0 10 10
2 16 32 32 10 42
4 22 44 0 44 10 54
6 43 86 48 134 10 144
8 64 128 66 0 194 10 204
10 49 98 129 16 243 10 253
12 32 64 192 22 278 10 288
14 20 40 147 43 230 10 240
16 0 0 96 64 160 10 170
18 60 49 109 10 119
20 0 32 32 10 42
22 20 20 10 30
24 0 0 10 10
6) A storm produces rainfall intensities of 0.75, 2.25 and 1.25 cm/hr on a drainage
area in 3 successive time period of 4 hr. Φ-index = 0.25 cm/hr and base flow is 10
m3/sec.
Time (T) Ordinates of 4 I II III DRHO Base Ordinates
(Hrs.) hr. UH Storm storm storm F=B+C flow Flood
A B C D E +D+E hydrograph
R=2 R=8 R=4 G H=F+G
cm cm cm
0 0 0 0 10 10
2 12.52 25.04 25.04 10 35.04
4 21.31 42.62 0 42.62 10 52.62
6 23.54 47.08 100.16 147.24 10 157.24
8 14.79 29.58 170.48 0 200.06 10 210.06
10 12.18 24.36 188.32 50.08 262.76 10 272.76
12 0 0 118.32 85.24 203.56 10 213.56
14 97.44 94.16 191.6 10 201.6
16 0 59.16 59.16 10 69.16
18 48.72 48.72 10 58.72
20 0 0 10 10
7) Determine the ordinates of unit hydrograph from flood hydrograph.
Neglect base flow. Area= 405 hectare.

Time (T) (Hrs.) Ordinates of Flood hydrograph, m3/s

0 0
2 0.3
4 1.7
6 2.6
8 5.4
10 4
12 2.6
14 1.1
16 0.6
18 0
7) Determine the ordinates of unit hydrograph from flood hydrograph.
Neglect base flow. Area= 405 hectare.

Excess rainfall x Catchment area = runoff volume = Area of Hydrograph


Excess rainfall = (runoff volume) / Catchment area
Excess rainfall = (131760) / 4050000 = 0.0325m = 3.25 cm
7) Determine the ordinates of unit hydrograph from flood hydrograph.
Neglect base flow. Area= 405 hectare.

Time (T) (Hrs.) Ordinates of Flood hydrograph, m3/s Ordinates of 2 hr. UH


A B
C = B /3.25
0 0 0.000
2 0.3 0.092
4 1.7 0.523
6 2.6 0.800
8 5.4 1.662
10 4 1.231
12 2.6 0.800
14 1.1 0.338
16 0.6 0.185
18 0 0.000
8) Determine the ordinates of flood hydrograph of 3 hr rainfall resulting
into total rainfall of 15 cm. initial loss is 0.5 cm and Φ-index = 1 cm/hr.
Sol: Excess rainfall = 15 – 0.5 – (1 x 3) = 11.5 cm

Time (T) (Hrs.) Ordinates of 3 hr UH Ordinates of Flood hydrograph


A B C = B x 11.5
0 0 0.00
6 3 34.50
12 5 57.50
18 9 103.50
24 11 126.50
30 7 80.50
36 5 57.50
42 4 46.00
48 2 23.00
54 1 11.50
60 0 0.00
S-CURVE METHOD
S-curve or the summation curve is the hydrograph of direct surface discharge that would
result from a continuous succession of unit storms producing 1 cm in time (T) hrs.
Time Ordinates Ordinates of 4 hr S-Curve S-Curve lagged Difference Ordinates of
(T) of 4 hr UH lagged by ordinate by 12 hr 12 hr UH
(Hrs.) UH 4hr
A B C D=B+C E F=D-E G=(4/12)*(F)
0 0 0 0 0.00
4 20 0 20 20 6.67
8 80 20 100 100 33.33
12 130 100 230 0 230 76.67
16 150 230 380 20 360 120.00
20 130 380 510 100 410 136.67
24 90 510 600 230 370 123.33
28 52 600 652 380 272 90.67
32 27 652 679 510 169 56.33
36 15 679 694 600 94 31.33
40 5 694 699 652 47 15.67
44 0 699 699 679 20 6.67
Q.9 The ordinates of 4-hr unit hydrograph are given below. Determine the ordinates of 3-hr UH using S-
Curve technique.

Ordinates of Ordinates S-Curve


Ordinates of 4-hr U.H. of 4-hr S-Curve ordinates
Time 3 3 3 Ordinates of 3-
4-hr U.H. (m /s) U.H. (m /s) ordinates (m /s) Difference 3
(Hours) 3 3 hr U.H. (m /s)
(m /s) lagged by 4- lagged by (m /s) lagged by
hr 8-hr 3-hr

A B C D E=B+C+D F G=E-F H=(4/3)*(G)


0 0 0 0.00 0.00
1 6 6 6.00 8.00
2 36 36 36.00 48.00
3 66 66 0 66.00 88.00
4 91 0 91 6 85.00 113.33
5 106 6 112 36 76.00 101.33
6 93 36 129 66 63.00 84.00
7 79 66 145 91 54.00 72.00
8 68 91 0 159 112 47.00 62.67
9 34 106 6 146 129 17.00 22.67
10 27 93 36 156 145 11.00 14.67
11 13 79 66 158 159 -1.00 -1.33
12 0 68 91 159 146 13.00 17.33
Q.10 The ordinates of surface runoff of 4-hr duration from a catchment area of 357 km2 are measured at 1 hr interval
are given below. Determine the ordinates of 6-hr UH using S-Curve technique.
Ordinates Ordinates Ordinates
S-Curve
Surface of 4-hr of 4-hr of 4-hr
Time Ordinates S-Curve ordinates
Runoff U.H. U.H. U.H. 3 Ordinates of 6-hr
(Hour of 4-hr 3 3 3 ordinates (m /s) Difference 3
Ordinates 3 (m /s) (m /s) (m /s) 3 U.H. (m /s)
s) 3 U.H. (m /s) (m /s) lagged by
(m /s) lagged by lagged by lagged by
6-hr
4-hr 8-hr 12-hr
A B C= B/0.816 D E F G=C+D+E+F H I=H-G J= (4/6)*(I)
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
1.00 15.00 18.36 18.36 18.36 12.24
2.00 25.00 30.61 30.61 30.61 20.40
3.00 36.00 44.07 44.07 44.07 29.38
4.00 38.00 46.52 0.00 46.52 46.52 31.02
5.00 48.00 58.77 18.36 77.13 77.13 51.42
6.00 69.00 84.48 30.61 115.08 0.00 115.08 76.72
7.00 91.00 111.41 44.07 155.48 18.36 137.12 91.41
8.00 113.00 138.34 46.52 0.00 184.87 30.61 154.26 102.84
9.00 101.00 123.65 58.77 18.36 200.78 44.07 156.71 104.47
10.00 88.00 107.74 84.48 30.61 222.82 46.52 176.30 117.53
11.00 71.00 86.92 111.41 44.07 242.41 77.13 165.28 110.19
12.00 54.00 66.11 138.34 46.52 0.00 250.98 115.08 135.90 90.60
13.00 31.00 37.95 123.65 58.77 18.36 238.74 155.48 83.25 55.50
14.00 21.00 25.71 107.74 84.48 30.61 248.53 184.87 63.66 42.44
15.00 9.00 11.02 86.92 111.41 44.07 253.43 200.78 52.64 35.10
810
Q.11. The ordinates of 4-hr UH are given below. Determine the ordinates of 2-hr
UH using S-Curve technique and plot the same.

3 3
Time (Hours) Ordinates of 4-hr U.H. (m /s) Ordinates of 2-hr U.H. (m /s)
A B A=B*(4/2)
0 0 0
2 12.5 25
4 62.5 125
6 130 260
8 175 350
10 180 360
12 140 280
14 90 180
16 50 100
18 35 70
20 13 26
22 3 6
24 0 0
Q.12 The ordinates of S-Curve Hydrograph are given below. Determine the ordinates of 3-hr
UH. Effective rainfall is 1 cm/hr.

Ordinates of S-
Time Ordinates of S- 3
3 Curve (m /s) lagged Difference Ordinates of 3-hr U.H. (m3/s)
(Hours) Curve (m /s)
by 3-hr D E = D x (1/3)
A B
C
0 0 0 0.00
1 55 55 18.33
2 141 141 47.00
3 251 0 251 83.67
4 344 55 289 96.33
5 413 141 272 90.67
6 463 251 212 70.67
7 501 344 157 52.33
8 523 413 110 36.67
9 538 463 75 25.00
10 546 501 45 15.00
Q.13 The ordinates of 6-hr UH are given below. Determine the ordinates of 4-hr UH using
S-Curve technique and plot the same.
Time Ordinates of S-Curve S- S-Curve S-Curve Difference Ordinates
(Hours 6-hr U.H. addition Curve ordinates ordinates of 4-hr
3 3
) (m3/s) ordinat (m /s) 4- (m /s) U.H.
3
es hr lagged by (m /s)
3
(m /s) Time duration 4-hr
6=4*(
1 2 3 4=2+3 5 4/6) 7 8=6-7 9=8*(6/4)
0 0 0 0 0.00 0.00 0
6 40 0 40 4 26.67 0.00 26.67 40
12 90 40 130 8 86.67 26.67 60.00 90
18 100 130 230 12 153.33 86.67 66.67 100
24 130 230 360 16 240.00 153.33 86.67 130
30 80 360 440 20 293.33 240.00 53.33 80
36 70 440 510 24 340.00 293.33 46.67 70
42 50 510 560 28 373.33 340.00 33.33 50
48 30 560 590 32 393.33 373.33 20.00 30
54 10 590 600 36 400.00 393.33 6.67 10
600 600 40 400.00 400.00 0.00 0
44 0.00 400.00 -400.00 -600