Anda di halaman 1dari 56

Unit III

Approaches to Qualitative Research

!1
Q U A L I TAT I V E R E S E A R C H

The goal is a holistic picture and depth of


understanding rather than a numeric
analysis of data

!2
Q U A L I TAT I V E R E S E A R C H
Case studies
Phenomenological studies
Ethnography
Basic interpretative studies
Document or content analysis
Grounded theory
Historical studies
Narrative inquiry
!3
Q U A L I TAT I V E R E S E A R C H

Case studies
Phenomenological studies
Ethnography

!4
CASE STUDIES

!5
CASE STUDIES

Focuses on a single unit, such as one individual, one group,


one organization, or one programme.
The goal is to arrive at a detailed description and
understanding of the case
A case study can result in data from which generalisations to
theory are possible.
Case studies use multiple methods, such as interviews,
observation,to gather data.

!6
C L A S S I F I C AT I O N S

Retrospective case studies

It involves the collection of data relating to a past


phenomenon of any kind. The researcher is looking
back on a phenomenon, situation, person, or event
and studying it in its historical integrity.

!7
!8
C L A S S I F I C AT I O N S

Snapshot studies

The case is being examined in one particular period of


time, such as a current event, a day in the life of a person,
a diary, etc. Whether a month, a week, a day, or even a
period as short as an hour, the analysis is aided by the
position of events.

!9
!10
C L A S S I F I C AT I O N S

Diachronic studies

Change over time and are similar to


longitudinal studies
!11
!12
C L A S S I F I C AT I O N S

• Disciplined configurative case studies

•Use established theories to explain the


case.

!13
!14
C L A S S I F I C AT I O N S

• Heuristic case studies


•Identify new, unexpected
paths; for such studies,
marginal, deviant, or
outlier cases may be
particularly useful.
!15
The case (subject), research field (object),
and case selection

!16
The case (subject)

A case study is usually a study of a single case or a


small number of cases
Research unit- an individual, family or other group,
organization, or community

Select interesting cases (e.g., contrasting, extreme,


exceptional cases) instead of typical, average cases
!17
Source: Harvard Educational Review Vol. 81 No. 1 Spring 2011
!18
A woman interviewed 100 convicted rapists in India

NEW DELHI — In India, many consider them


“monsters.”
Madhumita Pandey was only 22 when she
first went to Tihar Jail in New Delhi to meet
and interview convicted rapists in India.
Over the past three years, she has
interviewed 100 of them for her doctoral
thesis at the criminology department of
Anglia Ruskin University in the United
Kingdom.
Source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2017/09/11
!19
The case (subject)

The subject (the case) is not selected based upon a


representative sample, but rather is selected because it is
interesting, unusual, striking, and may cause changes in
the characteristics and specificities of the object

!20
The research field (object)

Understand the unit (object) and the case influence


each other mutually

Subject and object interact in a dynamic relationship

!21
!22
Case selection

Selection bias (i.e., the impact of a researcher’s prior


knowledge about the case and his possible favouritism)

However, the selection of a case based on prior


knowledge leads to a better research plan. Cases selected
on the basis of prior knowledge are most likely crucial for
enabling the development of a strong theoretical base for
the research, which makes the procedure of theory testing
more rigorous.
!23
Case selection

Accurate and comprehensive description of the data


collection procedures and documentation of every
piece of information in order to achieve reliability of a
case study

!24
Steps in Case Study

1. Determine the present status

Individual or social unit- direct observation,


measurement
(Intelligence, Aptitude, Personality test)

!25
Steps in Case Study

2. Formulate hypothesis / hypotheses /


research questions
Occurrence of delinquent behaviour in a child is
due to inadequate home environment, poor
teaching in the school, low mental ability or any
other factor

!26
Steps in Case Study
3. Verification of hypothesis / hypotheses / research
questions
-Checking the presence or absence of the antecedents
-Use multi-method approach
-Ask the subject to recall past experiences or express
present wishes
-Valuable information from diaries, letters and personal
documents
-Obtain data from teachers, friends, parents, siblings and
other family members
!27
Steps in Case Study

4. Validation of the diagnosis

Remedial measures in the light of the causes found

!28
Steps in Case Study

5. Follow up the case

The subject under study is re-examined to


ascertain whether any changes have been
produced by the treatments introduced

!29
Advantages of case study
-Tries to understand an individual or unit in depth.
-Help researcher to develop insight into basic
aspects of human behaviour.
-Help researcher to observe events both within
and outside the educational setting in their totality.
-Case study may provide insights that will help a
researcher to formulate fruitful hypothesis /
hypotheses.
!30
Limitations of case study
-Subjective judgment, faulty perception, poor memory,
deliberate deception
-Require a team of experts
-Case studies contain a bias toward verification- a
tendency to confirm the researcher’s preconceived
notions.
-It is often difficult to summarize and develop general
propositions and theories on the basis of specific case
studies. !31
PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDIES

-Phenomenology is concerned with the study of


experience from the perspective of the individual.

-Based on personal knowledge and subjectivity, and


emphasise the importance of personal perspective
and interpretation.

!32
PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDIES

Lived experience

!33
PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDIES
Analysis

Ms Murad and Dr Mukwege made a "crucial contribution" to fighting violence against women
!34
PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDIES
Characteristics
•It seeks to understand how people experience a particular
situation or phenomenon.
•It is conducted primarily through in-depth conversations
and interviews; however, some studies may collect data
from diaries, drawings, or observation.
•Small samples sizes, often 10 or less participants, are
common in phenomenological studies.
•Interview questions are open-ended to allow the
participants to fully describe the experience from their own
view point. !35
PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDIES
Characteristics
•Phenomenology is centered on the participants’
experiences with no regard to social or cultural norms,
traditions, or preconceived ideas about the experience.
•It focuses on these four aspects of a lived experience:  lived
spaced, lived body, lived time, and lived human relations.
•Data collected is qualitative and analysis includes an
attempt to identify themes or make generalizations
regarding how a particular phenomenon is actually
perceived or experienced.
!36
PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDIES
Methods
-Applied to single cases or deliberately selected
samples.
-Interviews, conversations, participant observation,
action research, focus meetings and analysis of
personal texts.
-Establishment of a good level of rapport and
empathy is critical to gaining depth of information

!37
PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDIES
Analysis

-Interview notes, tape recordings, jottings or other


records
-Mind maps

!38
!39
!40
!41
PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDIES
Examples of Topics
•How do parents of an autistic child cope with the
news that their child has autism?

!42
PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDIES
Examples of Topics

•What is it like to experience being trapped in a


natural disaster?
•What is like to survive an airplane crash?
•How do cancer patients cope with a terminal
diagnosis?
•What is it like to be a victim of sexual assault?

!43
PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDIES
Strength
Provides a rich and complete description of human
experiences and meanings.
Findings are allowed to emerge, rather than being
imposed by an investigator.
The investigator attempts to “bracket ”
presuppositions and biases to hold them in
consciousness through all phases of the research
and minimise their influence on the findings.
!44
PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDIES
Weaknesses

The method depends on the articulate skills of the


participants who provide the information
Conclusions depend on the particular participants chosen
for the study.
Orientation toward a particular time frame or moment,
the method may miss information about broader periods or
about the development (time course) of an experience.
!45
PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDIES
Weaknesses

In focusing on a rich description of an


experience, the method may miss information
about what led up to that experience, what its
outcomes or consequences might be, and other
factors associated with the experience are.
!46
ETHNOGRAPHY

Ethnography is an in-depth study of naturally


occurring behavior within a culture or social group
!47
ETHNOGRAPHY

The researcher observes group behavior as it


occurs naturally in the setting, without any simulation
or imposed structure.

Ethnography requires a variety of data-gathering


procedures, such as prolonged observation of the
setting, interviewing members of the culture, and
studying documents and artifacts.
!48
ETHNOGRAPHY
Research Strategies

!49
ETHNOGRAPHY
Participant observation

!50
ETHNOGRAPHY
Participant Observation

!51
!52
ETHNOGRAPHY
Characteristics

The researcher establishes a direct relationship with the


social actors
Staying in their natural environment
With the purpose of observing and describing their
behavior
By interacting with them and participating in their everyday
ceremonials and rituals, and
Learning their code (or at least parts of it) in order to
understand the meaning of their actions.
!53
ETHNOGRAPHY

Ethnography in Educational researches

For example, to learn how the educational experience in rural


schools differs from that in city schools.

What are the culture and perspectives of this group of people


in its natural setting?

!54
!55
!56