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STUDI EKSPERIMEN PENGARUH LUAS PERMUKAAN BATUBARA

DAN LAJU ALIR UDARA TERHADAP PEMBENTUKAN SYNGAS


PADA MODIFIKASI REAKTOR GASIFIKASI FIXED BED

ARIF ALGIFARI

JURUSAN TEKNIK PERTAMBANGAN FAKULTAS TEKNIK


UNIVERSITAS NEGERI PADANG
Februari 2017
2

PERSETUJUAN PEMBIMBING

STUDI EKSPERIMEN PENGARUH LUAS PERMUKAAN BATUBARA


DAN LAJU ALIR UDARA TERHADAP PEMBENTUKAN SYNGAS PADA
MODIFIKASI REAKTOR GASIFIKASI FIXED BED

ARIF ALGIFARI

Jurnal ini disusun berdasarkan Tugas Akhir Arif Algifari

untuk persyaratan wisuda periode Maret 2017 dan telah diperiksa/disetujui oleh

kedua pembimbing

Padang, Februari 2017

Pembimbing I Pembimbing II

Dr. Rijal Abdullah, M.T. Drs. Yunasril, M.Si.


NIP. 19610328 198609 1 001 NIP. 19541230 198203 1 003
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EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF COAL SURFACE AREA AND AIR FLOW RATE


INFLUENCE TOWARD SYNGAS FORMING ON
THE MODIFICATION OF FIXED BED GASIFICATION REACTOR
Arif Algifari1, Rijal Abdullah2, Yunasril2
Departement of Mining Engineering
Faculty of Engineering, State University of Padang
email: arifalgifari@yahoo.co.id

Abstract
Gasification experiment had been done using the modification of fixed bed gasification
reactor. Coal as the feed had been taken from PT. Nusa Alam Lestari underground mine,
Sawahlunto. In this research, there was some variation of coal surface area or particle size (8, 10,
and 15 mm coal sizes) and variations of air flow rate as oxidant (2,005, 5,086, and 6,93 liter/s air
flow) to determine syngas forming influence. The increment of coal surface area is inversely
proportional with the increment of gasification temperature, whereas the increment of air flow
rate is comparable with the increment of gasification temperature. The increment of coal surface
area and the increment of air flow rate make syngas forming rate is increased. The increment of
coal surface area does not influence concentration of CH4 because having zero coefficient of
correlation. Whereas the increment of coal surface area make concentration of CH4 is decreased.
The increment of air flow rate is comparable with the increment of CH4’s and CO’s
concentration in syngas. The highest efficiency of gasification during experiment is 43,51%. That
efficiency is acquired if 15 mm coal particle size feeding and 6,93 liter/s air flow feeding.

Keywords: coal gasification, fixed bed reactor, synthesis gas, air flow rate, surface area,
reactor efficiency

A. Introduction hydrogen and carbon monoxide and the other

Gasification is a process to upgrade a gasses such methane and carbon dioxide.

solid feedstock which is difficult to handle by Gasification experiment was using

removing undesirable impurities and modification of fixed bed gasification reactor.

converting it into a gaseous form that can be It was predicted that process is partial

purified and used directly as a fuel or further gasification because there is no ignition source

reacted to produce other gaseous or liquid fuel except creating initial combustion on

or chemicals. Gasification’s product is oxidation zone. It’s mean creating initial

synthesis gas (syngas) witch it is necessary for combustion for oxidation zone manually.

fischer tropsch process in liquid fuel In this research, there are considerable

synthesizing. Syngas generally contains studies about amount of surface area and
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amount of air flow rate that influence syngas Reactor is modified with initial

forming. Those are correlated with assumption to create isothermal system if ratio

gasification temperature, time of syngas start of reactor length and particle diameter (L/dp)

for forming, and the concentration of methane is not more than 150 (Davis, 2003:323).

and carbon monoxide in syngas. The other Modified reactor has 0,245m length and

side, this experiment also determines highest 0,103m diameter. The modification of fixed

gasification efficiency. It means to measure bed reactor is the following figure.

amount of coal solid conversion into gaseous

in gasification process.

B. Research Method

Research had been held on Laboratory

of Balai Diklat Tambang Bawah Tanah

(BDTBT) where is located in Sawahlunto,

West Sumatera. Figure 2. fixed bed gasifier

There are two main steps of research. The second step is field studying on

The first step is designing and modifying fixed coal mine field on PT. Nusa Alam Lestari coal

bed gasification reactor based on general fixed mine then acquired coal sample. Then, do coal

bed gasifier (Figure 1) and based on previous analysis and coal preparation for gasification’s

research. It also includes reactor trial running. feed. Coal is reduced up to 15, 10, and 8 mm

sizes using jaw crusher. Amount of coal

surface area is determined using following

equation.

6𝑚
𝐴 = 𝑁𝑠𝑝 = (1)
ɸ𝑠 𝜌𝑝 𝑑𝑝

Source: Unit Operations of Chemical


Engineering Fifth Edition
Figure 1. General fixed bed gasifier
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Where A is total surface area of particles, N Gasification temperature was measured

is amount of particles, 𝑠𝑝 is surface area of one using thermocouple whereas the pressure

particle, m is total of particle mass (once process was measured with pressure gauge.

gasification process is more or less 1,3 kg coal But for safety considering, that process

feed necessary) , ɸ𝑠 is particle sfericity (coal worked on atmospheric pressure. Coal char

sfericity is 0,73), 𝜌𝑝 is coal density, and 𝑑𝑝 is sample was taken to do proximate analysis. To

particle diameter. measure gasification efficiency, we consider

The air flow rates value is determined between coal char proximate analysis result

by calibration of air pump flow using with coal proximate analysis result. Syngas

venturimeter-manometer measuring. There are analysis was done using gas chromatography

three air flow rates value based on that (GC). The gas chromatography can analyze

calibration. These are 2,005 liter/s, 5,086 methane and carbon monoxide but, unhappily

liter/s, and 6,93 liter/s air flow rates. this instrument can not analyze hydrogen

There are nine times of gasification witch is one of main syngas content because

design experiments based on some variables. there is no H2 gas standard for GC.

Syngas sample and char sample was taken for C. Result and Analysis

each experiment. The design of experiment is 1. Gasification Temperature

the following table. Graphics 1 up to Graphic 9 are

Table 1. Variables of experiment gasification temperature graphics for each

mcoal dp Qair measuring gasification experiment.


No (kg) (mm) (liter/s) time (s)
1 1,3 8 2,005 5000
2 1,3 8 5,086 5000
3 1,3 8 6,93 5000
4 1,3 10 2,005 5000
5 1,3 10 5,086 5000
6 1,3 10 6,93 5000
7 1,3 15 2,005 5000
8 1,3 15 5,086 5000
Graphic 1. Temperature graphic for
9 1,3 15 6,93 5000 experiment 1
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Graphic 2. Temperature graphic for Graphic 6. Temperature graphic for


experiment 2 experiment 6

Graphic 3. Temperature graphic for Graphic 7. Temperature graphic for


experiment 3 experiment 7

Graphic 4. Temperature graphic for Graphic 8. Temperature graphic for


experiment 4 experiment 8

Graphic 5. Temperature graphic for Graphic 9. Temperature graphic for


experiment 5 experiment 9
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Following graphics describe Following graphics describe

correlation between the value of coal surface correlation between the value of coal surface

area (A) and the value of air flow rate (Q) area (A) and the value of air flow rate (Q)

toward gasification temperature. We do toward syngas forming time.

correlation with maximal temperature (T max)

for each experiment.

khihihih

Graphic 12. Correlation of A and time of


syngas start to form

Graphic 10. Graphic of A and T max


correlation

Graphic 13. Correlation of Q and time of


syngas start to form

3. CH4 and CO in Syngas

Graphics 14 and 15 describe


Graphic 11. Graphic of Q and T max
correlation
correlation between the value of coal surface
2. Syngas Forming Time
area (A) and the value of air flow rate (Q)
Syngas forming time is measured as
toward concentration of methane and
sign of gasification reaction rate. Syngas
concentration of carbon monoxide contained
forming time is measured when gasification
in syngas .
process was start until syngas was formed. It is

signed with flammable gas is appeared.


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𝑔𝑎𝑠𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑎𝑙


𝜂𝑔 = 𝑥 100% (2)
𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑎𝑙

Partial gasification always leave


behind the char. Charcoal contains rich
carbon, lack of moisture, but it still contains
volatile matter. Gasified components on
partial gasification are moisture and volatile
Graphic 14. Correlation of A toward %CO and matter. We can determine gasification
% CH4 in syngas
efficiency using following equation.

𝑟𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑒 + 𝑟𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑚𝑜𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒


𝜂𝑔 = 𝑥 100% (3)
𝑉𝑀𝑐𝑜𝑎𝑙 + 𝑇𝑀𝑐𝑜𝑎𝑙 + 𝐴𝑠ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑎𝑙 + 𝐹𝐶𝑐𝑜𝑎𝑙

(𝑉𝑀𝑐𝑜𝑎𝑙 − 𝑉𝑀𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟 ) + 𝑇𝑀𝑐𝑜𝑎𝑙


𝜂𝑔 = 𝑥 100% (4)
𝑉𝑀𝑐𝑜𝑎𝑙 + 𝑇𝑀𝑐𝑜𝑎𝑙 + 𝐴𝑠ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑎𝑙 + 𝐹𝐶𝑐𝑜𝑎𝑙

Coal proximate analysis result is the

following table.

Graphic 15. Correlation of Q toward %CO and Table 2. Coal Proximate Analysis Result
% CH4 in syngas No Parameters Value
A Proximate Analysis
4. Gasification Efficiency 1 Total moisture (ar) 5,88%
2 Fixed carbon (adb) 52,79%
3 Volatile matter (adb) 39,62%
Calculation of gasification efficiency is 4 Ash content (adb) 4,21%
B Other analysis
done using gravimetric method. Gasification 5 Calorific value (adb) 7.554,20 kkal/kg

efficiency is measured with comparison


The result of gasification efficiency
between amount of coal gasified component
measurement is at Table 3.
and component of initial coal, it is look like

the equation 2.

Table 3. Gasification efficiency base on charcoal and coal proximate analysis.


Persentage (%)
8 mm coal size feed 10 mm coal size feed 15 mm coal size feed
Parameter 2,005 5,086 6,93 2,005 5,086 6,93 2,005 5,086 6,93
liter/s liter/s liter/s liter/s liter/s liter/s liter/s liter/s liter/s
VMchar 24,3 10,77 16,96 26,5 9,5 10,73 18,6 5,95 0,9
TMcoal 5,88 5,88 5,88 5,88 5,88 5,88 5,88 5,88 5,88
FCcoal 52,79 52,79 52,79 52,79 52,79 52,79 52,79 52,79 52,79
VMcoal 39,62 39,62 39,62 39,62 39,62 39,62 39,62 39,62 39,62
Ashcoal 4,21 4,21 4,21 4,21 4,21 4,21 4,21 4,21 4,21
Efficiency 20,68 33,88 27,84 18,53 35,12 33,92 26,24 38,58 43,51
5. Analysis Table 4. Fluid superficial velocity in bed each
experiment
At the Graphic 10 and Graphic 11 is Experiment Qair A (m2) u (m/s)
(liter/s)
known the increment of coal surface area 1 2,005 1,2389 3,03
2 5,086 1,2161 3,03
value make gasification temperature is 3 6,93 1,2252 3,03
4 2,005 1,002 3,788
5 5,086 0,998 3,788
decreased. But the increment of air flow rate 6 6,93 1,002 3,788
7 2,005 0,711 5,682
value make gasification temperature is 8 5,086 0,714 5,682
9 6,93 0,711 5,682
increased. It caused unbalancing between

amount coal and amount of air occurs which At the Graphic 12 and Graphic 13, the

make temperature decrement occurs when increment of coal surface area value and the

feeding larger coal surface area in gasification. increment of air flow rate value make syngas

Unbalanced occurs because low form quickly.

fluidization space in reactor bed, exactly In other side, based on Graphic 14 and

when feeding larger coal surface area in Graphic 15 the increment of coal surface area

gasification. Fluidization space in reactor bed value is inversely proportional with the

is called superficial velocity (u) witch is increment of CO concentration but does not

determined with following equation. influence methane concentration because has

𝑑𝑝 𝑑𝑜 0,33 2𝑔𝐿(𝜌𝑝 − 𝜌𝑓 ) 0,5 relative zero correlation coefficient value. The


𝑢= ( ) ( ) (5)
𝑑𝑐 𝑑𝑐 𝜌𝑓
Source: Perry’s Chemical Engineers increment of air flow rate value is comparable
Handbook page 12-75
with the increment of CH4’s and Co’s
Where 𝑑𝑝 is particle diameter, 𝑑𝑐 is
concentration.
bed diameter, 𝑑𝑜 is fluid inlet pipe diameter, g
The cause of decrement of gasification
is gravitational acceleration, L is bed length,
temperature and gasification efficiency when
𝜌𝑝 is particle density, and 𝜌𝑓 is fluid density.
feeding higher coal surface area is coal and
Calculation result of superficial
charcoal particles agglomeration phenomena
velocity is at Table 4.
10

occur during gasification process, if using (2012:23) “when low temperature (under

bituminous coal for gasification. 500oC), condensated tar is increased, then it is

Coal particles agglomeration occurs decreased when high temperature”.

exactly when 8 mm coal size feeding (largest There is proofing of tar was still stuck

surface area) and lowest air flow rate (2,005 if fluid is not able to bring out from reactor.

liter/s) is caused adhesiveness each particle by The influences of fluid superficial velocity

tar witch was reducing particle surface area toward tar production can be looked on the

and was impeding fluidization space in bed. following table.

(Speight, 2005:199) “Coal tar Table 5. Fluid superficial velocity and tar
production
condensable distillate containing light, middle, Experiment Fluid superficial Tar
velocity (m/s) production
and heavy oils obtained by carbonization of 1 3,03 Low
2 3,03 Low
coal. About 8 gallons of tar is obtained from 3 3,03 Low
4 3,788 Low
5 3,788 High
each ton of bituminous coal”. Sunggyu Lee 6 3,788 High
7 5,682 High
(2007:198) “….tar is most commonly 8 5,682 High
9 5,682 High
produced from bituminous coal”. Susanto

(2010) “tar forming is a temperature function. To prevent coal particle agglomeration,

The increasing of pyrolysis temperature is gasification system must be able to expel tar

comparable with the increment of tar forming. quickly. Solution for tar expelling is creating

Agglomerated particles of coal occur at pyrolysis gas exhausting directly from

dying zone. Drying zone (≤200oC) is lowest pyrolysis zone. Therefore, Reactor has double

temperature than others zone in fixed bed outlet syngas such as look at figure 3.

gasification reactor. According to Ardyan


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Figure 3. Double outlet syngas of gasification system

Beside because of tar, particle agglomeration bituminous coal. Coal sample was taken from

is caused by coal caking properties or coal PT. Nusa Alam Lestari, Sawahlunto is

swelling properties when coal is heated. categorized into bituminous high volatile rank.

Speight (2005:197) “caking coal is coal that Caking coal is related with free swelling index

fuses together or cakes when heated”. Speight (FSI). Range of coal free swelling index is the

(2005:141) “…..caking coal particles have a following table (Speight (2005:147).

tendency to form agglomerates (cakes) and Table 6. Range of coal free swelling index
Coal ype Swelling Dilation (%)
may even adhere to surface of process index
Noncaking 0 0
equipment, thereby giving rise to reactor Weakly caking 1-2 0
Medium caking 2-4 0-40
plugging problems. Coal agglomeration occurs Strongly caking >4 >50
when heating low volatile to high volatile
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To estimate free swelling index of D. Conclusions and Suggestions

bituminous high volatile A’s coal sample, it 1. Conclusions

needs equivalent data of previous free a. The increment of coal surface area is

swelling index for comparison. The following inversely proportional with the

table is coal free swelling index of Unites increment of gasification temperature,

State coal. whereas the increment of air flow rate

Tabel 7. Coal free swelling index data is comparable with the increment of
Rank Coal Swelling
index gasification temperature.
High volatile C Illinois no.6 3,5
High volatile B Illinois no.6 4,5 b. The increment of coal surface area and
High volatile B Illinois no.5 3,0
High volatile A Illinois no.5 5,5 the increment of air flow rate make
High volatile A Eastern 6-7,5
Medium volatile Eastern 8,5 syngas forming rate is increased.
Low volatile Eastern 8,5-9
Source: Handbook of Coal Analysis c. The increment of coal surface area does

not influence concentration of CH4


Based on table 7 above is conclude free
because having zero coefficient of
swelling index of coal sample is 5,5-7,5 or is
correlation. Whereas the increment of
categorized into strongly caking.
coal surface area make concentration of
Coal caking property is a problem in
CH4 is decreased. The increment of air
this research. Therefore, it is necessary to find
flow rate is comparable with the
out new modification of fixed bed gasification
increment of CH4’s and CO’s
reactor. The other way to prevent coal
concentration in syngas.
agglomeration in reactor is using non
d. The highest efficiency of gasification
agglomerate coal such lignite and
during experiment is 43,51%. That
subbituminous coal.
efficiency is acquired if 15 mm coal

particle size feeding and 6,93 liter/s air

flow feeding
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2. Sugestions 3. Acknowledgement

The suggestions for the ongoing The knowledge support of Dr. Rijal Abdullah,

research are: M.T, Drs. Yunasril, M.Si, and Drs. Harmen,

1. It needs to do hydrogen analysis M.Si are gratefully acknowledged.

contained in syngas and needs to do 4. References

continuous analysis during gasification Davis, Mark E. 2003. Fundamentals of


Chemical Reaction Engineering.
process. New York: McGaw-Hill, inc.

2. Do re-modify of double outlet syngas on Gumanti, Ardyan Humala. (2012). “Studi


Kandungan Tar pada Updraft
fixed bed gasification reactor to prevent
Gasifier dengan Double Syngas
particle coal agglomeration caused by tar Outlet Menggunakan Bahan Bakar
Kayu Karet”. Bachelor Thesis, page
and do re-modify gasification system 23. Depok: Universitas Indonesia.

witch can handle coal caking properties. H, Susanto. dkk. (2010). “Kajian
Termodinamika Updraft Gasifier
3. Necessary to do gasification toward non dengan Side Stream untuk Mengolah
Batubara Sumatera Selatan Menjadi
agglomeration of coal such lignite dan
Gas Sintesis”. Jurnal Seminar
subbituminous coal. Rekayasa Kimia dan Proses 2010
(Nomor C-05 tahun 2010). hal. 6.
4. Necessary to do feasibility study of
Lee, Sunggyu. 2007. Handbook of
syngas production from coal gasification. Alternative Fuel Technology. Boca
Raton: CRC Press.
5. The blind side of this research is
McCabe, Warren L. dkk. 1993. Unit
Kelemahan dalam penelitian adalah Operations of Chemical
Engineering Fifth Edition.
limited sampling. That is why, it is Singapura: McGaw-Hill, inc.
necessary to add more sample in order to Perry, Robert H. 1999. Perry’s Chemical
Engineers’ Handbook. United States
make research result is more accurately.
of America: The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc.

Speight, James G. 2005. Handbook of Coal


Analysis. New Jersey: John Wiley &
Sons, Inc
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