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World Journal of Microbiology WJM

Vol. 4(2), pp. 139-145, October, 2018. © www.premierpublishers.org, ISSN: 0220-3308

Research Article

Morphological Characterization and Proximate Analysis


of Three Edible Mushrooms in Plateau and Kogi States,
Nigeria
Victoria Ibukun Joshua1, Babajide Charles Falemara2*, Oluwaseyi Oluwafunmi Aina3, Tarimini
Roseline Courson4
1Montane Forest Research Station, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria
2,3ForestryResearch Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 5054, Forest Hills, Jericho, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
4Federal College of Forestry, Jos, P.M.B. 2019, Jos Plateau State, Nigeria

The study examined the morphological and proximate compositions of three edible mushrooms
including Termitomyces clypeatus R. Heim, Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. and Lentinus tigrinus
(Bull.) Fr. in Plateau and Kogi States, Nigeria. The collection of the fruiting bodies was done at
random during the rainy season (July to September). The fruiting bodies of the macrofungi at the
point of collection were photographed on site and the important morphological features were
recorded before collection and packaging. The moisture content, protein content, total
carbohydrate, ash content, crude fiber and crude fat compositions of the edible mushrooms were
determined. T. clypeatus mushroom had a significantly (p≤0.05) higher moisture content (91.67%)
and lower crude protein content (2.5%), compared to L. tigrinus and L. squarrosulus. T. clypeatus
mushroom had a significantly (p≤0.05) lower crude fiber (2.10%) and crude fat (2.27%) contents,
compared to the significantly higher (p≤0.05) crude fiber and crude fat compositions of L. tigrinus
and L. squarrosulus. The ash content and carbohydrate content of the mushrooms species
ranged from 0.90% to 20.33% and 6.88% to 26.18% respectively. Based on the high nutritional
value of the three edible mushrooms assessed, it can thus be inferred that the mushrooms are
valuable diet assets.
Keywords: Morphology, Proximate, Characterization, Edible mushrooms, Nutritional diet.

INTRODUCTION

There is a very high incidence of malnutrition, especially of contribute enormously to food value of our habitual diet as
protein deficiency in developing countries and this has they may contribute enormously to the supply of both
become worrisome. This austere condition is macro and micro-nutrients in our diet. Nutritive value of
predominantly common in sub-Saharan Africa region, edible mushrooms is attributed to their high content of
which has the highest incidence of under nourishment with essential amino acids, vitamins, minerals and low lipid
one in three people deprived of access to sufficient food compare to some vegetables and fruits including carrots,
(FAO, 2006; Abdalla et al., 2016). The issue of protein tomatoes, asparagus, potatoes and oranges (Kayode et
deficiency in developing countries especially Nigeria is a al., 2013; Okwulehie and Ogoke, 2013; Adejumo and
prevailing reality which may persist in perpetuity if care is Awosanya, 2005).
not taken. In order to meet the protein source deficit, there
is need for unconventional alternative sources of protein *Corresponding author: Babajide Charles Falemara,
such as mushrooms. Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 5054, Forest
Hills, Jericho, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Email:
Edible mushrooms with high nutritious content value are fbabajide@gmail.com. Co-Authors Email:
considered as one of the most unexploited resources of 1
vijoshua65@gmail.com; 3seyifunmiaina@gmail.com;
the world (Kayode et al., 2013). They have potentials to 4
charles_jide@yahoo.com

Morphological Characterization and Proximate Analysis of Three Edible Mushrooms in Plateau and Kogi States, Nigeria
The up rise in poverty prevalence calls for alternatives in decreases gradually from November to April (Olowolafe,
mitigating the food gap with respect to sufficiency of 2002).
production in meeting the teeming population food
demand (Abdalla et al., 2016). Mushrooms have assumed Kogi State has an average maximum temperature of
greater importance in the diets of both rural and urban 33.2°C and an average minimum temperature of 22.8°C.
dwellers, unlike previously when consumption was Lokoja, the State capital is generally hot throughout the
confined to rural Nigerians, who pick and collect them year with an average humidity of 68 to 70%. The climatic
around waste dumbs, forests and farm lands when the cover of Kogi State is tropical, which is divisible into two
mushroom fruiting bodies usually pop out under favourable major seasons; dry season and wet season. The dry
environmental conditions. These edible mushrooms are season lasts from November to February, while the rainy
usually displayed and sold along the road sides at cheap season lasts from March to October. The annual daily
cost compared to other forms of meat (chicken, pork and mean temperature is 28°C, while in the hot season; the
beef) of similar nutrient composition (Adejumo and average temperature is about 35°C. High humidity is also
Awosanya, 2005). common (Ibitoye, 2006). Annual rainfall ranges from
1016mm in the driest parts of the State to 1524mm in the
Mushrooms have potential in addressing current food wettest parts (KOSEEDS, 2014).
crisis problems in Africa as well as future problems
resulting from population explosions. They can solve Sample Collection and Identification
world’s food shortage problem due to the fact that they
occupy a place above vegetables and legumes but below The collection of the fruiting bodies was done at random
the first class proteins in meat, fish and poultry (Boa, during the rainy season (July to September) the study
2004). They can also resolve most of the world’s health location. The fruiting bodies of the macrofungi at the point
problems because they are endowed with bioactive of collection was photographed on site and the important
compounds that are of medicinal value (Change and Miles, information was recorded (Plate 1).
2004; Colak et al., 2018). Termitomyces mushrooms are
The samples after collection were properly labeled and
known to contain bioactive components with potentials for
wrapped in brown paper in order to avoid excess humidity.
treating neurodegenerative disorders and as antioxidants,
All the collected samples were taken to the laboratory for
immunomodulators, antitumors, and antimicrobials (Hsieh
identification. Identification was done using illustrations in
and Ju, 2018). In addition, preliminary studies have
colour field guides and description keys as described in
revealed that Temitomyces and Lentinus mushroom
Peter (2000); Largent and Theirs (1977); Miller and Miller
species possesses substantial antimicrobial and
(2006); and Neale and Syme (1998). These provide
antioxidant properties (Oyetayo, 2011). As such the results
general details of identification tools according to certain
of this study tend to provide more insight into the food
important features. It includes features like gill attachment
values of indigenous edible mushrooms to be collected
to stem, spore colors under microscope, spore print color,
from the study area, which are almost neglected as food
volva and ring attachments to the stipe. This guide was
sources in preference to exotic and most times costlier
used to identify the mushroom family and genera.
food items. The aim of the study is to morphologically
Secondary sources like books and online information was
characterize and assess the proximate composition of
used to compliment the identification tools.
three edible species of mushrooms.
Morphological identification of the edible Mushrooms
METHODS The three edible mushrooms collected were characterized
and identified using the stature types and field guide
Study Area identification keys.
The experiment was carried out in Jos, Plateau and Proximate Analysis
Iyamoye, Kogi States, Nigeria. The Lentinus species were
collected from Plateau state, while the Termitoyces The three mushrooms after collection and proper
species was collected from Kogi State because of relative identification were taken for proximate analysis on dry
abundance and edibility of these mushrooms in the basis. Proximate analyses was done using the procedure
respective states. Jos is located in Northern Guinea of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2006) to
savanna and is situated between latitudes 80 and 30´ and determine the moisture, protein content, total
100 10 N and longitude 80 20´ and 90 30´E. It has an carbohydrate, ash content, crude fiber and crude fat
average elevation of about 1,250m above sea level and (ether-extract) composition of the edible mushrooms
stands at a height of about 600m above the surrounding
plains. The average temperature in Jos ranges between Experimental Design and statistical analysis
21°C to 25°C. The climate of the state is cool due to its
high altitude. The mean annual rainfall is 1,260mm, while Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experimental
the relative humidity increases from May to October and design was adopted for the purpose of this study in which

Morphological Characterization and Proximate Analysis of Three Edible Mushrooms in Plateau and Kogi States, Nigeria
the mushroom samples were replicated three (3) times.
Data collected from the proximate analysis were subjected
to analyses of variance to determined significant difference
at 5% probability level.

Plate 2: Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. 1842

Lentinus tigrinus Morphological Description


Plate 1: Collection of the Mushroom Samples
The pileus/cap range between 100 mm to 120 mm in
diameter. It is fleshy to coriaceous in texture, convex at
RESULTS early stage to broadly, deeply infundibuliform when aging;
surface often with dark brown scales which becomes
Morphological Identification of the Edible Mushroom scattered and crowded at the center with age mostly
concentric. Annulus and volva are both absent. The stipe
The morphological identification of the mushroom was is equal measuring 38 mm to 70 mm long and 8 mm to 15
based on pleurotoid and tricholomatoid stature types’ mm wide, yellowish white in colour, having eccentric
description and other identification keys as describe in field attachment and branched clamp connections. The gills are
guides. The general and physical characteristics of the decurrent, crowded, and cream to yellowish white. It has
three edible mushrooms collected are described in Table wavy margin. The pileus margin in section is undulating. It
1, Plates 2 to 4. has gregarious growing habit on dead/decaying wood
substrate (Plate 3).
Table 1: Classification of the mushroom species.
S/N Phylum Class Family Species
1 Basidio- Basidio- Polyporaceae Lentinus
mycota mycetes squarrosulus
Mont. 1842
2 Basidio- Basidio- Polyporaceae Lentinus
mycota mycetes tigrinus (Bull.)
Fr. (1825)
3 Basidio- Agarico- Lyophyllaceae Termitomyces
mycota mycetes clypeatus
R.Heim (1951)

Lentinus squarrosulus Morphological Description

The pileus/cap range between 55 mm and 90 mm in


diameter. The entire height ranges between 50 mm and 85
mm. The cap is convex when young with depressed
center, umbilicate to deeply infundibuliform with age. The
cap surface is dry, cream to yellowish white. It has irregular
and involute pileus margin which splits with age. The entire
cap surface is made up of scales recurved fibrillose to
floccose fibrillose. The gills are decurrent and slightly Plate 3: Lentinus tigrinus (Bull.) Fr. (1825)
crowded. The stipe is centrally to eccentrically attached,
ranging between 38 mm to 54 mm long and 2.5 mm to 4 Termitomyces clypeatus Morphological Description
mm wide. Stipe flesh is fleshy, tough and cylindrical to
slightly tapering towards the base. The entire surface of The pileus/cap range between 88 mm and 185 mm in
the stipe is covered by floccose fibrils. It grows on diameter. The cap is conical to convex with age. The
dead/decaying wood substrate (Plate 2). nature of cap is smooth when young to rugose (wrinkled)
with age. The margin of the pileus is smooth when young,

Morphological Characterization and Proximate Analysis of Three Edible Mushrooms in Plateau and Kogi States, Nigeria
wavy and cracked with age, while the pileus margin in compositions of L. tigrinus having 14.63% crude fiber and
section is straight. The length and diameter of the stipe 7.89% crude fat contents and L. squarrosulus which
ranged from 85 mm to 156 mm and 5 mm to 14 mm possesses 11.21% crude fiber and 5.88% crude fat. The
respectively. The stipe is equal in shape and tapers crude fiber and crude fat contents of L. tigrinus and L.
towards the slightly swollen or bulbous base. The squarrosulus were significantly different from each other
attachment of the stipe is central. Gills are adnexed, (Figure 2).
crowded and closely free. There are streaked light brown
variety and they appear membranaceous. Annulus and The ash content of the mushrooms species ranged
volva are absent. The mushroom is usually found on the between 0.90% and 20.33% (Figure 3). T. clypeatus
ground/soil (Plate 4). mushroom species had the lowest significantly different
ash content (0.90%), while L. tigrinus had the highest ash
content (20.33%) not significantly different from ash
content of L. squarrosulus species (18.43%). In the same
similar trend, the carbohydrate content of the mushroom
species ranged between 6.88% and 26.18% (Figure 3). T.
clypeatus mushroom had the lowest significantly different
(p≤0.05) carbohydrate content (6.88%), while L. tigrinus
mushroom species possessed the highest carbohydrate
content which is not significantly different from the
carbohydrate content of L. squarrosulus (25.03%).

Figure 1: Moisture content (%) and Crude Protein (%)


Content of the Edible Mushrooms
Means in the same column having the same superscripts
Plate 4: Termitomyces clypeatus R.Heim (1951) are not significant (p≥0.05)
Proximate Composition of the edible mushroom
species

The result of the moisture content and crude protein


composition of the mushroom species (Figure 1) revealed
that T. clypeatus mushroom had a significantly (p≤0.05)
higher moisture content of 91.67%, while L. tigrinus and L.
squarrosulus had a lower moisture content of 31.04% and
27.55% respectively. The moisture content of L. tigrinus
and L. squarrosulus were not significantly different from
each (p≥0.05). The crude protein content of T. clypeatus
mushroom (2.5%) was significantly (p≤0.05) lower than the
protein content of L. tigrinus (7.15%) and L. squarrosulus
(5.28%) which were not significantly different from each
other (p≥0.05). Figure 2: Crude Fiber (%) and Crude Fat (%) Contents
of the Edible Mushrooms
T. clypeatus mushroom had a significantly (p≤0.05) lower Means in the same column having the same superscripts
crude fiber (2.10%) and crude fat (2.27%) contents, are not significant (p≥0.05)
compared to the significantly higher (p≤0.05) proximate

Morphological Characterization and Proximate Analysis of Three Edible Mushrooms in Plateau and Kogi States, Nigeria
et al. (2017) in L. squarrosulus, L. tuber-regium and
Macrocybe gigantean (20.97% to 31.04%) mushroom
species. As affirmed by Barros et al. (2007), variations in
the protein constituent could be ascribed to the influence
of variability in the nature/kind of mushroom species,
mushroom developmental stage, as well as the sampled
part of the mushrooms (Barros et al., 2007), while Bernaś
et al. (2006) attributed the differences to possibilities of
species/strain specific, pileus size, time of harvest and the
level of nitrogen available in the growth substrate.

Crude Fiber (%)


The crude fiber content of the Lentinus spp (11.21% to
14.63%) recorded in this study compares with the range of
values reported by Falemara and Joshua (2016) for
Figure 3: Ash (%) and Carbohydrate (%) composition Pleurotus ostreatus and P. florida (11.80% and 17.06%)
of the Edible Mushrooms and Ijioma et al. (2015) for Russula sp (17.9%) and P.
Means in the same column having the same superscripts tuber-regium (13.5%). However, Sylvester et al. (2014)
are not significant (p≥0.05) and Olayinka (2016) reported a lower crude fiber content
for L. squarrosulus and L. tigrinus ranging between 0.26%
and 4.53%. Low crude fiber found in T. clypeatus
DISCUSSIONS mushroom species was similarly reported by Adebiyi et al.
(2018). The fiber contents of this mushroom species will
Moisture Content (%) enhance better food absorption and suitable for people
with cancer, diabetes and heart diseases as it aids the
The high moisture content observed in T. clypeatus reduction of cholesterol levels in blood (Ugbogu and
(91.67%) compared to the other Lentinus species (Figure Amadi, 2018). Fiber though not digestible is of significant
1) can be attributed to its big size and more succulent nutritional importance in the cleaning and maintenance of
nature. However, the high moisture content gives an proper intestinal tract motility (Mukhopadhyay and Guha,
indication that great care must be taken in handling and 2015). Low fiber intake as a matter of fact, has been
preservation of the mushroom species as it is subject to recommended by nutritionists for optimal growth
high susceptibility to fungal and bacterial infections particularly in the nutrition of infants and weaning children
(Sylvester et al., 2014), rapid deterioration (Adejumo and (Bello et al., 2008; Salamat et al., 2017).
Awosanya, 2005) and reduction in its storage and shelf life
span (Olusanya, 2008). The range of moisture content of Crude Fat (%)
the mushrooms (27.55% to 91.67%) as obtained in this
study is higher than 7% reported for Pleurotus sajo caju Dietary fat/lipid is vital in nutritional component of food as
(Kayode et al., 2013), 9.77% for L. tigrinus (Olayinka, it enhances the palatability of food by absorbing and
2016) and 18.78% for L. squarrosulus (Sylvester et al., retaining flavors (Antia et al., 2006). The crude fat content
2014). However, the high moisture content obtained for T. reported in this present study significantly ranged between
clypeatus (Figure 1) is similar to 90.13% reported by 2.27% and 7.89% (Figure 2) for the three edible mushroom
Srikram and Supapvanich (2016). The variation in the species. A similar low crude fat of 3.89% for T. clypeatus,
moisture contents of the mushroom species might be 0.89% for L. squarrosulus (Sylvester et al., 2014) and
attributed to environmental factors during growth and 2.41% for L. tigrinus (Olayinka, 2016) have been reported.
storage (Mattila et al., 2001), climate differences, species These observed low fat contents imply that the
and geographical area (Srikram and Supapvanich, 2016). mushrooms will be effective in management of
cardiovascular diseases and obesity (Smith and Groff,
Crude protein (%) 2009).

Mushrooms have been reported to normally possess Ash Content (%)


between 19% to 35% protein content compared to 7.3% in
rice, 13.2% in wheat, 39.1 % in soybean, and 25.2% in milk The ash content represents the total amount of mineral
(Chang and Miles, 2004). The protein content obtained by content present in the mushroom (Ulziijargal and Mau,
Srikram and Supapvanich (2016) ranging between 1.09% 2011). It can be noted that the ash content is significantly
to 1.32 % for T. clypeatus, L. squarrosulus, and P. sajor- lower in T. clypeatus (0.90%), compared to the ash content
caju mushroom species is lower than 2.15% to 7.15% (18.43% to 20.33%) in the two Lentinus spp (L.
obtained in this study. However, higher values were squarrosulus and L. tigrinus) which were not significantly
discovered by Duru et al. (2018) in P. squarrosulus different from each other. The ash contents in the
(21.31%), Olayinka (2016) in L. tigrinus (16.07%), and Das examined mushroom samples were at variant to 9.31%

Morphological Characterization and Proximate Analysis of Three Edible Mushrooms in Plateau and Kogi States, Nigeria
found in T. clypeatus (Adebiyi et al., 2018), 7.84% species. Our profound gratitude also goes to the
associated with P. squarrosulus (Duru et al., 2018), 4.30% anonymous reviewers as well as the editorial team for their
found in L. tigrinus (Olayinka, 2016), 7.4% determined in insightful comments and contributions in improving the
L. tigrinus (Dulay et al., 2014), 7.30% and 8.01% evaluated quality of this paper.
in P. ostreatus and P. florida (Falemara and Joshua, 2016)
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Morphological Characterization and Proximate Analysis of Three Edible Mushrooms in Plateau and Kogi States, Nigeria