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MODULE I

DEFLECTION OF BEAMS
INTRODUCTION:

In all practical engineering applications, when we use the different components, normally we have to operate
them within the certain limits i.e. the constraints are placed on the performance and behavior of the
components. For instance we say that the particular component is supposed to operate within this value of
stress and the deflection of the component should not exceed beyond a particular value.
In some problems the maximum stress however, may not be a strict or severe condition but there may be the
deflection which is the more rigid condition under operation. It is obvious therefore to study the methods by
which we can predict the deflection of members under lateral loads or transverse loads, since it is this form
of loading which will generally produce the greatest deflection of beams.

DEFLECTION OF BEAM BY CONJUGATE BEAM METHOD:


The conjugate beam method is an extremely versatile method for computation of deflections in beams. The
relationships between the loading, shear, and bending moments are given by

(4.7)

where M is the bending moment; V is the shear; and w ( x ) is the intensity of distributed laod.
Similarly, we have the following

(4.8)

A comparison of two set of equations indicates that if M / EI is the loading on an imaginary beam, the
resulting shear and moment in the beam are the slope and displacement of the real beam, respectively. The
imaginary beam is called as the “conjugate beam ” and has the same length as the original beam.
There are two major steps in the conjugate beam method. The first step is to set up an additional beam, called
"conjugate beam,” and the second step is to determine the “ shearing forces ” and “ bending moments ” in
the conjugate beam.
The loading diagram showing the elastic loads acting on the conjugate beam is simply the bending-moment
diagram of the actual beam divided by the flexural rigidity EI of the actual beam. This elastic load is
downward if the bending moment is sagging.
For each existing support condition of the actual beam, there is a corresponding support condition for the
conjugate beam. Table 4.1 shows the corresponding conjugate beam of different types of actual beams. The
actual beam as well as the conjugate beam are always in static equilibrium condition .
This slope is positive or anti-clockwise if the “shearing force ” is positive — to rotate the beam element
anti-clockwise — in beam convention . The deflection of (the centerline of) the actual beam at any point is
equal to the “bending moment” of the conjugate beam at the corresponding point. This deflection is
downward if the “bending moment ” is positive — to cause top fiber in compression — in beam convention
. The positive shearing force and bending moment are shown below in Figure 4.7.
Table 4.1 Real and Conjugate beams for different structures

REAL SRUCTURE CONJUGATE STRUCTURE

SIGN CONVECTION:
The following sign convention should be adopted:
1. Loading on the conjugate beam: The loading on the conjugate beam is equal to the M/EI
diagram of the real beam. This loading is also known as the elastic weight. The loading or elastic
weight act downloads if the M/EI diagram is positive and upwards if M/EI diagram is negative. If
however, M/EI diagram is partly positive and partly negative, the elastic weight or the loading will
act downward for the positive portion of the diagram and upward for the negative portion of the
M/EI portion.
2. Slope of the real beam: The slope of the real beam will be clockwise if the S.F is positive and
anti clockwise is the S.F is negative.
3. Deflection of the real beam: the deflection of the real beam will be downward (or positive) if the
B.M at the corresponding point of the conjugate beam is positive and upward if the B.M is
negative.

Example 4.6 Determine the slope and deflection of point A of the cantilever beam AB of length L and
uniform flexural rigidity E. A concentrated force P is applied at the free end of beam.
Solution:
The conjugate beam of the actual beam is shown in Figure 4.8(b). A linearly varying distributed upward
elastic load with intensity equal to zero at A and equal to PL/EI at B. The free-body diagram for the conjugate
beam is shown in Figure 4.8(c). The reactions at A of the conjugate beam are given by

The slope at A , and the deflection at the free end A of the actual beam in Figure 4.8(d) are respectively, equal to the

“shearing force” and the “bending moment” at the fixed end A of the conjugate beam in Figure 4.8(d).

Note that points downward because causes tension in bottom fiber of the beam at A (i.e. sagging moment) .

Example 4.7 Determine the slope at A and deflection of B of the beam shown in Figure 4.9(a) using the conjugate beam method.
Solution: The vertical reaction at A in the real beam is given by

The bending moment at any point X at a distance x from A is given by

The corresponding conjugate beam and loading acting on it are shown in Figure 4.9(b). The loading on the beam varies parabolically

with maximum value as .

The slope at A , in the original beam will be equal to the shear force at A in the conjugate beam, thus,

(clockwise direction)

The deflection of B in the real beam will be equal to the bending moment at B in conjugate beam i.e.

(downward direction)

Example 4.8 Determine the deflection at the free end of the beam shown in Figure 4.10 using conjugate beam method and

verify by moment area method.


Solution:
(a) Conjugate beam method

The corresponding conjugate beam and loading are shown in Figure 4.10(b). The loading is upward linearly distributed

load with maximum

value of at B .

Taking moment about point B, the vertical reaction at A in the conjugate beam is given by

The bending moment at C (by taking moment about C ) is given by

(sagging type)

Hence, the deflection of point C will be equal to in the downward direction.

Bending Deflection due to Temperature Variation


Consider a beam member (refer Figure 4.29) subjected to temperature gradient over the depth of beam such that
where = temperature at the top of the beam; and = temperature at the bottom of the beam.

The deflection of the beam due to temperature variation is shown in Figure 4.29(b). It is assumed that temperature varies
linearly through the depth, d and is the coefficient of thermal expansion of the material.
Consider a small element of length dx . The strain at top and bottom of the small elements are

The curvature of the beam is given by

The equation (4.24) can be used for finding out the bending deflection in beams due to temperature variation.
If the beam is restrained from rotation, the moment induced in the beam will be given by

CASTIGLIANO’ S THEOREM :
Strain energy techniques are frequently used to analyze the deflection of beam and structures. Castigliano's
theorem were developed by the Italian engineer Alberto castigliano in the year 1873, these theorems are
applicable to any structure for which the force deformation relations are linear
Consider a loaded beam as shown in figure

Let the two Loads P1 and P2 produce deflections Y1 and Y2 respectively strain energy in
the beam is equal to the work done by the forces.

Let the Load P1 be increased by an amount DP1. Let DP1 and DP2 be the corresponding
changes in deflection due to change in load to DP1.

Suppose the increment in load is applied first followed by P1 and P2 then the resulting
strain energy is

Since the resultant strain energy is independent of order loading,

Combing equation 1,2 and3. One can obtain

or upon taking the limit as DP1 approaches zero [ Partial derivative are used because the
starin energy is a function of both P1 and P2 ]
For a general case there may be number of loads, therefore, the equation (6) can be
written as

The above equation is castigation's theorem:

The statement of this theorem can be put forth as follows; if the strain energy of a linearly
elastic structure is expressed in terms of the system of external loads. The partial
derivative of strain energy with respect to a concentrated external load is the deflection of
the structure at the point of application and in the direction of that load.

In a similar fashion, castigliano's theorem can also be valid for applied moments and
resulting rotations of the structure

Where

Mi = applied moment

qi = resulting rotation

Castigliano's First Theorem :

In similar fashion as discussed in previous section suppose the displacement of the


structure are changed by a small amount ddi. While all other displacements are held
constant the increase in strain energy can be expressed as
Where

¶U / di ® is the rate of change of the starin energy w.r.t di.

It may be seen that, when the displacement di is increased by the small amount dd ;
workdone by the corresponding force only since other displacements are not changed.

The work which is equal to Piddi is equal to increase in strain energy stored in the
structure

By rearranging the above expression, the Castigliano's first theorem becomes

The above relation states that the partial derivative of strain energy w.r.t. any
displacement di is equal to the corresponding force Pi provided that the strain is expressed
as a function of the displacements.

ILLUSTRATIVE PROBLEMS

Using Castigliano's Theorem :

1. The cantilever beam CD supports a uniformly distributed Load w. and a concentrated


load P as shown in figure below. Suppose

L = 3m; w = 6KN/m ; P = 6KN and E. I = 5 MN m2 determine the deflection at D

The deflection 'Y0 ‘at the point D Where load ‘P' is applied is obtained from the relation

Since P is acting vertical and directed downward d ; represents a vertical deflection and is
positions downward
The bending moment M at a distance x from D

And its derivative with respect to ‘P' is

Substituting for M and ¶ M/ ¶ P into equation (1)

2.

Areas

a1 = 500 mm2

a2 = 1000 mm2

For the truss as shown in the figure above, Determine the vertical deflection at the joint
C.
Solution:

Since no vertical load is applied at Joint C. we may introduce dummy load Q. as shown
below

Using castigliano's theorem and denoting by the force Fi in a given member i caused by
the combined loading of P and Q. we have

Free body diagram : The free body diagram is as shown below

Force in Members:

Considering in sequence, the equilibrium of joints E, C, B and D, we may determine the


force in each member caused by load Q.

Joint E: FCE = FDE = 0

Joint C: FAC = 0; FCD = -Q


Joint B: FAB = 0; FBD = -3/4Q

The total force in each member under the combined action of Q and P is

Member Fi ¶ Fi / ¶ Q Li ,m Ai ,m2

AB 0 0 0.8 5000x10-6 0

AC +15P/8 0 0.6 5000x10-6 0

AD +5P/4+5O/4 5/4 1.0 5000x10-6 3125P+3125Q

BD -21P/8-3Q/4 -3/4 0.6 1000x10-6 1181P+338Q

CD -Q -1 0.8 1000x10-6 +800Q

CE 15P/8 0 1.5 500x10-6 0

DE -17P/8 0 1.7 1000x10-6 0


P = 60 KN

Sub-(2) in (1)

Deflection of C.

Since the load Q is not the part of loading therefore putting Q = 0

4.
For the beam and loading shown, determine the deflection at point D. Take E =
200Gpa, I = 28.9x106 mm4
Solution:

Castigliano's Theorem :

Since the given loading does not include a vertical load at point D, we introduce
the dummy load Q as shown below. Using Castigliano's Theorem and noting that
E.I is constant, we write.

The integration is performed seperatly for portion AD and DB

Reactions
Using F.B.D of the entire beam

Portion AD of Beam :

From Using the F.B.D.we find

Portion DB of Beam :

From Using the F.B.D shown below we find the bending moment at a distance V from
end B is
Deflection at point D:

Recalling eq (1) . (2) and (3) we have

INFLUENCE LINES

Introduction: Variable Loadings

So far in this course we have been dealing with structural systems subjected to a specific set of loads. However, it is not necessary
that a structure is subjected to a single set of loads all of the time. For example, the single-lane bridge deck in Figure 6.1 may be
subjected to one set of a loading at one point of time (Figure 6.1a) and the same structure may be subjected to another set of
loading at a different point of time. It depends on the number of vehicles, position of vehicles and weight of vehicles. The variation of
load in a structure results in variation in the response of the structure. For example, the internal forces change causing a variation in
stresses that are generated in the structure. This becomes a critical consideration from design perspective, because a structure is
designed primarily on the basis of the intensity and location of maximum stresses in the structure. Similarly, the location and
magnitude of maximum deflection (which are also critical parameters for design) also become variables in case of variable loa ding.
Thus, multiple sets of loading require multiple sets of analysis in order to obtain the critical response parameters .
Figure 6.1 Loading condition on a bridge deck at different points of time

Influence lines offer a quick and easy way of performing multiple analyses for a single structure. Response parameters such
as shear force or bending moment at a point or reaction at a support for several load sets can be easily computed using
influence lines.
This is also another very useful technique in classical structural analysis. Influence lines are plotted for
various structural effects like axial forces, reactions, shear forces, moments and thrust etc. As structural
members are designed for maximum effects, ILD’s help engineer decide the regions to be loaded with live
load to produce a maxima at a given section.
“An influence line is a graphical representation of variation of a particular structural effect at a given section
for all load positions on its span.”]

SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM


Influence Lines for beam Reactions:
ILD’s for reactions in case of simple beams and compound beams (determinate beams resting over several
supports) can be drawn by using the already described procedure. Consider a simple beam with a single
load sitting at any moment of time as shown

From statics it can be shown that

When X = 0 (load at B); Ra = 0 and Rb = P (by putting limits in above expressions)


When X = L (load at A); Ra = P and Rb = 0 (by putting limits in above expressions)
Instead of maximum co-efficients equal to P it is costomary to have them equal to 1 so that these could be
evaluated by the product of loads and respective ordinates and these diagrams become valid for several
loads.

Influence Lines for Shear Force:


In structural analysis, normally we develop the methods by considering simple cases and some generalized
conclusions are drawn which can then be applied to more complicated cases. So consider the following
simple beam wherein a moving load (right to left) occupies the position shown at any instant of time.
Using left-up and write-down as sign convention for positive shear force.

For all load positions to right of point C, the shear force for at C (Vc) is equal to + Ra.
Vc = Ra
It means that for load position between point B and C, the Shape of ILD for SF at C will be the same as the
shape of ILD for + Ra.
For all load positions to left of point C, the shear force at C (Vc) is equal to − Rb.
Vc = − Rb
It means that for load position between point A and C, the shape of ILD for SF at C will the same as shape
of ILD for −Rb. Knowing that positive ILD is drawn above the reference line and negative ILD is drawn
below the reference line, we obtain the ILD for Vc as shown below with the help of ILD’s for reactions
(Ra1 − Rb)
At X=0, load is at B and Vc is zero. At x=b, load is at C and Vc = + Ra = PbL or bL if P=1.
The ordinates aL and bL can be obtained by using similar triangles. Now inspect the ILD for Vc. For a
right to left advance of load system, Vc keeps on increasing till the “leading load is at the section”, when
leading load just crosses the section, Vc drops by the magnitude of load and this process continues. So we
can write that for maximum SF at a section, “the load should be at that section”. This is the first criterion of
calculation of Vmax. Now the question comes to mind that which load among the moving load system
should be placed at the section? To address this question, we have noted, that change in SF at a section,
ΔV, is equal to change in Ra (ΔRa) minus the load leaving the Section. (Pn)

Any load which reverses this expression, should be brought back and placed at that section to realize the
maximum SF at that section. So a change in the sign of above expression can be regarded as the second
criterion for maximum shear force at a section. It can also be shown that loads entering or leaving the span
as a result of any particular advance do not affect the above expression very significantly. The above
method is called the statical method.

Influence Line Diagrams for Bending Moment:

Again we consider the simple beam under the action of a simple moving load as shown. Let it be required
to construct ILD for Mc.
It means that for portion BC, the shape of ILD for Mc is the same as the shape of ILD for Ra multiplied by
distance a. If the load is between points A and C

It means that for portion AC, the shape of ILD for Mc is the same as the shape of ILD for Rb multiplied by
b.
At X = L; Load at A; Mc = 0
Example 6.1 Draw the influence line for (vertical reaction at A ) of beam AB in Fig. E6.1.

Solution:

Free body diagram of AB :

So the influence line of :

Example 6.3 Draw the influence line for (bending moment at ) for beam AB in Fig. E6.3.
Solution:

For

For
Similarly, influence lines can be constructed for any other support reaction or internal force in the beam. However, one should
note that equilibrium equations will not be sufficient to obtain influence lines in indeterminate structures, because we cannot
solve for the internal forces/support reactions using only equilibrium conditions for such structures.

Use of Influence Lines

In this section, we will illustrate the use of influence lines through the influence lines that we have obtained in Section 6.2. Let us
consider a general case of loading on the simply supported beam (Figure 6.4a) and use the influence lines to find out the
.
response parameters ( , and ) for their loading. We can consider this loading as the sum of three different
loading conditions, (A), (B) and (C) (Figure 6.4b), each containing only one externally applied force

Figure 6.4 Application of influence lines for a general loading: (a) all the loads, and
(b) the general loading is divided into single force systems

For loading case (A), we can find out the response parameters using the three influence lines. Ordinate of an influence
line gives the response for a unit load acting at a certain point.

Therefore, we can multiply this ordinate by the magnitude of the force to get the response due to the real force at that
point. Thus
Similarly, for loading case (B):

And for case (C),

By the theory of superposition, we can add forces for each individual case to find the response parameters for the
original loading case (Figure 6.4a). Thus, the response parameters in the beam AB are:

One should remember that the method of superposition is valid only for linear elastic cases with small displacements
only. So, prior to using influence lines in this way it is necessary to check that these conditions are satisfied.

It may seem that we can solve for these forces under the specified load case using equilibrium equations directly, and
influence lines are not necessary. However, there may be requirement for obtaining these responses for multiple and
more complex loading cases. For example, if we need to analyse for ten loading cases, it will be quicker to find only
three influence lines and not solve for ten equilibrium cases.

The most important use of influence line is finding out the location of a load for which certain response will have a
maximum value. For example, we may need to find the location of a moving load (say a gantry) on a beam (say a gantry
girder) for which we get the maximum bending moment at a certain point. We can consider bending moment at
point D of Example 6.3, where the beam AB becomes our gantry girder. Looking at the influence line of , one can
say that will reach its maximum value when the load is at point D .

INFLUENCE LINES FOR SIMPLE TRUSSES:


Introduction

In previous lessons, we have studied the development of influence lines for beams loaded
with single point load, UDL and a series of loads. In similar fashion, one can construct
the influence lines for the trusses. The moving loads are never carried directly on the
main girder but are transmitted across cross girders to the joints of bottom chord.
Following section will explain load transmission to the trusses followed by the influence
lines for the truss reactions and influence lines for truss member forces.
Bridge Truss Floor System

A typical bridge floor system is shown in Figure 40.1. As shown in Figure, the loading on
bridge deck is transferred to stringers. These stringers in turn transfer the load to floor
beams and then to the joints along the bottom chord of the truss.

Front view
It should be noted that for any load position; the truss is always loaded at the joint.
Influence lines for truss support reaction

Influence line for truss reactions are of similar to that a simply supported beam. Let us
assume that there is truss with overhang on both ends as shown in Figure 40.2. In this
case, the loads to truss joints are applied through floor beams as discussed earlier. These
influence lines are useful to find out the support, which will be critical in terms of
maximum loading.

Bridge truss

The influence lines for truss reactions at A and B are shown in below figure

(a) Influence line for R


A
(b) Influence line for R
B

Influence lines for support reactions

Influence lines for truss member forces

Influence lines for truss member force can be obtained very easily. Obtain the ordinate
values of influence line for a member by loading each joint along the deck with a unit
load and find member force. The member force can be found out using the method of
joints or method of sections. The data is prepared in tabular form and plotted for a
specific truss member force. The truss member carries axial loads. In the present
discussion, tensile force nature is considered as positive and compressive force nature is
considered as negative.

Numerical Examples
Example 1:
Construct the influence line for the force in member GB of the bridge truss shown in
Figure 1

Bridge Truss (Example 1)

Solution:
Tabulated Values:
In this case, successive joints L , L , L , L , and L are loaded with a unit load and the force F in the
0 1 2 3 4 L2U3
member L U are using the method of sections. Figure 2 shows a case where the joint load is applied at L
2 3 1
and force F is calculated.
L2U3
Fig 2: Member Force F Calculation using method of sections.
L2U3

The computed values are given below.

Influence line: Let us plot the tabular data and connected points will give the influence line for member
L U The influence line is shown in Figure 3. The figure shows the behaviour of the member under moving
2 3.
load. Similarly other influence line diagrams can be generated for the other members to find the critical
axial forces in the member.

Fig.3 Influence line for member force F


L2U3

UNIT LOAD METHOD


Principle of Virtual Work
Consider a structural system subjected to a set of forces ( … referred as P force)
under stable equilibrium condition as shown in Figure 4.11(a). Further, consider a small
element within the structural system and stresses on the surfaces caused by the P forces are
shown in
Figure 4.11(b) and referred as .

Let the body undergoes to a set of compatible virtual displacement . These displacements are
imaginary and fictitious as shown by dotted line. While the body is displaced, the real forces acting on the
body move through these displacements. These forces and virtual displacements must satisfy the principle
of conservation of energy i.e.
(4.8)

(4.9)
This is the principle of virtual work.
If a system in equilibrium under a system of forces undergoes a deformation, the work done by the
external forces ( P ) equals the work done by the internal stresses due to those forces, ( ).
In order to use the above principle for practical applications, we have to interchange the role of the forces and
displacement. Let the structure acted upon by a virtual force is subjected to real displacements then the Eq. (4.9)
can be written as

(4.10)
This is the principle of complimentary virtual work and used for computing displacements. Consider a structure
shown in Figure 4.12(a) and subjected to P force and it is required to find the displacement of point C in the
direction specified. First apply a virtual force at C in the required direction. Next apply the external (real)
loads acting on the structures as shown in Figure 4.12(a) with the virtual force remain in the position. The
displacement of C in the required ditection be and the internal elements deform by an amount . Using Eq.
(4.10)
(4.11)

The left hand side of Eq. (4.11) denotes the external work done by the virtual force moving through the real
dispolacement . On the other hand, the right hand side of Eq. (4.11) represents the internal work done by the
virtual internal element forces d f moving through the displacement .

Since is arbitrary and for convenience let =1 (i.e. unit load). The Eq. (4.11) can be re-written as
(4.12)

where f denotes the internal force in the members due to virtual unit load.
The right hand side of Eq. (4.12) will directly provide the displacement of point C due to applied external forces.
This method is also known as unit load method.

Similarly for finding out a rotation, at any point of a loaded structure, the corresponding Eq. (4.12) will take
place as

(4.13)

where denotes the internal force in the members due to virtual unit moment applied in the direction of
interested

Application to Pin-Jointed Structures

Consider a pin-jointed structure as shown in Figure 4.13 and subjected to external force P 1 , P 2 and P 3 . Let

the vertical displacement of point C , is required. Under the action of the real external load, let the axial

force in typical member be and therefore, the deformation of the member ( L and AE are
the length and axial rigidity of typical member).
Apply a unit vertical load at C and substituting in Eq. (4.12) leads to

The basic steps to be followed for finding the displacements of the pin-jointed structure are

1. Compute the axial force in various members (i.e. ) due to applied external forces.

2. Compute the axial force in various members (i.e. ) due to unit load applied in the direction of
required displacement of the point.

3. Compute the product for all members.

4. The summation will provide the desired displacement.


5. The axial force shall be taken as positive if tensile and negative if compressive.

6. The positive implies that the desired displacement is in the direction of applied unit load
and negative quantity will indicate that the desired displacement is in the opposite direction of the
applied unit laod.

Example 4.9 Find the horizontal and vertical deflection at joint C of the pin-jointed frame shown in Figure 4.14. AE is
constant for all members.

Solution: Calculate forces i.e. force in various members of the truss due to the applied loading. These can be obtained by
considering the equilibrium of various joints as marked in Figure 4.14(b).
Table 4.2
For For
Member Length
L L
AB L -P 0 0 0 0
BC L 0 0 0 0 0
CD L -P -1 PL -1 PL
DA L 0 0 0 0 0
AC 0 0

The computation of for two desired displacements of pin-jointed frame are shown in Table 4.2.

Horizontal displacement of joint C ,

Vertical displacement of joint C ,

Application to beams and frames


In order to find out the vertical displacement of C of the beam shown in Figure 4.16(a), apply a
unit load as shown in Figure 4.16(b).

The internal virtual work is considered mainly due to bending and caused due to internal moments

under going the rotation due to the applied loading. (internal virtual work done by shearing
forces and axial forces is small in comparison to the bending moments and hence ignored). Since the

where is the moment due to applied loading, the Eq. (4.12) for the
displacement of C will take a shape of

(4.15)

The basic steps to be followed for finding the displacement or slope of a beams and frames are summarized as

1. Compute the bending moment (i.e. ) due to applied external forces.

2. Compute the bending moment (i.e. ) due to unit load applied in the direction of required
displacement or slope.

3. Compute the integral over the entire members of the beam or frame which will provide
the desired displacement.
4. The bending moment shall be taken as positive if sagging and negative if hogging (in case of beams).

5. The positive implies that the desired displacement is in the direction of applied unit load
and negative quantity will indicate that the desired displacement is in the opposite direction of the applied
unit load.

Example 4.11 Determine the slope and deflection of point A of the cantilever beam AB with length L and constant flexural
rigidity EI.
Solution: Deflection under the Load - Apply a vertical unit load at point A of the beam as shown in Figure 4.17(b). Consider
any point X at a distance of x from A ,

The vertical deflection of point A is given by

Slope at the free end: Apply a unit couple at point A of the beam as shown in Figure 4.17(c). Consider any point X at a

distance of x from A .

The slope at A is given by


Example 4.12. Determine mid-span deflection and end slopes of a simply supported beam of span L carrying a udl w per unit
length.

Solution: Mid-span deflection : Apply a unit load at mid span as shown in Figure 4.18(b). Consider any point X at a distance of
x from A

(0< x < L )

(0< x < L/2 )

( L /2< x < L )

The vertical deflection of point C is given by

End slopes : Applying a unit couple at A as shown in Figure 4.18(c). Consider any point X at a distance of x from A
(0< x < L

(0< x < L/2 )


The slope at A is given by

Due to symmetry (anti-clockwise direction)


Example 4.14. Determine horizontal deflection of C and slope at A of a rigid-jointed plane frame as shown in Figure 4.20(a).
Both members of the frame have same flexural rigidity, EI .

Solution: Horizontal deflection of C : Apply a unit load C as shown in Figure 4.20(b).


Consider AB : ( x measured A )
Consider BC : ( x measured C )

The horizontal deflection of point C is given by

Rotation at A : Applying a couple at A as shown in Figure 4.20(d).

Consider AB : ( x measured A )
Consider BC : ( x measured C )

The slope at A is given by

Deflection by Strain Energy Method


The concepts of strain, strain-displacement relationships are very useful in computing energy-related quantities
such as work and strain energy. These can then be used in the computation of deflections. In the special case,
when the structure is linear elastic and the deformations are caused by external forces only, (the complementary
energy U * is equal to the strain energy U ) the displacement of structure in the direction of force is expressed
by

(4.16)

This equation is known as Castigliano's theorem. It must be remembered that its use is limited to the calculation of
displacement in linear elastic structures caused by applied loads. The use of this theorem is equivalent to the
virtual work transformation by the unit-load theorem.
Calculation of Strain Energy

When external loads are applied on an elastic body they deform. The work done is transformed into elastic strain energy
U that is stored in the body. We will develop expressions for the strain energy for different types of loads.
Axial Force : Consider a member of length L and axial rigidity AE subjected to an axial force P applied gradually as
shown in the Figure 4.24. The strain energy stored in the member will be equal to the external work done by the axial
force i.e

(4.17)

Figure 4.24 Member subjected to axial force

Bending Moment: Consider a beam of length L and flexural rigidity EI subjected to a general loading as shown in
Figure 4.25. Consider a small differential element of length, dx . The energy stored in the small element is given by

(4.18)

The total strain energy in the entire beam will be

(4.19)
Figure 4.25 Member under bending

Shear Force: The strain energy stored in the member due to shearing force is expressed by

(4.20)

where V is the shearing force; and is the shearing rigidity of the member.

Twisting Moment: The strain energy stored in the member due to twisting moment is expressed by

(4.21)

where T is the twisting moment; and GJ is the torsional rigidity of the member.

Example 4.18 Find the horizontal deflection at joint C of the pin-jointed frame as shown in Figure 4.26(a). AE is constant for
all members.

Solution: The force in various members of the frame is shown in Figure 4.26(b). Calculation of strain energy of the frame is
shown in Table 4.4.
Table 4.4

Member Length ( L ) Force ( P )

AB L P
BC L P
BD
CD L 0 0

Horizontal displacement of joint C ,

Example 4.20 Determine the deflection of the end A of the beam as shown in Figure 4.28. The flexibility of the spring is
.
Solution: Reactions at support B and C are

(upward) and (downward)

Force in the spring = Reaction,


Deflection under the load is given by

where is the total strain energy stored in the system; is the energy stored in the member AB ; is
the energy stored in the member BC ; and = strain energy in the spring.

Strain energy in the spring is given by

Consider member AB : ( x measured from A )

Consider member BC : ( x measured from C )

Thus,
The deflection of point A,

Maxwell-Betti Law of Reciprocal Deflections


Maxwell-Betti Law of real work is a basic theorem in the structural analysis. Using this theorem, it will be
established that the flexibility coefficients in compatibility equations, formulated to solve indeterminate structures
by the flexibility method, form a symmetric matrix and this will reduce the number of deflection computations. The
Maxwell-Betti law also has applications in the construction of influence lines diagrams for statically indeterminate
structures. The Maxwell-Betti law, which applies to any stable elastic structure (a beam, truss, or frame, for
example) on unyielding supports and at constant temperature, states:
The deflection of point A in direction 1 due to unit load at point B in direction 2 is equal in the
magnitude to the deflection of point B in direction 2 produced by a unit load applied at A in
direction 1

The Figure 4.31 explains the Maxwell-Betti Law of reciprocal displacements in which, the

displacement is equal to the displacement

n order to prove the reciprocal theorem, consider the simple beams shown in Figure 4.32.
Let a vertical force at point B produces a vertical deflection at point A and at point B as
shown in Figure 4.32(a). Similarly, in Figure 4.32(b) the application of a vertical force at point A
produces a vertical deflections and at points A and B , respectively. Let us evaluate the total
work done by the two forces and when they are applied in different order to the zero to their final
value.

Case 1: applied and followed by

…. (a) Work done when is gradually applied

s
…. (b) Work done when is gradually applied with in place

Total work done by the two forces for case 1 is

(4.29)

Case2: applied and followed by

…. (c) Work done when is gradually applied

…. (d) Work done when is gradually applied with in place

Total work done by the two forces for case 2 is

(4.30)

Since the final deflected position of the beam produced by the two cases of loads is the same regardless of the order
in which the loads are applied. The total work done by the forces is also the same regardless of the order in which the
loads are applied. Thus, equating the total work of Cases 1 and 2 give

If , the equation (4.31) depicts the statement of the Maxwell-Betti law i.e.

The Maxwell-Betti theorem also holds for rotations as well as rotation and linear displacement in beams and frames.

Example 4.21 Verify Maxwell-Betti law of reciprocal displacement for the direction 1 and 2 of the pin-jointed
structure shown in Figure 4.33(a).
Solution: Apply the forces and in the direction 1 and 2, respectively. The calculation of total strain energy in the
system is given in Table 4.5.

Mem
Length Force P
ber

AB L -(
)
AC L P1
Since , hence the Maxwell-Betti law of reciprocal displacement is proved.

Example 4.22 Verify Maxwell-Betti law of reciprocal displacement for the cantilever beam shown in Figure 4.34(a).

Solution: Apply the forces and in the directions 1 and 2, respectively. The total strain energy stored is calculated
below.
Consider any point X at a distance x from B .
Since , the Maxwekk-Betti law of reciprical displacement is proved.

Example 4.23 Verify Maxwell-Betti law of reciprocal displacement for the rigid-jointed plane frame with
reference to marked direction as shown in Figure 4.35(a). EI is same for both members.

Solution: Apply the forces and in the directions 1 and 2, respectively as shown in Figure 4.35(b).

Consider AB : ( x measured from A )


Consider BC : ( x measured from B )

Thus

The displacement in the direction 1 due to unit load applied in 2 is

The displacement in the direction 2 due to unit load applied in 1 is

Since , proves the Maxwell-Betti law of reciprocal displacements.


MODULE II
Three hinged Arch
Introduction
In case of beams supporting uniformly distributed load, the maximum bending moment
increases with the square of the span and hence they become uneconomical for long span
structures. In such situations arches could be advantageously employed, as they would
develop horizontal reactions, which in turn reduce the design bending moment.

For example, in the case of a simply supported beam shown in Fig. 32.1, the bending moment
below the load is 16/3PL. Now consider a two hinged symmetrical arch of the same span and
subjected to similar loading as that of simply supported beam. The vertical reaction could be
calculated by equations of statics. The horizontal reaction is determined by the method of
least work. Now the bending moment below the load is 3PL/16 - Hy. It is clear that the
bending moment below the load is reduced in the case of an arch as compared to a simply
supported beam. It is observed in the last lesson that, the cable takes the shape of the loading
and this shape is termed as funicular shape. If an arch were constructed in an inverted
funicular shape then it would be subjected to only compression for those loadings for which
its shape is inverted funicular
Since in practice, the actual shape of the arch differs from the inverted funicular shape or the
loading differs from the one for which the arch is an inverted funicular, arches are also
subjected to bending moment in addition to compression. As arches are subjected to
compression, it must be designed to resist buckling. Until the beginning of the 20th century,
arches and vaults were commonly used to span between walls, piers or other supports. Now,
arches are mainly used in bridge construction and doorways. In earlier days arches were
constructed using stones and bricks. In modern times they are being constructed of reinforced
concrete and steel.

A structure is classified as an arch not based on its shape but the way it supports the lateral
load. Arches support load primarily in compression. For example in Fig 32.3b, no horizontal
reaction is developed. Consequently bending moment is not reduced. It is important to
appreciate the point that the definition of an arch is a structural one, not geometrical.

Type of arches
There are mainly three types of arches that are commonly used in practice: three hinged arch,
two-hinged arch and fixed-fixed arch. Three-hinged arch is statically determinate structure
and its reactions / internal forces are evaluated by static equations of equilibrium. Two-
hinged arch and fixed-fixed arch are statically indeterminate structures. The indeterminate
reactions are determined by the method of least work or by the flexibility matrix method. In
this lesson three hinged arch is discussed.
Analysis of three-hinged arch
In the case of three-hinged arch, we have three hinges: two at the support and one at the
crown thus making it statically determinate structure. Consider a three hinged arch subjected
to a concentrated force P as shown in Fig 32.5.

There are four reaction components in the three-hinged arch. One more equation is required
in addition to three equations of static equilibrium for evaluating the four reaction
components. Taking moment about the hinge of all the forces acting on either side of the
hinge can set up the required equation. Taking moment of all the forces about hinge A ,
yields

Taking moment of all forces right of hinge C about hinge C leads to


Applying ∑Fx = 0 to the whole structure gives

For a simply supported beam of the same span and loading, moment under the loading is
given by,

For the particular case considered here, the arch construction has reduced the moment by
66.66 %.

Example 1:

A three-hinged parabolic arch of uniform cross section has a span of 60 m and a rise of
10 m. It is subjected to uniformly distributed load of intensity 10 kN/m as shown in Fig.
32.6 Show that the bending moment is zero at any cross section of the arch

Solution:

Reactions:
Taking moment of all the forces about hinge A , yields

Taking moment of forces left of hinge C about C , one gets


From ∑Fx = 0 one could write, Hb = 450 kN .
The shear force at the mid span is zero.
Bending moment
The bending moment at any section x from the left end is,

The equation of the three-hinged parabolic arch is

In other words a three hinged parabolic arch subjected to uniformly distributed load is not
subjected to bending moment at any cross section. It supports the load in pure compression.
Can you explain why the moment is zero at all points in a three-hinged parabolic arch?

Example 2:

A three-hinged semicircular arch of uniform cross section is loaded as shown in


Fig 32.7. Calculate the location and magnitude of maximum bending moment in
the arch.
Reactions:
Taking moment of all the forces about hinge B leads to,

Bending moment
Now making use of the condition that the moment at hinge C of all the forces left
of hinge C is zero gives,

Considering the horizontal equilibrium of the arch gives,

The maximum positive bending moment occurs below D and it can be calculated
by taking moment of all forces left of D about D

Analysis of three-hinged arches subjected to moving loads


A three-hinged system consists of two plates, connected together by means of a hinge with
two hinged supports resting to the ground. When the plates consist of curved bars the system
is called three-hinged arch; in the case these bars are straight or L shaped, the system will be
called a three-hinged bent or frame. The distance L between the centres of the hinges at the
supports is called the span of the arch. The distance f from the centre of the intermediate
hinge to the straight line passing through the ground hinges is called its rise - f.

The reactions of three-hinged arch will be fully determined by four parameters, for instance,
the amount of the reactions Ah, Av, Bh and Bv. These may be obtained from the three
equilibrium equations of external forces acting upon the system and from a forth equation,
expressing that the moment of all the external forces acting to the left or to the right of the
intermediate hinge about its centre must be zero.
Influence lines for support reactions

1. Vertical reactions
Let us assume that a three-hinged arch carries a unit load F=1 applied at a distance x from the
left hand support, and let us write the equilibrium equation of the moments of all the forces
about the support joints A and B (support pins) (Fig. 1).

The obtained expressions for Av and Bv are absolutely the same as those for the reactions of
a simply supported beam with length l. This means that the influence lines for Av and Bv do
not differ from the influence lines for the support reactions of the respective simple beam.

2. Horizontal reactions

In addition the forth equation can be used, expressing that the bending moment at the hinge C
equals to zero, or in other words, the sum of moments of all the external forces acting to the
right or to the left of this hinge about its centre is zero. Let us assume that the unit force
moves from point A to the hinge C, and let us consider the equilibrium of the right hand
portion of the arch.

Now, let us consider the case when the unit load is located between points C and B, and let us
write the equilibrium of moments of the left hand part about point C:

It should be pointed out that the expressions Bv 2⋅l and A lv 1⋅ coincide with the
expressions of influence lines for the bending moment in equivalent simply supported beam
for section c, below the intermediate hinge. In other words:
Cables
Introduction
Cables and arches are closely related to each other and hence they are grouped in this course
in the same module. For long span structures (for e.g. in case bridges) engineers commonly
use cable or arch construction due to their efficiency. In the first lesson of this module, cables
subjected to uniform and concentrated loads are discussed. In the second lesson, arches in
general and three hinged arches in particular along with illustrative examples are explained.
In the last two lessons of this module, two hinged arch and hingeless arches are considered.
Structure may be classified into rigid and deformable structures depending on change in
geometry of the structure while supporting the load. Rigid structures support externally
applied loads without appreciable change in their shape (geometry). Beams trusses and
frames are examples of rigid structures. Unlike rigid structures, deformable structures
undergo changes in their shape according to externally applied loads. However, it should be
noted that deformations are still small. Cables and fabric structures are deformable structures.
Cables are mainly used to support suspension roofs, bridges and cable car system. They are
also used in electrical transmission lines and for structures supporting radio antennas. In the
following sections, cables subjected to concentrated load and cables subjected to uniform
loads are considered.

The shape assumed by a rope or a chain (with no stiffness) under the action of external loads
when hung from two supports is known as a funicular shape. Cable is a funicular structure. It
is easy to visualize that a cable hung from two supports subjected to external load must be in
tension (vide Fig. 31.2a and 31.2b). Now let us modify our definition of cable. A cable may
be defined as the structure in pure tension having the funicular shape of the load.

Cable subjected to Concentrated Loads


As stated earlier, the cables are considered to be perfectly flexible (no flexural stiffness) and
inextensible. As they are flexible they do not resist shear force and bending moment. It is
subjected to axial tension only and it is always acting tangential to the cable at any point
along the length. If the weight of the cable is negligible as compared with the externally
applied loads then its self weight is neglected in the analysis. In the present analysis self
weight is not considered.

Consider a cable ACDEB as loaded in Fig. 31.2. Let us assume that the cable lengths L1, L2,
L3, L4and sag at C,D,E ( hc, hd, he) are known. The four reaction components at A and B,
cable tensions in each of the four segments three sag values: a total of eleven unknown
quantities are to be determined. From the geometry, one could write two force equilibrium
equations ) at each of the point A,B,C,D and E i.e. a total of ten
equations and the required one more equation may be written from the geometry of the cable.
For example, if one of the sag is given then the problem can be solved easily. Otherwise if the
total length of the cable S is given then the required equation may be written as
Cable subjected to uniform load.
Cables are used to support the dead weight and live loads of the bridge decks having long
spans. The bridge decks are suspended from the cable using the hangers. The stiffened deck
prevents the supporting cable from changing its shape by distributing the live load moving
over it, for a longer length of cable. In such cases cable is assumed to be uniformly loaded.

Consider a cable which is uniformly loaded as shown in Fig 31.3a. Let the slope of the cable
be zero at A. Let us determine the shape of the cable subjected to uniformly distributed load.
Consider a free body diagram of the cable as shown in Fig 31.3b. As the cable is uniformly
loaded, the tension in the cable changes continuously along the cable length. Let the tension
in the cable at end of the free body diagram be T and tension at the end of the cable be . The
slopes of the cable at and are denoted by q0 m n Δ+ TT
m n θ and θ + Δθ respectively.
Applying equations of equilibrium, we get
Integrating equation (31.3b) we get

At support

i.e. horizontal component of the force along the length of the cable is constant.
Integrating equation 31.3a,

From equations 31.4a and 31.4b, one could write


Equation 31.5 represents a parabola. Now the tension in the cable may be
evaluated from equations 31.4a and 31.4b. i.e,

Due to uniformly distributed load, the cable takes a parabolic shape. However due to its own
dead weight it takes a shape of a catenary. However dead weight of the cable is neglected in
the present analysis.

Example 31.1
Determine reaction components at A and B, tension in the cable and the sag YB and YE of
the cable shown in Fig. 31.4a. Neglect the self weight of the cable in the analysis.
Since there are no horizontal loads, horizontal reactions at A and B should be the
same. Taking moment about E, yields

Now horizontal reaction H may be evaluated taking moment about point of all forces left of
C.

To determine the tension in the cable in the segment AB , consider the equilibrium of joint A
(vide Fig.31.4b).
Segment bc
Applying equations of equilibrium,

Segment cd

See Fig.31.4d.
See Fig.31.4e.
Segment de

Example 31.2
A cable of uniform cross section is used to span a distance of 40m as shown in Fig 31.5. The
cable is subjected to uniformly distributed load of 10 kN/m. run. The left support is below the
right support by 2 m and the lowest point on the Cable C is located below left support by 1
m. Evaluate the reactions and the maximum and minimum values of tension in the cable.
From equation 2, the horizontal reaction can be determined

Now taking moment about A of all the forces acting on the cable, yields
Writing equation of moment equilibrium at point B , yields

Tension in the cable at supports A and B are

Example 31.3
A cable of uniform cross section is used to support the loading shown in Fig 31.6.
Determine the reactions at two supports and the unknown sag Cy
Taking moment of all the forces about support B ,
MODULE III
Indeterminate structures
Introduction

A structure in which the laws of statics are not sufficient to determine all the unknown forces
or moments is said to be statically indeterminate. Such structures are analyzed by writing the
appropriate equations of static equilibrium and additional equations pertaining to the
deformation and constraints known as compatibility condition. The statically indeterminate
structures are frequently used for several advantages. They are relatively more economical in
the requirement of material as the maximum bending moments in the structure are reduced.
The statically indeterminate are more rigid leading to smaller deflections. The disadvantage
of the indeterminate structure is that they are subjected to stresses when subjected to
temperature changes and settlements of the support. The construction of indeterminate
structure is more difficult if there are dimensional errors in the length of members or location
of the supports. This chapter deals with analysis of statically indeterminate structures using
various force methods.

Analysis of pin concentrated frames and beams by consistent deformation


method
The force method is used to calculate the response of statically indeterminate structures to
loads and/or imposed deformations. The method is based on transforming a given structure
into a statically determinate primary system and calculating the magnitude of statically
redundant forces required to restore the geometric boundary conditions of the original
structure. The force method (also called the flexibility method or method of consistent
deformation ) is used to calculate reactions and internal forces in statically indeterminate
structures due to loads and imposed deformations.
The basic steps in the force method are as follows:
(a) Determine the degree of static indeterminacy, n of the structure.
(b) Transform the structure into a statically determinate system by releasing a number of
static constraints equal to the degree of static indeterminacy, n. This is accomplished by
releasing external support conditions or by creating internal hinges. The system thus formed
is called the basic determinate structure.
(c) For a given released constraint j, introduce an unknown redundant force corresponding
to the type and direction of the released constraint.
d) Apply the given loading or imposed deformation to the basic determinate structure . Use
suitable method to calculate displacements at each of the released constraints in the basic
determinate structure.
(e) Solve for redundant forces ( j =1 to n ) by imposing the compatibility conditions of the
original structure. These conditions transform the basic determinate structure back to the
original structure by finding the combination of redundant forces that make displacement at
each of the released constraints equal to zero.

It can thus be seen that the name force method was given to this method because its primary
computational task is to calculate unknown forces , i.e. the redundant forces R1 through Rn
.
Selection of the basic determinate structure

There is no limit to the number of different basic determinate structure that can be generated
for a given structure. The choice of structure, however, must ensure that the primary system
is stable. In addition, it is recommended that the basic determinate structure be chosen to
minimize computational effort and maximize computational accuracy.

(a) Stability of Basic determinate structure

It is not sufficient merely to release the correct number of statically constraints in generating
a basic determinate structure. Care must be taken to ensure that the basic determinate
structure is stable. This fact is explained in the Table 5.1 where any arbitrary release of
constraint can result into the unstable basic determinate structure.

(b) Choice of Basic determinate Structure for minimum Computation


work
The computational effort required in calculating the response of a given structure using the
force method can vary significantly depending on the choice of basic determinate structure.
In this regard, there are two issues to consider:

1. Select the basic determinate structure such as the displacements can be easily computed
(i.e. converting it into simple structure).
2. Select the basic determinate structure to maximize the number of flexibility coefficients
equal to zero.
These issues are illustrated in the following examples.

Consider a fixed beam as shown in Figure 5.8(a). The beam is non-prismatic with degree of
indeterminacy 2. Three basic determinate structures are shown in Figures 5.8(b), (c) and (d).
Among the three structures the computation effort will be minimum for the beam as in Figure
5.8(b) as the resulting basic determinate structure consists of two uniform cantilever beams.
The another structure under consideration is a four-span continuous beam as shown in Figure
5.9. The degree of static indeterminacy of the beam is 3. Two basic determinate structures are
illustrated. On the left-hand side of the figure, the basic determinate structure is formed by
releasing moment in the beam at the three interior supports. On the right-hand side of the
figure, the basic determinate structure is formed by releasing the vertical reaction at the three
interior supports.

For each basic determinate structure, bending moments (bending moment in the basic
determinate structure due to applied loading) (due to ), (due to ), and (due to ) are plotted.
For the basic determinate structure on the left-hand side of the diagram, all integrations
required for calculating the deflections can be easily performed using integration tables. In
addition, for the left-hand side of the diagram, several deflection coefficients are zero. On the
right-hand side, however, all coefficients are nonzero. The choice of basic determinate
structure on the left allowed the influence of a given redundant force to be restricted to a
relatively small portion of the structure (two spans in this particular case). For the structure
on the right-hand side, the influence of a given redundant force R j is felt throughout the
structure. It can be concluded that the basic determinate structure on the left-hand side is
preferable because it reduces the computational effort.

Example 5.7 Analyze the continuous beam shown in Figure 5.10(a) using the force method.
Also, draw the bending moment diagram. EI is constant for entire beam.
Solution: The degree of static indeterminacy = 3–2 =1. The moment at B is taken as
redundant R and the basic determinate structure will be then two simply supported beams as
shown in Figure 5.10(b).

Rotation of point B due to applied loads

Rotation of point B due to R

Equating the rotation of point B due to applied loads and R i.e.

or

The reaction at A is given by


The vertical reaction at C is given by

The vertical reaction at B is given by

The bending moment diagram of the beam is shown in Figure 5.10(e).

Solution: The degree of static indeterminacy of the beam = 4 – 2 = 2. The moment at A and
B are taken as unknown R1 and R2 , respectively.

Equating the rotation at A due to applied loading and unknown R1 and R2 equal to zero i.e.

or

Equating the rotation at B due to applied loading and unknown R1 and R2 equal to zero i.e.

or
Solving equations (i) and (ii)

The bending moment diagram of the beam is shown in Figure 5.11(d)

Example 5.9 Find the force in various members of the pin-jointed frame shown in Figure
5.12(a). AE is constant for all members.

Solution: The static indeterminacy of the pin-jointed frame = 1. The vertical reaction at C is
taken as unknown force R . The computation of deflection of point C due to applied loading
and R are shown in Tables 5.2 and 5.3, respectively.
Table 5.2
Member Length
AB
AC L 0 1 0
AD

The vertical displacement of joint C due to applied loading = ( )

Table
5.3
Member Length
AB
AC L R 1 R
AD

The vertical displacement of joint C due to R =

Adding the displacement of point C due to applied loading and R and equating it to zero i.e.

The force in various members of the frame are as follows

kN (Tensile)

kN (Compressive)

kN (Compressive)

Example 5.11 Analyze the non-prismatic fixed beam shown in Figure 5.14(a) using force method.

Solution: Degree of indeterminacy of the system = 2. We choose shear force and moment at
section C as redundant R1 and R2, respectively.
Total displacement in the direction of R1

or

Total rotation in the direction of R2

or

The reactions at support are given by

The bending moment diagram of the beam is shown in Figure 5.14(d)

Three Moment Equation


The continuous beams are very common in the structural design and it is necessary to
develop simplified force method known as three moment equation for their analysis. This
equation is a relationship that exists between the moments at three points in continuous beam.
The points are considered as three supports of the indeterminate beams. Consider three points
on the beam marked as 1, 2 and 3 as shown in Figure 5.25(a). Let the bending moment at
these points is , and and the corresponding vertical displacement of these points are , and ,
respectively. Let and be the distance between points 1 – 2 and 2 – 3, respectively.
The continuity of deflected shape of the beam at point 2 gives

From the Figure 5.25(d)

and

where

and

Using the bending moment diagrams shown in Figure 5.25(c) and the second moment area
theorem,
Where A1 and A2 are the areas of the bending moment diagram of span 1-2 and 2-3,
respectively considering the applied loading acting as simply supported beams.

Substituting from Eqs. (5.7) and Eqs. (5.8) in Eqs. (5.4) and Eqs. (5.5).

The above is known as three moment equation.

Sign Conventions
The M1, M2 and M3 are positive for sagging moment and negative for hogging moment.
Similarly, areas A1, A2 and A3 are positive if it is sagging moment and negative for hogging
moment. The displacements are positive if measured downward from the
reference axis.

Example 5.22 Analyze the continuous beam shown in Figure 5.26(a) by the three moment
equation. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram

Solution: The simply supported bending moment diagram on AB and AC are shown in Fig 5.26 (b). Since
supports A and C are simply supported

Applying the three moment equation to span AB and BC ( = = = 0)


= 56.28KNm

The reactions at support A , B and C are given as

= 120 + 40 3 – 41.25 – 41.25 = 157.5 kN

The bending moment and shear force diagram are shown in Figures 5.26(c) and (d), respectively

Example 5.23 Analyze the continuous beam shown in Figure 5.27(a) by the three moment
equation. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram.

Solution: The effect of a fixed support is reproduced by adding an imaginary span as shown
in Figure 5.27 (b). The moment of inertia, of the imaginary span is infinity so that it will
never deform and the compatibility condition at the end A , that slope should be is zero, is
satisfied.
Applying three moment equation to the span and AB :

or + = – 135

Span AB and BC :

or + = – 225
Solving Eqs. (i) and (ii), = – 45 kNm and = – 45 kNm

The shear force and bending moment diagram are shown in Figures 5.27(d) and (e), respectively.

Example 5.24 Analyze the continuous beam shown in Figure 5.28(a) by the three moment
equation. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram.

Solution: The simply supported moment diagram on AB , BC and CD are shown in Figure
5.28(b). Since the support A is simply supported, The moment at D is

Applying three moment equation to the span AB and BC :

or

Span BC and CD : ( )

or

Solving Eqs. (i) and (ii) will give and .

The bending moment and shear force diagram are shown in Figures 5.28(d) and (c),
respectively.
MODULE -I
1. What is conjugate beam? Discuss its utilities.
2. State the conjugate beam theorem.
3. Define the virtual work and virtual displacement.
4. State the principle of virtual work done.
5. State the castiaglanio’s theorem.
6. State the Maxwell Betti’s law of reciprocal theorem.
7. Define influence line diagram.
8. Discuss the uses and principles of influence line.
9. What do you understand by the terms ‘through type trusses’ and ‘deck type trusses’.
10. Discuss the principles and assumptions, on which the influence lines for the trussed bridges
are drawn.
11. Define the term opposite joint.
12. Give the relation between actual beam and a conjugate beam when former has a fixed end.
13. Using stain energy method, determine the vertical displacement at the free end of the
cantilever beam as shown in fig -1. Given E = 200 KN/mm² and I = 20 x .
14. Using unit load method, analyse exercise problem 1 and determine the displacement at
point B and C.
15. A beam 6m long, simply supported at its ends, carrying a point load of 50 KN at its centre.
Determine the slope at the supports and the deflection at the centre of the beam using
conjugate beam method. Given E = 200 KN/mm² and I = 76 x .
16. A beam 10m long, simply supported at its ends, carries a point load of 10 KN at a distance
6m from the left support . Determine the slope at the left supports and the deflection under
the point load using conjugate beam method. Given E = 200 KN/mm² and I = 76 x .
17. A beam 6m long, simply supported at its ends and carries two point load of 48 KN and 40KN
at a distance 1m and 3m respectively from the left support. Determine the deflection under
each load using conjugate beam method. Given E = 200 KN/mm² and I = 8.5 x .
18. A cantilever of length 3m is carrying a point load of 25 KN at the free end. If I =
and E = 2.1 x N/mm² then determine the slope of the cantilever at the free end and
the deflection at the free end using conjugate beam method.
19. A cantilever of length 3m is carrying a point load of 25 KN at the free end. If I =
and E = 2.1 x N/mm² then determine the slope of the cantilever at the free end and
the deflection at the free end using conjugate beam method.
20. Find the horizontal deflection at joint C of the pin-jointed frame as shown in Figure 4.26(a).
AE is constant for all members.
21. Determine the slope and deflection of point A of the cantilever beam AB with length L and
constant flexural rigidity EI.

22. Determine mid-span deflection and end slopes of a simply supported beam of span L
carrying a udl w per unit length.
23. Determine vertical deflection and rotation of point B of the beam shown in Figure 4.19(a).
The beam is subjected to a couple at C .

24. Determine horizontal deflection of C and slope at A of a rigid-jointed plane frame as shown
in Figure 4.20(a). Both members of the frame have same flexural rigidity EI.

25. Verify Maxwell-Betti law of reciprocal displacement for the cantilever beam shown in Figure 4.34(a)

26. Verify Maxwell-Betti law of reciprocal displacement for the rigid-jointed plane frame with
reference to marked direction as shown in Figure 4.35(a). EI is same for both members.
27. The beam is loaded with two loads 25 kN each spaced at 2.5 m is traveling on the beam
having span of 10 m. Find the absolute maximum moment.
28. Construct influence functions for support reactions at A and B, bending moment and shear
force at C, deflection and rotation at C due to bending effect, and then draw corresponding
influence lines for a simply-supported beam shown below

29. Construct influence functions for support reactions at A, bending moment and shear
30. force at B, deflection and rotation at B due to bending effect, and then draw corresponding
influence lines for a cantilever beam shown below

31. Construct the influence lines for the support reactions, i.e. IL(RA), IL(MA) and IL(RD), and
then use them to obtain the influence lines of bending moments and shear forces
IL(MB),IL(VB), IL(VC), IL(MDL), IL(VDL), IL(MDR) and IL(VDR) for a statically determinate beam
shown below

32. Construct the influence line for a) reaction at A and B b) shear at point C c) bending moment
at point C d) shear before and after support B e) moment at point B of the beam in the
figure below

33. Construct the influence line for the reaction at A, C and E, the shear at D, the moment at D
,shear before and after support C and moment at point C in the figure below
34. Find horizontal and vertical deflection of joint C of truss ABCD loaded as shown in below
given fig. Assume that, all members have the same axial rigidity.

35. Compute the vertical deflection of joint and horizontal displacement of joint of the truss
shown in below Fig. due to a) Applied loading as shown in figure. b) Increase in temperature
25 °C of in the top chord BD. Assume α = 1/75000 per ° C , Given E = 200 KN/mm² . The
cross sectional areas of the members in square centimeters are shown in parentheses.

36. Construct the influence line for the force in member GB of the bridge truss shown in below
in Figure

37. Tabulate the influence line values for all the members of the bridge truss shown in below
Figure

38. Verify Maxwell-Betti law of reciprocal displacement for the cantilever beam shown in Figure
4.34(a).
39. Verify Maxwell-Betti law of reciprocal displacement for the rigid-jointed plane frame with
reference to marked direction as shown in Figure 4.35(a). EI is same for both members.

40. Determine the support reactions of the propped cantilever beam as shown in Figure T5.1.
Use moment area method and verify by conjugate beam method.

41. Determine the support reactions of the propped cantilever beam as shown in Figure T5.2.
Use moment area method or conjugate beam method.

42. Determine the force in various members of the pin-jointed structure as shown in Figure
T5.12. All the members of the frame have the same axial rigidity, AE .

43. Determine the force in various members of the pin-jointed structure as shown in Figure
T5.13, if the temperature in the member BC rises by an amount . All the members of the
frame have the same length, L and axial rigidity, AE . Take coefficient of thermal expansion
as

44. Determine the force in various members of the pin-jointed frame as shown in below Figure.
All members of the frame have same axial rigidity as AE .

45. Draw the influence line for Ra (vertical reaction at A ) of beam AB in Fig. E6.1.

46. Draw the influence line for Vc (shear force at mid point) of beam AB in Fig. E6.2.

47. Draw the influence line for Mc (bending moment at X = 2L/3 ) for beam AB in Fig. E6.3.

48. Find the maximum shear force at C for the moving load combination in Figure T6.3.
49. Determine the slope and deflection of point A of the cantilever beam AB with length L and
constant flexural rigidity EI.

50. Determine the support reactions of the propped cantilever beam as shown in Figure T5.1.
Use moment area method and verify by conjugate beam method.
MODULE –II
1. Derive an equation for the cable and show that it hangs in the form of a parabola.
2. Obtain a relation for the horizontal thrust and tension in the cable.
3. What are stiffening girders? Discuss their uses and types
4. State the types of arches.
5. What is a three hinged arch?
6. Write the equation to define the centre line of a circular arch?
7. Name the different types of arch as per structure configuration
8. Give an expression for the determination of horizontal thrust of a two hinged arch
considering bending deformation only
9. Explain the transfer of load to the arches.
10. Differentiate between the cable and arch.
11. Write down the expression for the horizontal thrust when the two hinged arch is
subjected to uniformly distributed load thought the span.
12. What the degree of redundancy of two hinged arch?
13. Explain the term Horizontal thrust.
14. What is ‘H’ of the symmetrical two hinged parabolic arch due to UDL extending to
1
the full length of span? Take central rise = 8 span.
15. A symmetrical three hinged arch (circular) supports a load ‘W’ at the crown. What is
the value of H?
16. What is the degree of static indeterminacy of a three hinged parabolic arch?
17. A three hinged parabolic arch of span 100m and rise 20m carries a uniformly
distributed load of 2KN/m length on the right half as shown in the figure. Determine
the maximum bending moment in the arch.

18. A three hinged symmetric parabolic arch hinged at the crown and springing, has a
span of 15m with a central rise of 3m. It carries a distributed load which varies
uniformly form 32kN/m (horizontal span) over the left hand half of the span.
Calculate the normal thrust; shear force and bending moment at 5 meters from the left
end hinge.
19. A three hinged parabolic arch, hinged at the crown and springing has a horizontal of
15m with a central rise of 3m. If carries a udl of 40kN/m over the left hand of the
span. Calculate normal thrust, radial shear and bending moment at 5m from the left
hand hinge.
20. A three hinged parabolic arch of span 20 m and rise 4m carries a UDL of 20 kN/m
over the left half of the span. Draw the BMD.
21. A parabolic 3 hinged arch shown in fig. 9 carries loads as indicated. Determine
(i) resultant reactions at the 2 supports
(ii) bending moment, shear (radial) and normal thrust at D, 5m from A.

22. A symmetrical parabolic arch spans 40m and central rise 10m is hinged to the
abutments and the crown. It carries a linearly varying load of 300 N/M at each of the
abutments to zero at the crown. Calculate the horizontal and vertical reactions at the
abutments and the position and magnitude of maximum bending moment.
23. A 35 m cable is supported at ends A and B which are at the same horizontal level and are 25
m apart. A vertical load of 25 kN is acting at point C which is at a distance of 9 m from A .
Find the horizontal reaction at A and the dip at C .

24. A light cable (that is, self weight of cable is negligible compared to external loads) is carrying
uniformly distributed load of 30 kN / m . The span of the cable is 75 m and its length is 77 m ,
where the supports are at same horizontal level. What will be the percentage change in
minimum tension if there is a rise of temperature by 35 ° C? Coefficient of thermal
expansion of the cable material is (12× 10 -6 / ° C).
25. A light cable with span 40m is under uniformly distributed load of 1 kN / m . If the support
are at the same level and the maximum tension allowed in the cable is 30 kN . what is the
maximum allowable dip of the cable?
26. Find the tension in the cable at point B for the cable shown in Figure T3.1.
MODULE III
1. Define indeterminate structures.
2. Define degree of indeterminacy.
3. State the three moment theorem
4. A continuous beam ABCD is carrying a uniformly distributed load of 1 kN/m over span in
addition to concentrated loads as shown in below fig. Calculate support reactions. Also,
draw bending moment and shear force diagram. Assume EI to be constant for all members.

5. A continuous beam is carrying uniformly distributed load of 2 kN/m as shown in below fig.
The moment of inertia of span AB is twice that of span BC. Evaluate reactions and draw
bending moment and shear force diagrams.

6. Draw the bending moment diagram of a continuous beam shown in belowFig.13.2a by three
moment equations. The support B settles by 5mm below A and C. Also evaluate reactions at
A, B and C. Assume EI to be constant for all members and E = 200 GPa , I = 8.5 x .

7. Analyze the continuous beam shown in Figure 5.10(a) using the consistent deformation
method. Also, draw the bending moment diagram. EI is constant for entire beam.

8. Analyze the uniform continuous beam shown in Figure 5.11(a) using the consistent
deformation method. Also, draw the bending moment diagram.
9. Find the force in various members of the pin-jointed frame shown in Figure 5.12(a). AE is
constant for all members

10. Find the force in various members of the pin-jointed frame shown in Figure 5.13(a). AE is
constant for all members

11. Analyze the non-prismatic fixed beam shown in below figure using consistent deformation
method.

12. Analyze the continuous beam shown in Figure 5.26(a) by the three moment equation. Draw
the shear force and bending moment diagram.
13. Analyze the continuous beam show in Fig. 5.29(a) by the three moment equation method if
support B sinks by an amount of 10 mm. Draw the shear force and bending moment
diagram. Take flexural rigidity

14. Using theorem of three moment find the reactions of the uniform beam shown in Figure
T5.22.

15. Using theorem of three moments, determine the reactions of the uniform continuous beam
shown in Figure T5.23.

16. Using the theorem of three moments analyze the uniform continuous beam shown in Figure
T5.24.

17. Using the theorem of three moments, determine the support reaction, if support B settles
down by an amount . Take the flexural rigidity of the entire beam as EI .

18. Determine the moment over the support R2 of the beam shown in Fig. P-813.
19. Find the moment at R2 of the continuous beam shown in Fig. P-814.

20. Let’s consider a statically indeterminate truss shown below. Properties of each member (e.g.
cross sectional area, Young modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion) are given in a
table below. Analyze this structure for all support reactions and member forces when it is
subjected to the following four effects: (i) applied loads P and 3P at joints 2 and 4,

is eo longer than L due to fabrication error, and (iv) a pinned support at a joint 1 is subjected

21. Determine all support reactions and member forces of a statically indeterminate truss
subjected to external applied loads as shown in the figure below. Given that the axial rigidity
EA is constant throughout.

22. Consider a statically indeterminate beam as shown in the figure below. The flexural rigidity
EI is assumed to be constant throughout. The beam is subjected to a uniformly distributed
load 2q on the segment AB and a concentrated load qL at a point C and, during load
and compute the (vertical)
deflection at point C. Consider only the bending effect in the analysis.

23. Determine all support reactions and sketch the SFD and BMD of a statically indeterminate
beam subjected to uniformly distributed load q shown below. The flexural rigidity of the
segments AB and BC is given by EI and 2EI, respectively. In the analysis, let’s consider only
the bending effect.

24. Analyze following statically indeterminate trusses for support reactions and member forces
by the method of consistent deformation. The axial rigidity of each member, the support
settlement (if exists), the temperature change, and error from fabrication are shown in the
below figure.

25. Analyze following statically indeterminate trusses for support reactions and member forces
by the method of consistent deformation. The axial rigidity of each member, the support
settlement (if exists), the temperature change, and error from fabrication are shown in the
below figure.

26. Analyze following statically indeterminate trusses for support reactions and member forces
by the method of consistent deformation. The axial rigidity of each member, the support
settlement (if exists), the temperature change, and error from fabrication are shown in the
below figure.

27. Analyze following statically indeterminate trusses for support reactions and member forces
by the method of consistent deformation. The axial rigidity of each member, the support
settlement (if exists), the temperature change, and error from fabrication are shown in the
below figure.

28. Analyze following statically indeterminate trusses for support reactions and member forces
by the method of consistent deformation. The axial rigidity of each member, the support
settlement (if exists), the temperature change, and error from fabrication are shown in the
below figure.

29. Analyze following statically indeterminate trusses for support reactions and member forces
by the method of consistent deformation. The axial rigidity of each member, the support
settlement (if exists), the temperature change, and error from fabrication are shown in the
below figure.
30. Analyze following statically indeterminate beams for all support reactions, SFD and BMD, the
deflection at a point and the rotation at a point b by the method of consistent deformation.
In the analysis, let’s consider only bending effect. The flexural rigidity and length of each
member and the support settlement are clearly indicated in the figure.

31. Analyze following statically indeterminate beams for all support reactions, SFD and BMD, the
deflection at a point and the rotation at a point b by the method of consistent deformation.
In the analysis, let’s consider only bending effect. The flexural rigidity and length of each
member and the support settlement are clearly indicated in the figure.

32. Analyze following statically indeterminate beams for all support reactions, SFD and BMD, the
deflection at a point and the rotation at a point b by the method of consistent deformation.
In the analysis, let’s consider only bending effect. The flexural rigidity and length of each
member and the support settlement are clearly indicated in the figure.

33. Analyze following statically indeterminate beams for all support reactions, SFD and BMD, the
deflection at a point and the rotation at a point b by the method of consistent deformation.
In the analysis, let’s consider only bending effect. The flexural rigidity and length of each
member and the support settlement are clearly indicated in the figure.

34. Analyze following statically indeterminate beams for all support reactions, SFD and BMD, the
deflection at a point and the rotation at a point b by the method of consistent deformation.
In the analysis, let’s consider only bending effect. The flexural rigidity and length of each
member and the support settlement are clearly indicated in the figure.

35. Analyze following statically indeterminate beams for all support reactions, SFD and BMD, the
deflection at a point and the rotation at a point b by the method of consistent deformation.
In the analysis, let’s consider only bending effect. The flexural rigidity and length of each
member and the support settlement are clearly indicated in the figure.

36. Analyze following statically indeterminate beams for all support reactions, SFD and BMD, the
deflection at a point and the rotation at a point b by the method of consistent deformation.
In the analysis, let’s consider only bending effect. The flexural rigidity and length of each
member and the support settlement are clearly indicated in the figure.

37. Analyze following statically indeterminate beams for all support reactions, SFD and BMD, the
deflection at a point and the rotation at a point b by the method of consistent deformation.
In the analysis, let’s consider only bending effect. The flexural rigidity and length of each
member and the support settlement are clearly indicated in the figure.