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Case Study of a

Child Age 8
Hazaly Santiago
EDU 220-1001
Principles of Educational Psychology
Physical Characteristics
Typical Behaviors Observed
▪ Hyper
▪ Extremely active
▪ Confident
▪ Get tired easily ▪ Clumsy
▪ The child is shorter when
▪ Gain confidence on certain capabilities compared to other students in
her class and age group
▪ Very accident prone
▪ Weight seems reasonable for her
(Snowman & McCowan, 2013) age and height
▪ Independent
▪ Pouts frequently
▪ A sudden interest in drawing or printing
▪ Rest periods frequently
▪ Decrease in appetite ▪ Child should receive about 11
hours of sleep each night
▪ Won’t get sick as frequent ▪ Safety talks should begin as child
(University of Washington,1993) grows and becomes riskier

(Child Development Institute, 2018)

Emotional Characteristics
• At this age students are able to distinguish the difference between good and bad behavior
that is appropriate for home, school, and public settings
• Child can identify and understand their emotions
• Child can lose enthusiasm when a task doesn’t result in their end goal or when other kids
do achieve their goal
(PBS Parents, 2018)
• Sensitive to criticism and mockery
• Hard time accepting defeat
Eager to please teacher

• Learning to understand the feelings of others
(Snowman, J. & McCown,R, 2013)
Emotional Characteristics
Observed Recommended
▪ She is able to identify and ▪ When the child feels overwhelmed,
understand the feelings of others stressed, anger, confusion, or fear
encourage them to reach out for
▪ Has secrets with friends support
▪ Argues (PBS Parents, 2018)
▪ Doesn’t like to be told what to do ▪ Don’t criticize them
▪ Expresses anger physically rather ▪ Positive reinforcements
than verbally
▪ Build confidence
▪ Easily distracted
(University of Washington, 1993)
Cognitive Characteristics
• Is more curious about certain topics ▪ Child understands between right and wrong
• Questions are more complex ▪ Talking to themselves declines in frequency
• Likes to experiment ▪ Vygotsky’s theory believes that social and
• Enjoys games that are competitive and cultural forces impact the way a child thinks
active (Snowman , J &McCown, R, 2013)
• Child will typically create entertaining
stories using different information from ▪ According to Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive
different sources Development at the age of 8 years old the child
• Can count up to 1,000 is going through the Concrete operational. The
• Handwriting is easier to read child is “capable of operations but solves
(Child Development Institute, 2018) problems by generalizing from concrete
experiences [&] is not able to manipulate
• Its common for the child to stutter when conditions mentally unless they have been
they feel stressed or overwhelmed experienced” (Snowman, J & McCown, R, 2013
• Child has trouble making choices because p.25)
they want everything
• Like to be challenged (Snowman, J & McCown, R, 2013)
(University of Washington, 1993)
Cognitive Characteristics
Observed Recommended

▪ Wants to know why certain things ▪ Allow time to finish tasks

▪ Ask thought provoking questions
▪ Likes to experiment
▪ Answer questions to the best of your
▪ Likes to do DIY videos found online ability

▪ Competitive ▪ Answer questions with patience

▪ Likes to collect things (University of Washington, 2013)

▪ Participate in meaningful conversations

to help kids learn new words
▪ Let them share their stories
(PBS Parents, 2018)
Social Characteristics
Observed Typical
• Wants love from her mom
▪ Has a handful of friends • Concerned about doing well
▪ Can label some friends as ‘best • Don’t like to show up late to events
friends’ • Aggression will be used as a problem
▪ Wants attention from others • Has the mindset that boys play with
boys and girls play with girls
▪ Not interested in participating in a
( University of Washington, 1993)
dinner conversation
▪ affectionate ▪ Prefers friends around their age
▪ Strong desire to please
▪ Likes to receive support and approval
from others
(Child Development Institute, 2018)
Social Characteristics
Typical Recommended

▪ According to Erikson, an eight year old ▪ Do fun things together as a family

child is going through a stage of Industry vs ▪ Talk about self respect and respect for
Inferiority. “school is where children learn others
how to be productive with tasks that require ▪ Encourage them to join school or
mental effort over extended periods of community groups
time.” A child will either respond in a (Center for Disease Control and Prevention,
industry or inferior kind of way. When the 2017)
results are industry, the child was
encouraged to do well, allowed to finish ▪ Encourage child to socialize with others
tasks, and was praised for trying. On the ▪ Try to stop conflict before it occurs
other hand if the child was judged too hard ▪ Be part of their school activities
and too often the results are inferior. ▪ Encourage child to participate in non-
(Snowman, J. & McCown, R, 2013) traditional gender based activities
(University of Washington, 1993)
Moral Characteristics
Observed Typical
▪ Courages
▪ Confident ▪ Dependable
▪ Shows emotions towards others ▪ Makes good choices
▪ Shows empathy
▪ Honest ▪ Grateful
▪ Treats others with kindness (PBS Parents, 2018)

Recommendations ▪ Experiences guilt/shame

(University of Washington, 1993)
▪ Show unconditional love
▪ Discuss reasonable expectations ▪ According to Kohlberg there are four traits that “call
attention to the tendency for children below the age of 10
(University of Washington, 1993) or so to think rules as sacred pronouncements handed
▪ Show support in changes of identity down by external authority”
(Snowman, J &McCown, R, 2013 p.41)
▪ Show affection towards the child ✓ Knows the difference between right or wrong
▪ Makes rules clear ✓ Believes rules are unchangeable
✓ Determined the amount of guilt by the damage done
(Center for Disease Control and Prevention, ✓ “Defines moral wrongness in terms of what is forbidden
or punished”
(Snowman, J & McCown, R, 2013 p. 41)
❖ Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Child development. Retrieved from

❖ Child Development Institute. (2018). The ages and stages of child development.
Retrieved from

❖ PBS Parents. (2018). Child development tracker Ages 2-8. Retrieved


❖ Snowman, J. & McCown, R. (2013). ED PSYCH. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage

❖ University of Washington. (1993). Child development: Using the child development
guide. Retrieved from