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PFMEA Occurrence Encoding

Rank Keyword Probability of Failure (Process) Failure Ppk
Failure Rates
10 >/= 100,000 PPM >/= 1 in 10 < 0.55
Very High Persistent Failures
9 50,000 PPM 1 in 20 >/= 0.55
8 20,000 PPM 1 in 50 >/= 0.78
High Frequent Failures
7 10,000 PPM 1 in 100 >/= 0.86
6 5000 PPM 1 in 200 >/= 0.94
5 Moderate Occasional Failures 2000 PPM 1 in 500 >/= 1.00
4 500 PPM 1 in 2000 >/= 1.20
3 100 PPM 1 in 10,000 >/= 1.30
Low Relatively Few Failures
2 10 PPM 1 in 100,000 >/= 1.50
1 Remote Failure is Unlikely </= 1 PPM < 1 in 1,000,000 >/= 1.67

PFMEA Detection Encoding

Rank Keyword Delphi Guideline for PFMEA (AIAG) Guidelines

Almost Absolute certainty of non-detection. Cannot detect, or

10 is not checked.
Cannot detect or is not checked.
Control is achieved with indirect or random
9 Very Remote Unscheduled periodic audits.
checks only.

8 Remote Observe setup parameters. Visual inspection. Control is achieved with visual inspection only.

Verification and documentation of setup parameter. Control is achieved with double visual inspection
7 Very Low Double visual inspection. only.

100% visual inspection by touching and marking the

Control is achieved with charts methods, such as
6 Low parts or using boundary samples. Periodic manual
SPC (Statistical Process Control).

Control is based on variable gauging after parts

100% Go/No Go gauging. Periodic gauging with
have left the station, or Go / No Go gauging
5 Moderate control chart. Independent set-up / changeover
performed on 100% of the parts after parts have
parameter verification.
left the station

Error detection in subsequent operation, OR

Moderately Error-Proofing - cannot accept at next operation.
4 Gauging on setup / first-piece and last piece check.
gauging performed on setup and first-piece
High check (for setup causes only).
Error detection in-station, or error detection in
In-station "poke-yoke" detection before part leaves the
subsequent operation by multiple layer of
3 High operation. Error-proofing - cannot pass part.
acceptance: supply, select, install, verify.
Automatic gauging with stop.
Cannot accept discrepant part.
Error prevention due to "poke-yoke" devices on Error detection in-station (automatic stop
2 Very High equipment. Multiple layers of errorproofing. feature). Cannot pass discrepant part.

Discrepant parts cannot be made because item

Error prevention due to physical design of the product
1 Very High or process; cannot make part.
has been error-proofed by process / product
PFMEA Severity Encoding
Impact on Process
Rank AIAG Delphi Guideline

Hazardous - Potential for injury or harm to operating

May endanger operator (machine or assembly)
10 Without
without warning.
personnel. Non-compliance with governmental
Warning regulations (spill of hazardous material, etc).

Missed shipment shutting down customer’s

Hazardous - May endanger operator (machine or assembly) with
9 With Warning warning.
production line. Equipment/machines severely

Equipment/machines down for a significant

100% of product may have to be scrapped, or vehicle
period of time. Major financial impact. Internal
8 Very High / item repaired in the repair department with a repair
production down which may lead to delay or
time greater than one hour.
short shipment.

Serious disruption to downstream operation, or

Product may have to be sorted and a portion (less major operational impact, e.g. extensive rework,
than 100%) scrapped, or vehicle / item repaired in the major scrap, significantly increased in inventory.
7 High
repair department with a repair time between a half- Defect caught in customer plant, Dealer
hour and a hour. repair/rework, Product returned, major disruption
spill occurs.

A portion (less than 100%) of the product may have

Major disruption to production line. Defect
to be scrapped with no sorting, or vehicle / item
6 Moderate
repaired in the repair department with a repair time
caught at Final Assembly / Test. Major rework
required or scrap.
less than a half-hour.

100% of product may have to be reworded, or vehicle Minor disruption to production. Defect caught at
5 Low / item repaired off-line but does not go to repair Final Assembly Line. Light rework or scrap. May
department. cause minor damages to tooling.

Failure may cause inconvenience to subsequent

The product may have to be sorted, with no scrap,
4 Very Low
and a portion (less than 100%) reworked.
operations, minor rework required. Defect
passed to next process.

A portion (less than 100%) of the product may have Failure detected at subsequent operation. May
3 Minor to be reworked, with no scrap, on-line but out-of- cause slight inconvenience to subsequent
station. operation, minor rework required.

A portion (less than 100%) of the product may have Failure detected at local operation, may cause
2 Minor
to be reworked, with no scrap, on-line but in-station. slight inconvenience to operation, minor rework.

Slight inconvenience to operation or operator, or no

1 None
No effect detected.
Method (AIAG) Criteria

Absolute certainty of non-


Controls will probably no detect.


Controls have poor chance of

Controls have poor chance of

Controls may detect.

Controls may detect.


Controls have a good chance to


Controls have a good chance to


Controls almost certain to


Controls certain to detect.

Impact on Product
Delphi Guideline
(A) Appearance (F) Function
Hazardous-without-warning: Very high
severity ranking when a potential failure mode Hazardous- without- warning: (F) May involve
affects safe vehicle operation and/or involves safety, and/or noncompliance with regulatory
noncompliance with government regulation issues.
without warning.

Hazardous-with-warning: Very high severity

ranking when a potential failure mode affects
Hazardous -with- warning: (F) May involve safety,
safe vehicle operation and/or involves
and/or noncompliance with regulatory issues.
noncompliance with government regulation with

Extreme/Very High: System function lost (F) Can’t

Very High: Vehicle/item inoperable, with loss of
use the system, but no safety or noncompliance
primary function.
with regulatory issues. Customer walk home.

Significant/High: Customer Dissatisfaction (A&F)

High: Vehicle/item operable, but at reduced
The failure causes high degree of customer
level of performance. Customer dissatisfied.
dissatisfaction on the part user.

Moderate: Vehicle/item operable, but

Moderate: (F) Partial system function is lost, but
comfort/convenience item(s) inoperable.
still can use it without safety concern.
Customer experiences discomfort.

Low: Vehicle/item operable, but Moderately Significant: Customer Dissatisfaction

comfort/convenience item(s) operable at (A&F) the user will notice a negative impact as
reduced level of performance. Customer failure occurs; i.e. difficult to apply, difficult to use,
experiences some dissatisfaction. discomfort, etc.

Very Low: Fit & finish; squeak & rattle item Very Low: (F) Parts of the system operable at
does not conform. Defect noticed by most reduced performance, and/or gradual performance
customers. degradation.

Minor: Fit & finish; squeak & rattle item does

Minor: Nuisance, noticeable (F) Nuisance but likely
not conform. Defect noticed by average

Minor: Fit & finish; squeak & rattle item does

Minor: (A) The user will probably notice only a
not conform. Defect noticed by discriminating
minor negative impact on the product.

Imperceptible: Not noticeable (F) The

consequence will not have any perceptible impact
None: No effect.
on the performance of the product (A) The user will
not notice the consequence.