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# REINFORCED CONCRETE

MATERIALS:
CONCRETE:
f’c = compressive strength at 28 days
Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete

 w  2500 kg/m 3

Ec  wc 0.043 f 'c for 
1.5 c
3
 wc  1500 kg/m 
Ec  4700 f 'c for normal weight concrete wc  2300 kg/m 
3

REINFORCING STEEL:
Structural Grade (ASTM Gr.33/PS Gr.230) fy = 230 MPa
Intermediate Grade (ASTM Gr.40/PS Gr.275) fy = 275 MPa
High Carbon Grade (ASTM Gr.60/PS Gr.415) fy = 415 MPa
Es = modulus of elasticity of steel
Es = 200,000 MPa
REINFORCED CONCRETE
DESIGN

## WORKING STRESS DESIGN

(Alternate Design Method)

Design Principle:
actual stress, f < allowable stress, fallowable

Code Spec’s:
allowable fc = 0.45 f’c
Investigation of Beam Section
 1. Transform the beam section into an
equivalent homogenous section.
 2. Locate the Neutral Axis (NA) of the
section.
 3. Analyze using: Mc
a) flexure formula, f  I , or
b) internal couple method (statics of
internal forces)

(c)
#1. Problem
A rectangular reinforced concrete beam
section 300mm wide with an effective depth
of 600mm is subjected to a bending moment
of 200 kN-m. The beam is reinforced with
4-32mm. The modular ratio , n = 8.
300 mm
 1. Find the distance of the NA
from the top of the section.
 2. Find the total compressive
force in concrete. 600 mm
 3. Calculate the maximum stress
in concrete. 4-32mm
 4. Determine the maximum
stress in steel.
25728/246.3/386175/10.45/120.1
#2. Problem
A reinforced concrete beam is 400 mm
wide with an effective depth of 530 mm. It
has a tensile reinforcement of 4 – 25mm.
f’c = 21 MPa and fs = 140 MPa.
 1. Calculate the modular ratio, n
(up to one decimal place). 400 mm

##  2. Determine the the moment of

inertia of the transformed section. 530
mm
 3. Find the moment capacity of the
4-25mm
section.
 4. Calculate the total safe uniform
load the beam could support over
a 6m span in kN/m. 9.3/18265/179/3015e6/159.2/129.3/29.73
T-BEAM ANALYSIS:
Case I: Case II:
NA is in the flange NA is in the web
b
tf NA

NA
d

As nAs nAs

## bw Analyze as a Analyze as a real

rectangular section T-beam section
#3. Problem
A concrete beam section has the
following dimensions: b = 600mm,
bw = 300mm, d = 500mm and tf = 80 mm.
It is reinforced with 3-28mm tension steel.
It is subjected to a bending moment of 100
kN-m. f’c = 21 MPa, fs = 165 MPa and n = 9.
600 mm
 1. Calculate the maximum 80 mm
stress in concrete.
 2. Find the concrete stress at 500 16632/147.7
the bottom of the flange. mm 2678e6/5.52

##  3. Determine the total 3-28mm 2.53/118.4

compressive force in the 218803/218896
300 mm
concrete.
RC Beams with Compression Steel

## To take into account the creep of concrete

and non-linearity of the stress-strain relation,
compression steel As’ is transformed as 2nAs’.
Note: tension steel As is still transformed as nAs.

## Area Transformed Area

Tension Steel As nAs
Compression Steel As ’ 2nAs’
#4. Problem
A 300mm x 600mm reinforced concrete
beam section is reinforced with 4-28mm
tension steel at d = 536mm and 2-28mm
compression steel at d’ = 64mm. The section is
subjected to a bending moment of 150 kN-m.
f’c = 21 MPa, fs = 165 MPa and n = 9.
300 mm
 1. Find the maximum
64 mm
stress in concrete.
2-28mm 22176
 2. Determine the stress 20944
536
in the compression 600 mm 186.2
mm
steel. 3672e6

7.61

## the tension steel. 89.85

128.6
For Practice: A 400mm x 600mm box
section has a uniform wall thickness of 60 mm except
at the bottom which is 140mm thick. It is reinforced
with 3 – 25mm at d = 540mm. n = 9, f’c = 20 MPa
and fs = 124 MPa.
 1. Calculate the moment capacity
of the section considering the
concrete part of the beam. 400 mm
(Mc = 123.7 kN-m)
 2. Find the moment capacity of
the section considering the
steel part of the beam. 600 540
mm mm
(Ms = 90.35 kN-m)
 3. Determine the maximum
simply supported span of the 3-25mm

## beam if it is to carry a midspan

load of 80 kN. (L = 4.153m)
END of LECTURE