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Problem 104 A hollow steel tube with an inside diameter of 100 mm must carry a tensile load of 400 kN. Determine the outside diameter of the tube if the stress is limited to 120 MN/m 2 .

Solution 104

where:

### σ=120MPaσ=120MPa

A=14πD214π(1002)A=14πD2−14π(1002)

A=14π(D210000)A=14π(D2−10000)

HideClick here to show or hide the solution P= σA P=σA where: P=400kN=400000N P=400kN=400000N σ =120MPa σ=120MPa A= 14 πD 2 − 14 π (100 2 ) A=14πD2−14π(1002) A= 14 π (D 2 − 10000) A=14π(D2−10000) Thus, 400000=120[ 14 π (D 2 − 10000)] 400000=120[14π(D2−10000)] 400000=30 πD 2 − 300000 π 400000=30πD2−300000π D 2 =400000+300000 π 30 π D2=400000+300000π30π D=119.35 mm D=119.35 mm answer " id="pdf-obj-0-46" src="pdf-obj-0-46.jpg">

Thus,

400000=120[14π(D210000)]400000=120[14π(D2−10000)]

400000=30πD2300000π400000=30πD2−300000π

D2=400000+300000π30πD2=400000+300000π30π

### D=119.35 mmD=119.35 mm

Problem 105

A homogeneous 800 kg bar AB is supported at either end by a cable as shown in Fig. P-105. Calculate the smallest area of each cable if the stress is not to exceed 90 MPa in bronze and 120 MPa in steel.

HideClick here to show or hide the solution By symmetry: P br =P st = 12 (7848) Pbr=Pst=12(7848) P br =3924 N Pbr=3924 N P st =3924 N Pst=3924 N For bronze cable: P br = σ br A br Pbr=σbrAbr 3924=90A br 3924=90Abr A br =43.6mm 2 Abr=43.6mm2 answer For steel cable: P st = σ st A st Pst=σstAst 3924=120A st 3924=120Ast A st =32.7mm 2 Ast=32.7mm2 answer Problem 106 The homogeneous bar shown in Fig. P-106 is supported by a smooth pin at C and a cable that runs from A to B around the smooth peg at D. Find the stress " id="pdf-obj-1-8" src="pdf-obj-1-8.jpg">

Solution 105

By symmetry:

Pbr=Pst=12(7848)Pbr=Pst=12(7848)

Pbr=3924 NPbr=3924 N Pst=3924 NPst=3924 N

HideClick here to show or hide the solution By symmetry: P br =P st = 12 (7848) Pbr=Pst=12(7848) P br =3924 N Pbr=3924 N P st =3924 N Pst=3924 N For bronze cable: P br = σ br A br Pbr=σbrAbr 3924=90A br 3924=90Abr A br =43.6mm 2 Abr=43.6mm2 answer For steel cable: P st = σ st A st Pst=σstAst 3924=120A st 3924=120Ast A st =32.7mm 2 Ast=32.7mm2 answer Problem 106 The homogeneous bar shown in Fig. P-106 is supported by a smooth pin at C and a cable that runs from A to B around the smooth peg at D. Find the stress " id="pdf-obj-1-34" src="pdf-obj-1-34.jpg">

For bronze cable:

Pbr=σbrAbrPbr=σbrAbr

3924=90Abr3924=90Abr

For steel cable:

Pst=σstAstPst=σstAst

3924=120Ast3924=120Ast

The homogeneous bar shown in Fig. P-106 is supported by a smooth pin at C and a cable that runs from A to B around the smooth peg at D. Find the stress

in the cable if its diameter is 0.6 inch and the bar weighs 6000 lb.

HideClick here to show or hide the solution Σ M C =0 ΣMC=0 5T+10( 334√ T)=5(6000) 5T+10(334T)=5(6000) T=2957.13lb T=2957.13lb T= σA T=σA 2957.13= σ [ 14 π (0.6 2 )] 2957.13=σ[14π(0.62)] σ =10458.72 psi σ=10458.72 psi answer Problem 107 A rod is composed of an aluminum section rigidly attached between steel and bronze sections, as shown in Fig. P-107. Axial loads are applied at the positions indicated. If P = 3000 lb and the cross sectional area of the rod is 0.5 in 2 , determine the stress in each section. " id="pdf-obj-2-4" src="pdf-obj-2-4.jpg">

Solution 106

ΣMC=0ΣMC=0

5T+10(334√T)=5(6000)5T+10(334T)=5(6000)

### T=2957.13lbT=2957.13lb

HideClick here to show or hide the solution Σ M C =0 ΣMC=0 5T+10( 334√ T)=5(6000) 5T+10(334T)=5(6000) T=2957.13lb T=2957.13lb T= σA T=σA 2957.13= σ [ 14 π (0.6 2 )] 2957.13=σ[14π(0.62)] σ =10458.72 psi σ=10458.72 psi answer Problem 107 A rod is composed of an aluminum section rigidly attached between steel and bronze sections, as shown in Fig. P-107. Axial loads are applied at the positions indicated. If P = 3000 lb and the cross sectional area of the rod is 0.5 in 2 , determine the stress in each section. " id="pdf-obj-2-24" src="pdf-obj-2-24.jpg">

### T=σAT=σA

2957.13=σ[14π(0.62)]2957.13=σ[14π(0.62)]

### σ=10458.72 psiσ=10458.72 psi

Problem 107 A rod is composed of an aluminum section rigidly attached between steel and bronze sections, as shown in Fig. P-107. Axial loads are applied at the positions indicated. If P = 3000 lb and the cross sectional area of the rod is 0.5 in 2 , determine the stress in each section.

HideClick here to show or hide the solution Σ M C =0 ΣMC=0 5T+10( 334√ T)=5(6000) 5T+10(334T)=5(6000) T=2957.13lb T=2957.13lb T= σA T=σA 2957.13= σ [ 14 π (0.6 2 )] 2957.13=σ[14π(0.62)] σ =10458.72 psi σ=10458.72 psi answer Problem 107 A rod is composed of an aluminum section rigidly attached between steel and bronze sections, as shown in Fig. P-107. Axial loads are applied at the positions indicated. If P = 3000 lb and the cross sectional area of the rod is 0.5 in 2 , determine the stress in each section. " id="pdf-obj-2-53" src="pdf-obj-2-53.jpg">

Solution 107

For steel:

σstAst=PstσstAst=Pst

σst(0.5)=12σst(0.5)=12

σst=24 ksiσst=24 ksi

HideClick here to show or hide the solution For steel: σ st A st =P st σstAst=Pst σ st (0.5)=12 σst(0.5)=12 σ st =24 ksi σst=24 ksi answer For aluminum: σ al A al =P al σalAal=Pal σ al (0.5)=12 σal(0.5)=12 σ al =24 ksi σal=24 ksi answer For bronze: σ br A br =P br σbrAbr=Pbr σ br (0.5)=9 σbr(0.5)=9 σ br =18 ksi σbr=18 ksi answer Problem 108 An aluminum rod is rigidly attached between a steel rod and a bronze rod as shown in Fig. P-108. Axial loads are applied at the positions indicated. Find the maximum value of P that will not exceed a stress in steel of 140 MPa, in aluminum of 90 MPa, or in bronze of 100 MPa. " id="pdf-obj-3-29" src="pdf-obj-3-29.jpg">

For aluminum:

σalAal=PalσalAal=Pal

σal(0.5)=12σal(0.5)=12

 σal=24 ksiσal=24 ksi answer For bronze: σbrAbr=PbrσbrAbr=Pbr σbr(0.5)=9σbr(0.5)=9 σbr=18 ksiσbr=18 ksi answer

Problem 108

An aluminum rod is rigidly attached between a steel rod and a bronze rod as shown in Fig. P-108. Axial loads are applied at the positions indicated. Find the maximum value of P that will not exceed a stress in steel of 140 MPa, in aluminum of 90 MPa, or in bronze of 100 MPa.

HideClick here to show or hide the solution For steel: σ st A st =P st σstAst=Pst σ st (0.5)=12 σst(0.5)=12 σ st =24 ksi σst=24 ksi answer For aluminum: σ al A al =P al σalAal=Pal σ al (0.5)=12 σal(0.5)=12 σ al =24 ksi σal=24 ksi answer For bronze: σ br A br =P br σbrAbr=Pbr σ br (0.5)=9 σbr(0.5)=9 σ br =18 ksi σbr=18 ksi answer Problem 108 An aluminum rod is rigidly attached between a steel rod and a bronze rod as shown in Fig. P-108. Axial loads are applied at the positions indicated. Find the maximum value of P that will not exceed a stress in steel of 140 MPa, in aluminum of 90 MPa, or in bronze of 100 MPa. " id="pdf-obj-3-88" src="pdf-obj-3-88.jpg">

Solution 108

For bronze:

σbrAbr=2PσbrAbr=2P

### P=10000NP=10000N

HideClick here to show or hide the solution For bronze: σ br A br =2P σbrAbr=2P 100(200)=2P 100(200)=2P P=10000N P=10000N For aluminum: σ al A al =P σalAal=P 90(400)=P 90(400)=P P=36000N P=36000N For Steel: σ st A st =5P σstAst=5P P=14000N P=14000N For safe value of P, use the smallest above. Thus, P=10 000 N=10 kN P=10 000 N=10 kN Problem 109 answer Determine the largest weight W that can be supported by two wires shown in Fig. P -109. The stress in either wire is not to exceed 30 ksi. The cross-sectional areas of wires AB and AC are 0.4 in2 and 0.5 in2, respectively. " id="pdf-obj-4-21" src="pdf-obj-4-21.jpg">

For aluminum:

σalAal=PσalAal=P

### P=36000NP=36000N

For Steel:

σstAst=5PσstAst=5P

### P=14000NP=14000N

For safe value of P, use the smallest above. Thus,

### P=10 000 N=10 kNP=10 000 N=10 kN

Problem 109

Determine the largest weight W that can be supported by two wires shown in Fig. P-109. The stress in either wire is not to exceed 30 ksi. The cross-sectional areas of wires AB and AC are 0.4 in2 and 0.5 in2, respectively.

HideClick here to show or hide the solution Free body diagram of Joint A For wire AB: By sine law (from the force polygon): T AB sin40 ∘ =Wsin80 ∘ TABsin ⁡ 40 ∘ =Wsin ⁡ 80 ∘ T AB =0.6527W TAB=0.6527W σ AB A AB =0.6527W σABAAB=0.6527W 30(0.4)=0.6527W 30(0.4)=0.6527W W=18.4kips W=18.4kips For wire AC: T AC sin60 ∘ =Wsin80 ∘ TACsin ⁡ 60 ∘ =Wsin ⁡ 80 ∘ T AC =0.8794W TAC=0.8794W T AC = σ AC A AC TAC=σACAAC 0.8794W=30(0.5) 0.8794W=30(0.5) W=17.1kips W=17.1kips " id="pdf-obj-5-2" src="pdf-obj-5-2.jpg">

Solution 109

Free body diagram of Joint A

HideClick here to show or hide the solution Free body diagram of Joint A For wire AB: By sine law (from the force polygon): T AB sin40 ∘ =Wsin80 ∘ TABsin ⁡ 40 ∘ =Wsin ⁡ 80 ∘ T AB =0.6527W TAB=0.6527W σ AB A AB =0.6527W σABAAB=0.6527W 30(0.4)=0.6527W 30(0.4)=0.6527W W=18.4kips W=18.4kips For wire AC: T AC sin60 ∘ =Wsin80 ∘ TACsin ⁡ 60 ∘ =Wsin ⁡ 80 ∘ T AC =0.8794W TAC=0.8794W T AC = σ AC A AC TAC=σACAAC 0.8794W=30(0.5) 0.8794W=30(0.5) W=17.1kips W=17.1kips " id="pdf-obj-5-10" src="pdf-obj-5-10.jpg">

For wire AB: By sine law (from the force polygon):

TABsin40=Wsin80TABsin40=Wsin80

TAB=0.6527WTAB=0.6527W

σABAAB=0.6527WσABAAB=0.6527W

### W=18.4kipsW=18.4kips

For wire AC:

TACsin60=Wsin80TACsin60=Wsin80

TAC=0.8794WTAC=0.8794W

TAC=σACAACTAC=σACAAC

### W=17.1kipsW=17.1kips

HideClick here to show or hide the solution Free body diagram of Joint A For wire AB: By sine law (from the force polygon): T AB sin40 ∘ =Wsin80 ∘ TABsin ⁡ 40 ∘ =Wsin ⁡ 80 ∘ T AB =0.6527W TAB=0.6527W σ AB A AB =0.6527W σABAAB=0.6527W 30(0.4)=0.6527W 30(0.4)=0.6527W W=18.4kips W=18.4kips For wire AC: T AC sin60 ∘ =Wsin80 ∘ TACsin ⁡ 60 ∘ =Wsin ⁡ 80 ∘ T AC =0.8794W TAC=0.8794W T AC = σ AC A AC TAC=σACAAC 0.8794W=30(0.5) 0.8794W=30(0.5) W=17.1kips W=17.1kips " id="pdf-obj-5-84" src="pdf-obj-5-84.jpg">

### W=17.1 kipsW=17.1 kips

Problem 110

A 12-inches square steel bearing plate lies between an 8-inches diameter wooden post and a concrete footing as shown in Fig. P-110. Determine the maximum value of the load P if the stress in wood is limited to 1800 psi and that in concrete to 650 psi.

HideClick here to show or hide the solution For wood: P w = σ w A w Pw=σwAw P w =1800[ 14 π (8 2 )] Pw=1800[14π(82)] P w =90477.9lb Pw=90477.9lb From FBD of Wood: P=P w =90477.9lb P=Pw=90477.9lb For concrete: P c = σ c A c Pc=σcAc P c =650(12 2 ) Pc=650(122) " id="pdf-obj-6-17" src="pdf-obj-6-17.jpg">

Solution 110

For wood:

Pw=σwAwPw=σwAw

Pw=1800[14π(82)]Pw=1800[14π(82)]

Pw=90477.9lbPw=90477.9lb

From FBD of Wood:

HideClick here to show or hide the solution For wood: P w = σ w A w Pw=σwAw P w =1800[ 14 π (8 2 )] Pw=1800[14π(82)] P w =90477.9lb Pw=90477.9lb From FBD of Wood: P=P w =90477.9lb P=Pw=90477.9lb For concrete: P c = σ c A c Pc=σcAc P c =650(12 2 ) Pc=650(122) " id="pdf-obj-6-51" src="pdf-obj-6-51.jpg">

P=Pw=90477.9lbP=Pw=90477.9lb

For concrete:

Pc=σcAcPc=σcAc

Pc=650(122)Pc=650(122)

Pc=93600lbPc=93600lb

From FBD of Concrete:

HideClick here to show or hide the solution From the FBD of the truss: " id="pdf-obj-7-9" src="pdf-obj-7-9.jpg">

P=Pc=93600lbP=Pc=93600lb

Problem 111

For the truss shown in Fig. P-111, calculate the stresses in members CE, DE,

and DF. The cross-sectional area of each member is 1.8 in2. Indicate tension (T) or compression (C).

HideClick here to show or hide the solution From the FBD of the truss: " id="pdf-obj-7-28" src="pdf-obj-7-28.jpg">

Solution 111

From the FBD of the truss:

ΣMA=0ΣMA=0

24RF=16(30)24RF=16(30)

RF=20kRF=20k

At joint F:

ΣFV=0ΣFV=0

35DF=2035DF=20

DF=3313k(Compression)DF=3313k(Compression)

At joint D:

By symmetry

BD=DF=3313k(Compression)BD=DF=3313k(Compression)

ΣFV=0ΣFV=0

DE=35BD+35DFDE=35BD+35DF

DE=35(3313)+35(3313)DE=35(3313)+35(3313)

DE=40k(Tension)DE=40k(Tension)

At joint E:

ΣFV=0ΣFV=0

35CE+30=4035CE+30=40

CE=1623k(Tension)CE=1623k(Tension)

Stresses: (Stress = Force/Area) σCE=16231.8=9.26ksi (Tension)σCE=16231.8=9.26ksi (Tension) σDE=401.8=22.22ksi (Tension)σDE=401.8=22.22ksi (Tension) σDF=33131.8=18.52ksi (Compression)σDF=33131.8=18.52ksi (Compression) answer

Problem 112

Determine the cross-sectional areas of members AG, BC, and CE for the truss shown in Fig. P-112. The stresses are not to exceed 20 ksi in tension and 14 ksi in compression. A reduced stress in compression is specified to reduce the danger of buckling.

HideClick here to show or hide the solution Σ F V =0 ΣFV=0 R AV =40+25=65 k RAV=40+25=65k Σ AV =0 ΣAV=0 18R D =8(25)+4(40) 18RD=8(25)+4(40) R D =20 k RD=20k Σ F H =0 ΣFH=0 R AH =RD=20 k RAH=RD=20k " id="pdf-obj-10-2" src="pdf-obj-10-2.jpg">

Solution 112

ΣFV=0ΣFV=0

RAV=40+25=65kRAV=40+25=65k

ΣAV=0ΣAV=0

18RD=8(25)+4(40)18RD=8(25)+4(40)

RD=20kRD=20k

ΣFH=0ΣFH=0

RAH=RD=20kRAH=RD=20k

Check:

ΣMD=0ΣMD=0

12RAV=18(RAH)+4(25)+8(40)12RAV=18(RAH)+4(25)+8(40)

### 12(65)=18(20)+4(25)+8(40)12(65)=18(20)+4(25)+8(40)

780 ftkip=780 ftkip780 ftkip=780 ftkip (OK!)

For member AG (At joint A):

ΣFV=0ΣFV=0

313√AB=65313AB=65

AB=78.12kAB=78.12k

ΣFH=0ΣFH=0

AG+20=213√ABAG+20=213AB

AG=23.33kTensionAG=23.33kTension

AG=σtensionAAGAG=σtensionAAG

23.33=20AAG23.33=20AAG

AAG=1.17in2AAG=1.17in2

For member BC (At section through MN):

ΣMF=0ΣMF=0

6(213√BC)=12(20)6(213BC)=12(20)

BC=72.11kBC=72.11k Compression

BC=σcompressionABCBC=σcompressionABC

72.11=14ABC72.11=14ABC

ABC=5.15in2ABC=5.15in2

For member CE (At joint D):

ΣFH=0ΣFH=0

213√CD=20213CD=20

CD=36.06kCD=36.06k

ΣFV=0ΣFV=0

DE=313√CD=313√(36.06)=30kDE=313CD=313(36.06)=30k

At joint E:

ΣFV=0ΣFV=0

313√EF=30313EF=30

EF=36.06kEF=36.06k

ΣFH=0ΣFH=0

CE=213√EF=213√(36.06)=20kCE=213EF=213(36.06)=20k Compression

CF=σcompressionACECF=σcompressionACE

20=14ACE20=14ACE

ACE=1.43in2ACE=1.43in2

Problem 113

Find the stresses in members BC, BD, and CF for the truss shown in Fig. P-

113. Indicate the tension or compression. The cross sectional area of each member is 1600 mm 2 .

HideClick here to show or hide the solution For member BD: (See FBD 01) Σ M C =0 ΣMC=0 3( 45 BD)=3(60) 3(45BD)=3(60) BD=75kN BD=75kN Tension BD= σ BD A BD=σBDA 75(1000)= σ BD (1600) 75(1000)=σBD(1600) σ BD =46.875MPa (Tension) σBD=46.875MPa (Tension) For member CF: (See FBD 01) Σ M D =0 ΣMD=0 answer 4( 12√ CF)=4(90)+7(60) 4(12CF)=4(90)+7(60) " id="pdf-obj-14-2" src="pdf-obj-14-2.jpg">

Solution 113

For member BD: (See FBD 01)

ΣMC=0ΣMC=0

3(45BD)=3(60)3(45BD)=3(60)

BD=75kNBD=75kN Tension

HideClick here to show or hide the solution For member BD: (See FBD 01) Σ M C =0 ΣMC=0 3( 45 BD)=3(60) 3(45BD)=3(60) BD=75kN BD=75kN Tension BD= σ BD A BD=σBDA 75(1000)= σ BD (1600) 75(1000)=σBD(1600) σ BD =46.875MPa (Tension) σBD=46.875MPa (Tension) For member CF: (See FBD 01) Σ M D =0 ΣMD=0 answer 4( 12√ CF)=4(90)+7(60) 4(12CF)=4(90)+7(60) " id="pdf-obj-14-24" src="pdf-obj-14-24.jpg">

BD=σBDABD=σBDA

75(1000)=σBD(1600)75(1000)=σBD(1600)

σBD=46.875MPa (Tension)σBD=46.875MPa (Tension)

For member CF: (See FBD 01)

ΣMD=0ΣMD=0

CF=275.77kNCF=275.77kN Compression

CF=σCFACF=σCFA

275.77(1000)=σCF(1600)275.77(1000)=σCF(1600)

σCF=172.357MPa (Compression)σCF=172.357MPa (Compression)

For member BC: (See FBD 02)

ΣMD=0ΣMD=0

### 4BC=7(60)4BC=7(60)

BC=105kNBC=105kN Compression

BC=σBCABC=σBCA

105(1000)=σBC(1600)105(1000)=σBC(1600)

σBC=65.625MPa (Compression)σBC=65.625MPa (Compression)

Problem 114

The homogeneous bar ABCD shown in Fig. P-114 is supported by a cable that runs from A to B around the smooth peg at E, a vertical cable at C, and a

smooth inclined surface at D. Determine the mass of the heaviest bar that can be supported if the stress in each cable is limited to 100 MPa. The area of the cable AB is 250 mm 2 and that of the cable at C is 300 mm 2 .

Solution 114

ΣFH=0ΣFH=0

TABcos30=RDsin50TABcos30=RDsin50

RD=1.1305TABRD=1.1305TAB

HideClick here to show or hide the solution Σ F H =0 ΣFH=0 T AB cos30 ∘ =R D sin50 ∘ TABcos ⁡ 30 ∘ =RDsin ⁡ 50 ∘ R D =1.1305T AB RD=1.1305TAB Σ F V =0 ΣFV=0 T AB sin30 ∘ +T AB +T C +R D cos50 ∘ =W TABsin ⁡ 30 ∘ +TAB+TC+RDcos ⁡ 50 ∘ =W T AB sin30 ∘ +T AB +T C +(1.1305T AB )cos50 ∘ =W TABsin ⁡ 30 ∘ +TAB+TC+(1.1305TAB)co s ⁡ 50 ∘ =W 2.2267T AB +T C =W 2.2267TAB+TC=W T C =W − 2.2267T AB TC=W−2.2267TAB Σ M D =0 ΣMD=0 6(T AB sin30 ∘ )+4T AB +2T C =3W 6(TABsin ⁡ 30 ∘ )+4TAB+2TC=3W 7T AB +2(W − 2.2267T AB )=3W 7TAB+2(W−2.2267TAB)=3W 2.5466T AB =W 2.5466TAB=W T AB =0.3927W TAB=0.3927W T C =W − 2.2267T AB TC=W−2.2267TAB T C =W − 2.2267(0.3927W) TC=W−2.2267(0.3927W) T C =0.1256W TC=0.1256W Based on cable AB: T AB = σ AB A AB TAB=σABAAB 0.3927W=100(250) 0.3927W=100(250) W=63661.83N W=63661.83N Based on cable at C: T 2 = σ C A C T2=σCAC 0.1256W=100(300) 0.1256W=100(300) W=238853.50N W=238853.50N " id="pdf-obj-16-35" src="pdf-obj-16-35.jpg">

ΣFV=0ΣFV=0

TABsin30+TAB+TC+RDcos50=WTABsin30+TAB+TC+RDcos50=W

TABsin30+TAB+TC+(1.1305TAB)cos50=WTABsin30+TAB+TC+(1.1305TAB)co

s50=W

2.2267TAB+TC=W2.2267TAB+TC=W

TC=W2.2267TABTC=W−2.2267TAB

ΣMD=0ΣMD=0

6(TABsin30)+4TAB+2TC=3W6(TABsin30)+4TAB+2TC=3W

7TAB+2(W2.2267TAB)=3W7TAB+2(W−2.2267TAB)=3W

2.5466TAB=W2.5466TAB=W

TAB=0.3927WTAB=0.3927W

TC=W2.2267TABTC=W−2.2267TAB

TC=W2.2267(0.3927W)TC=W−2.2267(0.3927W)

TC=0.1256WTC=0.1256W

Based on cable AB:

TAB=σABAABTAB=σABAAB

### W=63661.83NW=63661.83N

Based on cable at C:

T2=σCACT2=σCAC

Sfave value of W

### m=6489.5kgm=6489.5kg

Problem 115 What force is required to punch a 20-mm-diameter hole in a plate that is 25 mm thick? The shear strength is 350 MN/m 2 .

Solution 115 HideClick here to show or hide the solution The resisting area is the shaded area along the perimeter and the shear force VVis equal to the punching force PP.

HideClick here to show or hide the solution The resisting area is the shaded area along the perimeter and the shear force V Vis equal to the punching force P P. V= τA V=τA P=350[ π (20)(25)] P=350[π(20)(25)] P=549778.7N P=549778.7N P=549.8kN P=549.8kN answer Problem 116 As in Fig. 1-11c, a hole is to be punched out of a plate having a shearing strength of 40 ksi. The compressive stress in the punch is limited to 50 ksi. (a) Compute the maximum thickness of plate in which a hole 2.5 inches in diameter can be punched. (b) If the plate is 0.25 inch thick, determine the diameter of the smallest hole that can be punched. " id="pdf-obj-17-34" src="pdf-obj-17-34.jpg">

### P=549778.7NP=549778.7N

Problem 116

As in Fig. 1-11c, a hole is to be punched out of a plate having a shearing strength of 40 ksi. The compressive stress in the punch is limited to 50 ksi. (a) Compute the maximum thickness of plate in which a hole 2.5 inches in

diameter can be punched. (b) If the plate is 0.25 inch thick, determine the diameter of the smallest hole that can be punched.

HideClick here to show or hide the solution (a) Maximum thickness of plate: Based on puncher strength: P= σA P=σA P=50[ 14 π (2.5 2 )] P=50[14π(2.52)] P=78.125 π kips P=78.125πkips → Equivalent shear force of the plate Based on shear strength of plate: V= τA V=τA → V=P V=P 78.125 π =40[ π (2.5t)] 78.125π=40[π(2.5t)] t=0.781inch t=0.781inch answer (b) Diameter of smallest hole: Based on compression of puncher: P= σA P=σA P=50( 14 πd 2 ) P=50(14πd2) P=12.5 πd 2 P=12.5πd2 → Equivalent shear force for plate Based on shearing of plate: V= τA V=τA → V=P V=P 12.5 πd 2 =40[ πd (0.25)] 12.5πd2=40[πd(0.25)] d=0.8in d=0.8in answer Problem 117 Find the smallest diameter bolt that can be used in the clevis shown in Fig. 1 - 11b if P = 400 kN. The shearing strength of the bolt is 300 MPa. " id="pdf-obj-18-2" src="pdf-obj-18-2.jpg">

Solution 116

• (a) Maximum thickness of plate:

Based on puncher strength:

### P=σAP=σA

P=50[14π(2.52)]P=50[14π(2.52)]

### P=78.125πkipsP=78.125πkips

Equivalent shear force of the plate

Based on shear strength of plate:

V=τAV=τA → V=PV=P

### 78.125π=40[π(2.5t)]78.125π=40[π(2.5t)]

• (b) Diameter of smallest hole:

Based on compression of puncher:

### P=σAP=σA

P=50(14πd2)P=50(14πd2)

P=12.5πd2P=12.5πd2

Equivalent shear force for plate

Based on shearing of plate:

V=τAV=τA → V=PV=P

12.5πd2=40[πd(0.25)]12.5πd2=40[πd(0.25)]

Find the smallest diameter bolt that can be used in the clevis shown in Fig. 1-

11b if P = 400 kN. The shearing strength of the bolt is 300 MPa.

HideClick here to show or hide the solution (a) Maximum thickness of plate: Based on puncher strength: P= σA P=σA P=50[ 14 π (2.5 2 )] P=50[14π(2.52)] P=78.125 π kips P=78.125πkips → Equivalent shear force of the plate Based on shear strength of plate: V= τA V=τA → V=P V=P 78.125 π =40[ π (2.5t)] 78.125π=40[π(2.5t)] t=0.781inch t=0.781inch answer (b) Diameter of smallest hole: Based on compression of puncher: P= σA P=σA P=50( 14 πd 2 ) P=50(14πd2) P=12.5 πd 2 P=12.5πd2 → Equivalent shear force for plate Based on shearing of plate: V= τA V=τA → V=P V=P 12.5 πd 2 =40[ πd (0.25)] 12.5πd2=40[πd(0.25)] d=0.8in d=0.8in answer Problem 117 Find the smallest diameter bolt that can be used in the clevis shown in Fig. 1 - 11b if P = 400 kN. The shearing strength of the bolt is 300 MPa. " id="pdf-obj-18-100" src="pdf-obj-18-100.jpg">

Solution 117

The bolt is subject to double shear.

### V=τAV=τA

400(1000)=300[2(14πd2)]400(1000)=300[2(14πd2)]

A 200-mm-diameter pulley is prevented from rotating relative to 60-mm- diameter shaft by a 70-mm-long key, as shown in Fig. P-118. If a torque T = 2.2 kN·m is applied to the shaft, determine the width b if the allowable shearing stress in the key is 60 MPa.

HideClick here to show or hide the solution The bolt is subject to double shear. V= τA V=τA 400(1000)=300[2( 14 πd 2 )] 400(1000)=300[2(14πd2)] d=29.13mm d=29.13mm answer Problem 118 A 200-mm-diameter pulley is prevented from rotating relative to 60-mm- diameter shaft by a 70-mm- long key, as shown in Fig. P -118. If a torque T = 2.2 kN·m is applied to the shaft, determine the width b if the allowable shearing stress in the key is 60 MPa. Solution 118 HideClick here to show or hide the solution T=0.03F T=0.03F 2.2=0.03F 2.2=0.03F F=73.33kN F=73.33kN V= τA V=τA Where: V=F=73.33kN V=F=73.33kN A=70b A=70b " id="pdf-obj-19-28" src="pdf-obj-19-28.jpg">

Solution 118

HideClick here to show or hide the solution The bolt is subject to double shear. V= τA V=τA 400(1000)=300[2( 14 πd 2 )] 400(1000)=300[2(14πd2)] d=29.13mm d=29.13mm answer Problem 118 A 200-mm-diameter pulley is prevented from rotating relative to 60-mm- diameter shaft by a 70-mm- long key, as shown in Fig. P -118. If a torque T = 2.2 kN·m is applied to the shaft, determine the width b if the allowable shearing stress in the key is 60 MPa. Solution 118 HideClick here to show or hide the solution T=0.03F T=0.03F 2.2=0.03F 2.2=0.03F F=73.33kN F=73.33kN V= τA V=τA Where: V=F=73.33kN V=F=73.33kN A=70b A=70b " id="pdf-obj-19-34" src="pdf-obj-19-34.jpg">

Where:

### A=70bA=70b

HideClick here to show or hide the solution The bolt is subject to double shear. V= τA V=τA 400(1000)=300[2( 14 πd 2 )] 400(1000)=300[2(14πd2)] d=29.13mm d=29.13mm answer Problem 118 A 200-mm-diameter pulley is prevented from rotating relative to 60-mm- diameter shaft by a 70-mm- long key, as shown in Fig. P -118. If a torque T = 2.2 kN·m is applied to the shaft, determine the width b if the allowable shearing stress in the key is 60 MPa. Solution 118 HideClick here to show or hide the solution T=0.03F T=0.03F 2.2=0.03F 2.2=0.03F F=73.33kN F=73.33kN V= τA V=τA Where: V=F=73.33kN V=F=73.33kN A=70b A=70b " id="pdf-obj-19-57" src="pdf-obj-19-57.jpg">

Thus,

### 73.33(1000)=60(70b)73.33(1000)=60(70b)

Compute the shearing stress in the pin at B for the member supported as shown in Fig. P-119. The pin diameter is 20 mm.

HideClick here to show or hide the solution From the FBD: Σ M C =0 ΣMC=0 0.25R BV =0.25(40sin35 ∘ )+0.2(40cos35 ∘ ) 0.25RBV=0.25(40sin ⁡ 35 ∘ )+0.2(40cos ⁡ 35 ∘ ) R BV =49.156kN RBV=49.156kN " id="pdf-obj-20-18" src="pdf-obj-20-18.jpg">

Solution 119

From the FBD:

ΣMC=0ΣMC=0

0.25RBV=0.25(40sin35)+0.2(40cos35)0.25RBV=0.25(40sin35)+0.2(40cos35)

RBV=49.156kNRBV=49.156kN

HideClick here to show or hide the solution From the FBD: Σ M C =0 ΣMC=0 0.25R BV =0.25(40sin35 ∘ )+0.2(40cos35 ∘ ) 0.25RBV=0.25(40sin ⁡ 35 ∘ )+0.2(40cos ⁡ 35 ∘ ) R BV =49.156kN RBV=49.156kN " id="pdf-obj-20-54" src="pdf-obj-20-54.jpg">

ΣFH=0ΣFH=0

RBH=40cos35RBH=40cos35

RBH=32.766kNRBH=32.766kN

### RB=32.7662+49.1562−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√RB=32.7662+49.1562

RB=59.076kNRB=59.076kN → shear force of pin at B

VB=τBAVB=τBA

→ double shear

59.076(1000)=τB{2[14π(202)]}59.076(1000)=τB{2[14π(202)]}

τB=94.02 MPaτB=94.02 MPa

Problem 120

answe

The members of the structure in Fig. P-120 weigh 200 lb/ft. Determine the smallest diameter pin that can be used at A if the shearing stress is limited to 5000 psi. Assume single shear.

HideClick here to show or hide the solution For member AB: " id="pdf-obj-21-79" src="pdf-obj-21-79.jpg">

Solution 120

For member AB:

Length, LAB=42+42−−−−−−√=5.66ftLAB=42+42=5.66ft Weight, WAB=5.66(200)=1132lbWAB=5.66(200)=1132lb

ΣMA=0ΣMA=0

4RBH+4RBV=2WAB4RBH+4RBV=2WAB

4RBH+4RBV=2(1132)4RBH+4RBV=2(1132)

RBH+RBV=566RBH+RBV=566

For member BC:

→ Equation (1)

Length, LBC=32+62−−−−−−√=6.71ftLBC=32+62=6.71ft Weight, WBC=6.71(200)=WBC=1342lbWBC=6.71(200)=WBC=1342lb

ΣMC=0ΣMC=0

6RBH=1.5WBC+3RBV6RBH=1.5WBC+3RBV

6RBH3RBV=1.5(1342)6RBH−3RBV=1.5(1342)

2RBHRBV=6712RBH−RBV=671

→ Equation (2)

RBH+RBV=566RBH+RBV=566

2RBHRBV=6712RBH−RBV=671

3RBH=12373RBH=1237

→ Equation (1) → Equation (2)

RBH=412.33lbRBH=412.33lb

From equation (1):

412.33+RBV=566412.33+RBV=566

RBV=153.67lbRBV=153.67lb

From the FBD of member AB

ΣFH=0ΣFH=0

RAH=RBH=412.33lbRAH=RBH=412.33lb

ΣFV=0ΣFV=0

RAV+RBV=WABRAV+RBV=WAB

RAV+153.67=1132RAV+153.67=1132

RAV=978.33lbRAV=978.33lb

### RA=412.332+978.332−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√RA=412.332+978.332

RA=1061.67lbRA=1061.67lb

### V=τAV=τA

→ shear force of pin at A

1061.67=5000(14πd2)1061.67=5000(14πd2)

### d=0.520ind=0.520in

Problem 121

Referring to Fig. P-121, compute the maximum force P that can be applied by the machine operator, if the shearing stress in the pin at B and the axial stress in the control rod at C are limited to 4000 psi and 5000 psi, respectively. The diameters are 0.25 inch for the pin, and 0.5 inch for the control rod. Assume single shear for the pin at B.

HideClick here to show or hide the solution Σ M B =0 ΣMB=0 6P=2Tsin10 ∘ 6P=2Tsin ⁡ 10 ∘ 3P=Tsin10 ∘ 3P=Tsin ⁡ 10 ∘ → Equation (1) Σ F H =0 ΣFH=0 B H =Tcos10 ∘ BH=Tcos ⁡ 10 ∘ From Equation (1), T=3Psin10 ∘ T=3Psin ⁡ 10 ∘ Thus, B H =(3Psin10 ∘ )cos10 ∘ BH=(3Psin ⁡ 10 ∘ )cos ⁡ 10 ∘ B H =3cot10 ∘ P BH=3cot ⁡ 10 ∘ P Σ F V =0 ΣFV=0 B V =Tsin10 ∘ +P BV=Tsin ⁡ 10 ∘ +P Again from Equation (1), Tsin10 ∘ =3P Tsin ⁡ 10 ∘ =3P Thus, B V =3P+P BV=3P+P B V =4P BV=4P " id="pdf-obj-24-2" src="pdf-obj-24-2.jpg">

Solution 121

ΣMB=0ΣMB=0

6P=2Tsin106P=2Tsin10

3P=Tsin103P=Tsin10

→ Equation (1)

HideClick here to show or hide the solution Σ M B =0 ΣMB=0 6P=2Tsin10 ∘ 6P=2Tsin ⁡ 10 ∘ 3P=Tsin10 ∘ 3P=Tsin ⁡ 10 ∘ → Equation (1) Σ F H =0 ΣFH=0 B H =Tcos10 ∘ BH=Tcos ⁡ 10 ∘ From Equation (1), T=3Psin10 ∘ T=3Psin ⁡ 10 ∘ Thus, B H =(3Psin10 ∘ )cos10 ∘ BH=(3Psin ⁡ 10 ∘ )cos ⁡ 10 ∘ B H =3cot10 ∘ P BH=3cot ⁡ 10 ∘ P Σ F V =0 ΣFV=0 B V =Tsin10 ∘ +P BV=Tsin ⁡ 10 ∘ +P Again from Equation (1), Tsin10 ∘ =3P Tsin ⁡ 10 ∘ =3P Thus, B V =3P+P BV=3P+P B V =4P BV=4P " id="pdf-obj-24-30" src="pdf-obj-24-30.jpg">

ΣFH=0ΣFH=0

BH=Tcos10BH=Tcos10

From Equation (1),

T=3Psin10T=3Psin10

Thus,

BH=(3Psin10)cos10BH=(3Psin10)cos10

BH=3cot10PBH=3cot10P

ΣFV=0ΣFV=0

BV=Tsin10+PBV=Tsin10+P

Again from Equation (1),

Tsin10=3PTsin10=3P

Thus,

BV=3P+PBV=3P+P

BV=4PBV=4P

RB2=BH2+BV2RB2=BH2+BV2

RB2=(3cot10P)2+(4P)2RB2=(3cot10P)2+(4P)2

R2B=305.47P2RB2=305.47P2

RB=17.48PRB=17.48P

P=RB17.48P=RB17.48

→ Equation (2)

Based on tension of rod (equation 1):

P=13Tsin10P=13Tsin10

P=13[5000×14π(0.5)2]sin10P=13[5000×14π(0.5)2]sin10

### P=56.83lbP=56.83lb

Based on shear of rivet (equation 2):

P=4000[14π(0.25)2]17.48P=4000[14π(0.25)2]17.48

### P=11.23 lbP=11.23 lb

Problem 122 Two blocks of wood, width w and thickness t, are glued together along the joint inclined at the angle θ as shown in Fig. P-122. Using the free-body diagram concept in Fig. 1-4a, show that the shearing stress on the glued joint is τ = P sin 2θ / 2A, where A is the cross-sectional area.

HideClick here to show or hide the solution Shear area, A shear =t(wcsc θ ) Ashear=t(wcsc ⁡ θ) A shear =twcsc θ Ashear=twcsc ⁡ θ A shear =Acsc θ Ashear=Acsc ⁡ θ Shear force, V=Pcos θ V=Pcos ⁡ θ V= τA shear V=τAshear Pcos θ = τ (Acsc θ ) Pcos ⁡ θ=τ(Acsc ⁡ θ) τ = Psin θ cos θA τ=Psin ⁡ θcos ⁡ θA τ = P(2sin θ cos θ )2A τ=P(2sin ⁡ θcos ⁡ θ)2A τ =Psin2 θ 2A τ=Psin ⁡ 2θ2A Problem 123 ( okay! ) A rectangular piece of wood, 50 mm by 100 mm in cross section, is used as a compression block shown in Fig. P-123. Determine the axial force P that can be safely applied to the block if the compressive stress in wood is limited to 20 MN/m 2 and the shearing stress parallel to the grain is limited to 5MN/m 2 . The grain makes an angle of 20° with the horizontal, as shown. (Hint: Use the " id="pdf-obj-26-2" src="pdf-obj-26-2.jpg">

Solution 122

Shear area, Ashear=t(wcscθ)Ashear=t(wcscθ) Ashear=twcscθAshear=twcscθ Ashear=AcscθAshear=Acscθ

Shear force, V=PcosθV=Pcosθ

HideClick here to show or hide the solution Shear area, A shear =t(wcsc θ ) Ashear=t(wcsc ⁡ θ) A shear =twcsc θ Ashear=twcsc ⁡ θ A shear =Acsc θ Ashear=Acsc ⁡ θ Shear force, V=Pcos θ V=Pcos ⁡ θ V= τA shear V=τAshear Pcos θ = τ (Acsc θ ) Pcos ⁡ θ=τ(Acsc ⁡ θ) τ = Psin θ cos θA τ=Psin ⁡ θcos ⁡ θA τ = P(2sin θ cos θ )2A τ=P(2sin ⁡ θcos ⁡ θ)2A τ =Psin2 θ 2A τ=Psin ⁡ 2θ2A Problem 123 ( okay! ) A rectangular piece of wood, 50 mm by 100 mm in cross section, is used as a compression block shown in Fig. P-123. Determine the axial force P that can be safely applied to the block if the compressive stress in wood is limited to 20 MN/m 2 and the shearing stress parallel to the grain is limited to 5MN/m 2 . The grain makes an angle of 20° with the horizontal, as shown. (Hint: Use the " id="pdf-obj-26-39" src="pdf-obj-26-39.jpg">

V=τAshearV=τAshear

Pcosθ=τ(Acscθ)Pcosθ=τ(Acscθ)

τ=PsinθcosθAτ=PsinθcosθA

τ=P(2sinθcosθ)2Aτ=P(2sinθcosθ)2A

τ=Psin2θ2Aτ=Psin2θ2A

Problem 123

(okay!)

A rectangular piece of wood, 50 mm by 100 mm in cross section, is used as a compression block shown in Fig. P-123. Determine the axial force P that can be safely applied to the block if the compressive stress in wood is limited to 20 MN/m 2 and the shearing stress parallel to the grain is limited to 5MN/m 2 . The grain makes an angle of 20° with the horizontal, as shown. (Hint: Use the

results in Problem 122.)

Problem 122 . ) Solution 123 HideClick here to show or hide the solution Based on maximum compressive stress: Normal force: N=Pcos20 ∘ N=Pcos ⁡ 20 ∘ Normal area: A N =50(100sec20 ∘ ) AN=50(100sec ⁡ 20 ∘ ) A N =5320.89mm 2 AN=5320.89mm2 N= σA N N=σAN Pcos20 ∘ =20(5320.89) Pcos ⁡ 20 ∘ =20(5320.89) P=113247N P=113247N P=133.25kN P=133.25kN Based on maximum shearing stress: Shear force: V=Psin20 ∘ V=Psin ⁡ 20 ∘ Shear area: A V =A N AV=AN A V =5320.89mm 2 AV=5320.89mm2 V= τA V V=τAV Psin20 ∘ =5(5320.89) Psin ⁡ 20 ∘ =5(5320.89) " id="pdf-obj-27-7" src="pdf-obj-27-7.jpg">

Solution 123

Based on maximum compressive stress:

Normal force:

N=Pcos20N=Pcos20

Normal area:

AN=50(100sec20)AN=50(100sec20)

AN=5320.89mm2AN=5320.89mm2

N=σANN=σAN

Pcos20=20(5320.89)Pcos20=20(5320.89)

### P=133.25kNP=133.25kN

Based on maximum shearing stress:

Shear force:

V=Psin20V=Psin20

Shear area:

AV=ANAV=AN

AV=5320.89mm2AV=5320.89mm2

V=τAVV=τAV

Psin20=5(5320.89)Psin20=5(5320.89)

Problem 122 . ) Solution 123 HideClick here to show or hide the solution Based on maximum compressive stress: Normal force: N=Pcos20 ∘ N=Pcos ⁡ 20 ∘ Normal area: A N =50(100sec20 ∘ ) AN=50(100sec ⁡ 20 ∘ ) A N =5320.89mm 2 AN=5320.89mm2 N= σA N N=σAN Pcos20 ∘ =20(5320.89) Pcos ⁡ 20 ∘ =20(5320.89) P=113247N P=113247N P=133.25kN P=133.25kN Based on maximum shearing stress: Shear force: V=Psin20 ∘ V=Psin ⁡ 20 ∘ Shear area: A V =A N AV=AN A V =5320.89mm 2 AV=5320.89mm2 V= τA V V=τAV Psin20 ∘ =5(5320.89) Psin ⁡ 20 ∘ =5(5320.89) " id="pdf-obj-27-102" src="pdf-obj-27-102.jpg">

### P=77.79kNP=77.79kN

For safe compressive force use

### Problem 125

In Fig. 1-12, assume that a 20-mm-diameter rivet joins the plates that are each 110 mm wide. The allowable stresses are 120 MPa for bearing in the plate material and 60 MPa for shearing of rivet. Determine (a) the minimum thickness of each plate; and (b) the largest average tensile stress in the plates.

HideClick here to show or hide the solution Part (a): From shearing of rivet: P= τA rivets P=τArivets P=60[ 14 π (20 2 )] P=60[14π(202)] P=6000 π N P=6000πN From bearing of plate material: P= σ b A b P=σbAb 6000 π =120(20t) 6000π=120(20t) t=7.85mm t=7.85mm answer Part (b): Largest average tensile stress in the plate: P= σA P=σA 6000 π = σ[7.85(110−20)] 6000π=σ[7.85(110−20)] σ =26.67MPa σ=26.67MPa answer " id="pdf-obj-28-19" src="pdf-obj-28-19.jpg">

### Solution 125

Part (a):

From shearing of rivet:

P=τArivetsP=τArivets

P=60[14π(202)]P=60[14π(202)]

### P=6000πNP=6000πN

From bearing of plate material:

P=σbAbP=σbAb

### 6000π=120(20t)6000π=120(20t)

Part (b): Largest average tensile stress in the plate:

### σ=26.67MPaσ=26.67MPa

Problem 126

The lap joint shown in Fig. P-126 is fastened by four ¾-in.-diameter rivets. Calculate the maximum safe load P that can be applied if the shearing stress in the rivets is limited to 14 ksi and the bearing stress in the plates is limited to

18 ksi. Assume the applied load is uniformly distributed among the four rivets.

HideClick here to show or hide the solution Based on shearing of rivets: P= τA P=τA P=14[4( 14 π )( 34 ) 2 ] P=14[4(14π)(34)2] P=24.74kips P=24.74kips Based on bearing of plates: P= σ b A b P=σbAb P=18[4( 34 )( 78 )] P=18[4(34)(78)] P=47.25kips P=47.25kips Safe load P, P=24.74kips P=24.74kips answer Problem 127 In the clevis shown in Fig. 1-11b, find the minimum bolt diameter and the minimum thickness of each yoke that will support a load P = 14 kips without exceeding a shearing stress of 12 ksi and a bearing stress of 20 ksi. " id="pdf-obj-29-10" src="pdf-obj-29-10.jpg">

Solution 126

Based on shearing of rivets:

### P=τAP=τA

P=14[4(14π)(34)2]P=14[4(14π)(34)2]

### P=24.74kipsP=24.74kips

Based on bearing of plates:

P=σbAbP=σbAb

P=18[4(34)(78)]P=18[4(34)(78)]

### P=47.25kipsP=47.25kips

Problem 127

In the clevis shown in Fig. 1-11b, find the minimum bolt diameter and the minimum thickness of each yoke that will support a load P = 14 kips without exceeding a shearing stress of 12 ksi and a bearing stress of 20 ksi.

HideClick here to show or hide the solution For shearing of rivets (double shear) 14=12[2( 14 πd 2 )] 14=12[2(14πd2)] d=0.8618in d=0.8618in → diameter of bolt For bearing of yoke: 14=20[2(0.8618t)] 14=20[2(0.8618t)] t=0.4061in t=0.4061in → thickness of yoke Problem 128 riveted to a W24 × 117 girder by a that in Fig. 1-13. The diameter of the rivets is 7/8 in., and the angles are each L4 × 3-1/2 × 3/8 in For each rivet, assume that .. the allowable stresses are τ = 15 ksi and σ = 32 ksi. Find the allowable load on the connection. HideSummary of the problem Given: Shape of beam = W18 × 86 Shape of girder = W24 × 117 Shape of angles = L4 × 3-1/2 × 3/8 Diameter of rivets = 7/8 inch Allowable shear stress = 15 ksi Allowable bearing stress = 32 ksi P= τA P=τA P= σ b A b P=σbAb answer A W18 × 86 beam is connection similar to Required: Allowable load on the connection " id="pdf-obj-30-2" src="pdf-obj-30-2.jpg">

Solution 127

For shearing of rivets (double shear)

14=12[2(14πd2)]14=12[2(14πd2)]

d=0.8618ind=0.8618in → diameter of bolt

For bearing of yoke:

### 14=20[2(0.8618t)]14=20[2(0.8618t)]

t=0.4061int=0.4061in → thickness of yoke Problem 128

riveted to a W24 × 117 girder by a that in Fig. 1-13. The diameter of the rivets is 7/8 in., and the angles are

HideClick here to show or hide the solution For shearing of rivets (double shear) 14=12[2( 14 πd 2 )] 14=12[2(14πd2)] d=0.8618in d=0.8618in → diameter of bolt For bearing of yoke: 14=20[2(0.8618t)] 14=20[2(0.8618t)] t=0.4061in t=0.4061in → thickness of yoke Problem 128 riveted to a W24 × 117 girder by a that in Fig. 1-13. The diameter of the rivets is 7/8 in., and the angles are each L4 × 3-1/2 × 3/8 in For each rivet, assume that .. the allowable stresses are τ = 15 ksi and σ = 32 ksi. Find the allowable load on the connection. HideSummary of the problem Given: Shape of beam = W18 × 86 Shape of girder = W24 × 117 Shape of angles = L4 × 3-1/2 × 3/8 Diameter of rivets = 7/8 inch Allowable shear stress = 15 ksi Allowable bearing stress = 32 ksi P= τA P=τA P= σ b A b P=σbAb answer A W18 × 86 beam is connection similar to Required: Allowable load on the connection " id="pdf-obj-30-36" src="pdf-obj-30-36.jpg">

each L4 × 3-1/2 × 3/8 in

For each rivet, assume that

.. the allowable stresses are τ = 15 ksi and σ b = 32 ksi. Find

the allowable load on the connection.

Given:

Shape of beam = W18 × 86 Shape of girder = W24 × 117 Shape of angles = L4 × 3-1/2 × 3/8 Diameter of rivets = 7/8 inch Allowable shear stress = 15 ksi Allowable bearing stress = 32 ksi

### P=τAP=τA

P=σbAbP=σbAb

A W18 × 86 beam is connection similar to

HideClick here to show or hide the solution For shearing of rivets (double shear) 14=12[2( 14 πd 2 )] 14=12[2(14πd2)] d=0.8618in d=0.8618in → diameter of bolt For bearing of yoke: 14=20[2(0.8618t)] 14=20[2(0.8618t)] t=0.4061in t=0.4061in → thickness of yoke Problem 128 riveted to a W24 × 117 girder by a that in Fig. 1-13. The diameter of the rivets is 7/8 in., and the angles are each L4 × 3-1/2 × 3/8 in For each rivet, assume that .. the allowable stresses are τ = 15 ksi and σ = 32 ksi. Find the allowable load on the connection. HideSummary of the problem Given: Shape of beam = W18 × 86 Shape of girder = W24 × 117 Shape of angles = L4 × 3-1/2 × 3/8 Diameter of rivets = 7/8 inch Allowable shear stress = 15 ksi Allowable bearing stress = 32 ksi P= τA P=τA P= σ b A b P=σbAb answer A W18 × 86 beam is connection similar to Required: Allowable load on the connection " id="pdf-obj-30-74" src="pdf-obj-30-74.jpg">

Required:

Solution 128

Relevant data from the table (Appendix B of textbook): Properties of Wide-Flange Sections (W shapes): U.S. Customary Units

 Designation Web thickness W18 × 86 0.480 in W24 × 117 0.550 in

Shearing strength of rivets:

There are 8 single-shear rivets in the girder and 4 double-shear (equivalent to 8 single-shear) in

the beam, thus, the shear strength of rivets in girder and beam are equal.

V=τA=15[14π(78)2(8)]V=τA=15[14π(78)2(8)]

### V=72.16 kipsV=72.16 kips

Bearing strength on the girder:

The thickness of girder W24 × 117 is 0.550 inch while that of the angle clip L4 × 3-1/2 × 3/8 is

3/8 or 0.375 inch, thus, the critical in bearing is the clip.

P=σbAb=32[78(0.375)(8)]P=σbAb=32[78(0.375)(8)]

### P=84 kipsP=84 kips

Bearing strength on the beam:

The thickness of beam W18 × 86 is 0.480 inch while that of the clip angle is 2 × 0.375 = 0.75

inch (clip angles are on both sides of the beam), thus, the critical in bearing is the beam.

P=σbAb=32[78(0.480)(4)]P=σbAb=32[78(0.480)(4)]

### P=53.76 kipsP=53.76 kips

Problem 129

A 7/8-in.-diameter bolt, having a diameter at the root of the threads of 0.731 in., is used to fasten two timbers together as shown in Fig. P-129. The nut is tightened to cause a tensile stress of 18 ksi in the

bolt. Compute the shearing stress in the head of the bolt and in the threads. Also, determine the outside diameter of the washers if their inside diameter is 9/8 in. and the bearing stress is limited to 800 psi.

Given:

Diameter of bolt = 7/8 inch

HideClick here to show or hide the solution Relevant data from the table (Appendix B of textbook): Properties of Wide-Flange Sections (W shapes): U.S. Customary Units Designation Web thickness W18 × 86 0.480 in W24 × 117 0.550 in Shearing strength of rivets: There are 8 single-shear rivets in the girder and 4 double-shear (equivalent to 8 single-shear) in the beam, thus, the shear strength of rivets in girder and beam are equal. V= τA =15[ 14 π ( 78 ) 2 (8)] V=τA=15[14π(78)2(8)] V=72.16 kips V=72.16 kips Bearing strength on the girder: The thickness of girder W24 × 117 is 0.550 inch while that of the angle clip L4 × 3-1/2 × 3/8 is 3/8 or 0.375 inch, thus, the critical in bearing is the clip. P= σ b A b =32[ 78 (0.375)(8)] P=σbAb=32[78(0.375)(8)] P=84 kips P=84 kips Bearing strength on the beam: The thickness of beam W18 × 86 is 0.480 inch while that of the clip angle is 2 × 0.375 = 0.75 inch (clip angles are on both sides of the beam), thus, the critical in bearing is the beam. P= σ b A b =32[ 78 (0.480)(4)] P=σbAb=32[78(0.480)(4)] P=53.76 kips P=53.76 kips The allowable load on the connection is P=53.76kips P=53.76kips answer Problem 129 A 7/8- in. -diameter bolt, having a diameter at the root of the threads of 0.731 in., is used to fasten two timbers together as shown in Fig. P-129. The nut is tightened to cause a tensile stress of 18 ksi in the bolt. Compute the shearing stress in the head of the bolt and in the threads. Also, determine the outside diameter of the washers if their inside diameter is 9/8 in. and the bearing stress is limited to 800 psi. HideSummary of the problem Given: Diameter of bolt = 7/8 inch " id="pdf-obj-31-107" src="pdf-obj-31-107.jpg">

Diameter at the root of the thread (bolt) = 0.731 inch Inside diameter of washer = 9/8 inch Tensile stress in the nut = 18 ksi Bearing stress = 800 psi

Required:

Shearing stress in the head of the bolt

Shearing stress in threads of the bolt Outside diameter of the washer

Solution 129

Tensile force on the bolt:

P=σA=18[14π(78)2]P=σA=18[14π(78)2]

### P=10.82kipsP=10.82kips

Shearing stress in the head of the bolt:

τ=PA=10.82π(78)(12)τ=PA=10.82π(78)(12)

### τ=7.872 ksiτ=7.872 ksi

τ=PA=10.82π(0.731)(58)τ=PA=10.82π(0.731)(58)

### τ=7.538 ksiτ=7.538 ksi

Outside diameter of washer:

P=σbAbP=σbAb

2−(98)2]}

### d=4.3inchd=4.3inch

HideClick here to show or hide the solution Tensile force on the bolt: P= σA =18[ 14 π ( 78 ) 2 ] P=σA=18[14π(78)2] P=10.82kips P=10.82kips Shearing stress in the head of the bolt: τ =PA=10.82 π ( 78 )( 12 ) τ=PA=10.82π(78)(12) τ =7.872 ksi τ=7.872 ksi answer Shearing stress in the threads: τ =PA=10.82 π (0.731)( 58 ) τ=PA=10.82π(0.731)(58) τ =7.538 ksi τ=7.538 ksi answer Outside diameter of washer: P= σ b A b P=σbAb 10.82(1000)=800{ 14 π [d 2 − ( 98 ) 2 ]} 10.82(1000)=800{14π[d 2−(98)2]} d=4.3inch d=4.3inch answer Problem 130 Figure P -130 shows a roof truss and the detail of the riveted connection at joint B. Using allowable stresses of τ = 70 MPa and σ = 140 MPa, how many 19 -mm- diameter rivets are required to fasten member BC to the gusset plate? Member BE? What is the largest average tensile or compressive stress in BC and BE? " id="pdf-obj-32-96" src="pdf-obj-32-96.jpg">

Problem 130 Figure P-130 shows a roof truss and the detail of the riveted connection at joint B. Using allowable stresses of τ = 70 MPa and σ b = 140 MPa, how many 19-mm- diameter rivets are required to fasten member BC to the gusset plate? Member BE? What is the largest average tensile or compressive stress in BC and BE?

HideClick here to show or hide the solution At Joint C: Σ F V =0 ΣFV=0 BC=96kN BC=96kN (Tension) Consider the section through member BD, BE, and CE: Σ M A =0 ΣMA=0 8( 35 BE)=4(96) 8(35BE)=4(96) BE=80kN BE=80kN (Compression) " id="pdf-obj-33-2" src="pdf-obj-33-2.jpg">
HideClick here to show or hide the solution At Joint C: Σ F V =0 ΣFV=0 BC=96kN BC=96kN (Tension) Consider the section through member BD, BE, and CE: Σ M A =0 ΣMA=0 8( 35 BE)=4(96) 8(35BE)=4(96) BE=80kN BE=80kN (Compression) " id="pdf-obj-33-4" src="pdf-obj-33-4.jpg">

Solution 130

At Joint C:

ΣFV=0ΣFV=0

BC=96kNBC=96kN (Tension)

Consider the section through member BD, BE, and CE:

ΣMA=0ΣMA=0

8(35BE)=4(96)8(35BE)=4(96)

BE=80kNBE=80kN (Compression)

HideClick here to show or hide the solution At Joint C: Σ F V =0 ΣFV=0 BC=96kN BC=96kN (Tension) Consider the section through member BD, BE, and CE: Σ M A =0 ΣMA=0 8( 35 BE)=4(96) 8(35BE)=4(96) BE=80kN BE=80kN (Compression) " id="pdf-obj-33-37" src="pdf-obj-33-37.jpg">

For Member BC:

Based on shearing of rivets:

### BC=τABC=τA

Where A = area of 1 rivet × number of rivets, n

96000=70[14π(192)n]96000=70[14π(192)n]

n=4.8n=4.8 say 5 rivets

Based on bearing of member:

BC=σbAbBC=σbAb

Where A b = rivet diameter × thickness of BC × n rivets

### 96000=140[19(6)n]96000=140[19(6)n]

n=6.02n=6.02 say 7 rivets

Use 7 rivets for member BC.

For member BE:

Based on shearing of rivets:

### BE=τABE=τA

Where A = area of 1 rivet × number of rivets, n

80000=70[14π(192)n]80000=70[14π(192)n]

n=4.03n=4.03 say 5 rivets

Based on bearing of member:

BE=σbAbBE=σbAb

Where A b = rivet diameter × thickness of BE × n rivets

### 80000=140[19(13)n]80000=140[19(13)n]

n=2.3n=2.3 say 3 rivets

Use 5 rivets for member BE.

Relevant data from the table (Appendix B of textbook): Properties of Equal Angle Sections: SI Units

 Designation Area L75 × 75 × 6 864 mm 2
 L75 × 75 × 13 1780 mm 2

Tensile stress of member BC (L75 × 75 × 6):

### σ=PA=96(1000)864−19(6)σ=PA=96(1000)864−19(6)

Compressive stress of member BE (L75 × 75 × 13):

### σ=PA=80(1000)1780σ=PA=80(1000)1780

Problem 131

Repeat Problem 130 if the rivet diameter is 22 mm and all other data remain unchanged.

Solution 131

For member BC:

P=96kNP=96kN (Tension)

Problem 130 if the rivet diameter is 22 mm and all other data remain unchanged. Solution 131 HideClick here to show or hide the solution For member BC: P=96kN P=96kN (Tension) Based on shearing of rivets: P= τA P=τA 96000=70[ 14 π (22 2 )n] 96000=70[14π(222)n] n=3.6 n=3.6 say 4 rivets Based on bearing of member: P= σ b A b P=σbAb 96000=140[22(6)n] 96000=140[22(6)n] n=5.2 n=5.2 say 6 rivets Use 6 rivets for member BC. answer Tensile stress: σ =PA =96(1000)864−22(6) σ=PA=96(1000)864−22(6) σ =131.15MPa σ=131.15MPa answer For member BE: P=80kN P=80kN (Compression) Based on shearing of rivets: P= τA P=τA 80000=70[ 14 π (22 2 )n] 80000=70[14π(222)n] " id="pdf-obj-35-48" src="pdf-obj-35-48.jpg">

Based on shearing of rivets:

### P=τAP=τA

96000=70[14π(222)n]96000=70[14π(222)n]

n=3.6n=3.6 say 4 rivets

Based on bearing of member:

P=σbAbP=σbAb

### 96000=140[22(6)n]96000=140[22(6)n]

n=5.2n=5.2 say 6 rivets

Use 6 rivets for member BC.

Tensile stress:

### σ=PA=96(1000)864−22(6)σ=PA=96(1000)864−22(6)

For member BE:

P=80kNP=80kN (Compression)

Based on shearing of rivets:

### P=τAP=τA

80000=70[14π(222)n]80000=70[14π(222)n]

n=3.01n=3.01 say 4 rivets

Based on bearing of member:

P=σbAbP=σbAb

### 80000=140[22(13)n]80000=140[22(13)n]

n=1.998n=1.998 say 2 rivets

Use 4 rivets for member BE

Compressive stress: