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Parts Of Speech ‫ أﺟزاء اﻟﻛﻼم‬1 Noun Quantifiers ( Many / 28


Much … ) ‫ﻣﺣددات اﻷﺳﻣﺎء‬
The Statement ‫اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﺧﺑرﯾﺔ‬ 2 Demonstrative Adjectives ( This / 28
that … ) ‫ﺻﻔﺎت‬
Sentence & Phrase ‫ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ واﻟﻌﺑﺎرة‬3 Another / Other ….. ٢٨
Helping & Aux. Verbs ‫ اﻷﻓﻌﺎل اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋدة‬4 Definite & Indefinite Articles ( a 29-30
/ an / the ) ‫أدوات اﻟﻧﻛرة واﻟﻣﻌرﻓﺔ‬
Personal Pronouns ‫ اﻟﺿﻣﺎﺋر اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ‬5 Conjunctions ‫اﻟرواﺑط‬ ٣١
Relative Pronouns ‫ ﺿﻣﺎﺋر اﻟوﺻل‬6 If / Unless ‫ اذا ﻟم‬/ ‫اذا‬ 32
Yes- No questions ‫اﻟﺳؤال ﺑﮭل‬
7 Expressing Regret ‫اﻟﻧدم‬ 32
Wh- / How questions ‫ اﻟﺳؤال ﺑﺄداة اﺳﺗﻔﮭﺎم‬8 Compound Sentences ( 33
FAN BOYS ) ‫اﻟﺟﻣل اﻟﻣرﻛﺑﺔ‬
Tag Question ‫ اﻟﺳؤال اﻟﻣذﯾل‬9 Prepositions ( in / on / at …. ) 34
‫ﺣروف اﻟﺟر‬
Imperative sentence‫ﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻷﻣر‬ 9 Prepositional verbs 34
‫ ﺣروف ﺟر‬+ ‫اﻓﻌﺎل‬
Negative Sentence ‫ﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﻧﻔﻲ‬ 10 Noun + Prep. ‫ ﺣروف ﺟر‬+ ‫ اﺳﻣﺎء‬34
Irregular Verbs ‫اﻷﻓﻌﺎل اﻟﺷﺎذة‬ 11 Adj. + Prep. ‫ ﺣروف ﺟر‬+ ‫ﺻﻔﺎت‬ 34
Verb Forms ‫ أﺷﻛﺎل اﻟﻔﻌل‬12-13 Modal Verbs ‫اﻷﻓﻌﺎل اﻟﻧﺎﻗﺻﺔ‬ 35-36
Tenses ‫ اﻷزﻣﻧﺔ‬14 Direct & Indirect Speech 37
‫اﻟﻣﺑﺎﺷر واﻟﻐﯾر ﻣﺑﺎﺷر‬
The Present Simple ‫اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬ 15 Prefixes & Suffixes 38
‫اﻟﺑﺎدﺋﺎت واﻟﻠواﺣق‬
The Past Simple ‫ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬16
The Future Simple ‫ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑل اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬17
The Present Continuous / 18
Progressive ‫اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬
The Past Continuous / 19
Progressive ‫اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬
The Present Perfect ‫اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺗﺎم‬ 20 – 21
The Past Perfect ‫اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺗﺎم‬ 22
Active & Passive Voice 23
‫اﻟﻣﺑﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﻣﻌﻠوم واﻟﻣﺑﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﻣﺟﮭول‬
Causative ‫ اﻟﺳﺑﺑﯾﺔ‬23
Adjectives ‫ اﻟﺻﻔﺎت‬24
Adjectives & Adverbs 25
‫اﻟﺻﻔﺎت واﻟظروف‬
Singular & Plural Nouns 26
‫اﻷﺳﻣﺎء اﻟﻣﻔرد واﻷﺳﻣﺎء اﻟﺟﻣﻊ‬
Uncountable Nouns 27
‫اﻷﺳﻣﺎء اﻟﻐﯾر ﻣﻌدودة‬
‫‪Parts of speech‬‬

‫‪Part Of Speech‬‬ ‫‪Definition‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌرﯾف‬ ‫‪Example‬‬ ‫ﻣﺛﺎل‬


‫‪Noun / n /‬‬ ‫اﺳم‬ ‫اﺳم ﺷﺧص ‪ /‬ﺣﯾوان ‪ /‬ﻧﺑﺎت ‪ /‬ﺟﻣﺎد ‪....‬‬ ‫‪Ahmed, book , education‬‬

‫ﺿﻣﯾر ‪Pronoun / pn /‬‬ ‫ھو ﻣﺎ ﯾدل ﻋﻠﻰ اﺳم أو ﯾﺣل ﻣﺣﻠﮫ‬ ‫‪I, he, she, it, who ,which ,whose‬‬

‫‪Verb / v /‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌل‬ ‫ھو ﻣﺎ ﯾدل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣدوث ﺷﻲء ﻓﻲ وﻗت ﻣﺎ‬ ‫‪play, played , is , are , have‬‬
‫‪Verb‬‬
‫‪Adjective /adj./‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺔ‬ ‫ھو ﻋﺑﺎرة ﻋن ﻛﻠﻣﺔ ﺗﺻف اﻻﺳم وﺗﻛون ﻗﺑﻠﮫ‬ ‫‪quick boy / good student‬‬

‫ﺣﺎل ‪Adverb / adv. /‬‬ ‫ھو ﻋﺑﺎرة ﻋن ﻛﻠﻣﺔ ﺗﺻف اﻟﻔﻌل أو اﻟﺻﻔﺔ‬ ‫‪run quickly / study well /‬‬
‫‪extremely tall‬‬

‫‪Preposition /prep./‬‬ ‫ھو ﻛﻠﻣﺔ ﺗﺄﺗﻲ ﻣﻊ اﻻﺳم أو اﻟﺿﻣﯾر ﻟﺗﺑﯾن‬ ‫‪Ahmed goes to school .‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻗﺗﮫ ﺑﻛﻠﻣﺔ أﺧرى) ‪to - by - for‬‬
‫ﺣرف اﻟﺟر‬ ‫‪They traveled by plane.‬‬
‫‪in- with - from- of- about ...‬‬

‫‪Conjunction /conj./‬‬ ‫ھو ﻛﻠﻣﺔ ﺗﺻل ﻣﺎ ﺑﯾن ﻛﻠﻣﺔ و ﻛﻠﻣﺔ أو‬ ‫‪Ali and Ahmad are my friends .‬‬
‫ﺟﻣﻠﺔ وﺟﻣﻠﺔ ) ‪.( or / and‬‬
‫راﺑط ﻋطف‬

‫‪Interjection‬‬ ‫ھو ﻋﺑﺎرة ﻋن أﺻوات أو ﺻﯾﺣﺎت ﺗﻌﺑر‬ ‫ﯾﺎ ﻟﻸﺳف ! ﻟﻘد ﻣﺎﺗت‪Alas ! She died . .‬‬
‫ﻛﻠﻣﺔ ﺗﻌﺟب‬ ‫ﻋن اﻟﺗﻌﺟب ) ‪( Alas – Wow‬‬
‫‪Article‬‬ ‫أداة‬ ‫)‪Definite( the ) indefinite ( a, an‬‬

‫‪This is a book.‬‬
‫ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم ‪ a‬ﻗﺑل اﻻﺳم اﻟﻧﻛرة اﻟذي ﯾﺑدأ‬
‫ﺑﺣرف ﺳﺎﻛن‪.‬‬
‫‪This is an apple.‬‬
‫ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم ‪ an‬ﻗﺑل اﻻﺳم اﻟﻧﻛرة اﻟذي ﯾﺑدأ‬
‫ﺑﺣرف ﻣﺗﺣرك‪.‬‬
‫‪The earth goes round the sun .‬‬
‫ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم ‪ the‬ﻟﻠﺗﻌرﯾف‪.‬‬

‫‪The sentence in English‬‬

‫اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻻﻣرﯾﺔ ‪Imperative‬‬ ‫اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻻﺳﺗﻔﮭﺎﻣﯾﺔ ‪Question‬‬ ‫اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﺧﺑرﯾﺔ ‪Statement‬‬

‫ﻧوﻋﺎن‪-:‬‬ ‫ﻧوﻋﺎن‪-:‬‬ ‫ﺗﺗﻛون ﻣن‪-:‬‬

‫‪ -١‬أﻣر ﻣﺛﺑت‬ ‫‪ -١‬إﺳﺗﻔﮭﺎم ﺑﺄداة إﺳﺗﻔﮭﺎم ) ‪( Wh../ How‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﻓﺎﻋل ‪subject‬‬

‫‪ -٢‬أﻣر ﻣﻧﻔﻰ‬ ‫‪ -٢‬إﺳﺗﻔﮭﺎم ﺑﻔﻌل ﻣﺳﺎﻋد ) ﺑﮭل (‬ ‫‪ - ٢‬ﻓﻌل ‪verb‬‬

‫‪ - ٣‬ﻣﻔﻌول ‪object‬‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪ -٤‬ﺗﻛﻣﻠﺔ ) ظرف زﻣﺎن أو ﻣﻛﺎن (‬


‫أوﻻ‪ -:‬اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﺧﺑرﯾﺔ ‪The statement‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻋل ‪S‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌل ‪V‬‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻌول ‪O‬‬ ‫ﺗﻛﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ ‪C‬‬

‫‪ (١‬اﻟﻔﺎﻋل ‪Subject‬‬ ‫) ﻗد ﯾﻛون اﺳم أوﺿﻣﯾر(‬

‫ﺿﻣﺎﺋر اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬

‫ﻣﺗﻛﻠم‬ ‫ﻣﺧﺎطب‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺋب‬


‫ﻣﻔرد‬ ‫‪I‬‬ ‫أﻧﺎ‬ ‫أﻧت ‪ /‬أﻧﺗﻲ ‪You‬‬ ‫ﻟﻐﯾر اﻟﻌﺎﻗل ‪, It‬ھﻲ ‪ , She‬ھو ‪He‬‬
‫ﺟﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﺣن ‪We‬‬ ‫أﻧﺗم ‪ /‬أﻧﺗن ‪You‬‬ ‫ھم ‪They‬‬
‫و ﯾﺄﺗﻰ ﺿﻣﯾر اﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻓﻰ ﺑداﯾﺔ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ ﻗﺑل اﻟﻔﻌل‬

‫‪ (٢‬اﻟﻔﻌل ‪Verb‬‬

‫ﻓﻌل ﻣﺳﺎﻋد أو ﻧﺎﻗص‬ ‫ﻓﻌل رﺋﯾﺳﻲ‬


‫اﻟﻔﻌل اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋد ‪ -:‬وھو ﯾﺳﺑق اﻟﻔﻌل اﻻﺳﺎﺳﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻌل اﻻﺳﺎﺳﻰ‪ -:‬و ھو اﻟﻔﻌل اﻟذى ﯾﻌﺑر ﻋن ﺣدث‬

‫ﻣﺿﺎرع‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻛل اﻟﻔﻌل‬ ‫أﻣﺛﻠﺔ‬


‫‪am /is / are‬‬ ‫‪was / were‬‬ ‫) ‪ + ing ( playing / eating ) I’m eating fish . ( active‬اﻟﻔﻌل‬
‫) ‪ ( played / eaten ) Music is played by Ali.(passive‬اﻟﺗﺻرﯾف اﻟﺛﺎﻟث‬
‫‪do / does‬‬ ‫‪did‬‬ ‫) ‪ ( play / eat‬اﻟﻣﺻد ر‬ ‫‪I didn’t play football yesterday.‬‬

‫‪have / has‬‬ ‫‪had‬‬ ‫) ‪ ( played / eaten‬اﻟﺗﺻرﯾف اﻟﺛﺎﻟث‬ ‫‪He has just played tennis.‬‬

‫) ‪Will (‘’ ll‬‬ ‫‪would‬‬


‫‪shall‬‬ ‫‪should‬‬
‫‪can‬‬ ‫‪could‬‬
‫‪may‬‬ ‫‪might‬‬
‫) ‪ ( play / eat‬اﻟﻣﺻد ر‬ ‫‪I will play tennis tomorrow.‬‬
‫‪must‬‬ ‫‪had to‬‬
‫‪have to / has to‬‬ ‫‪had to‬‬
‫‪ought to‬‬
‫وﻗد ﯾﻛون ﻓﻲ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ ﻓﻌل اﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﻘط وذﻟك ﻣﻊ زﻣﻧﻲ اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺑﺳﯾط واﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺑﺳﯾط ‪:‬‬

‫‪Ex : 1) I play tennis everyday . 2) He plays tennis every day . 3) She played yesterday.‬‬

‫وﻗد ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟﻔﻌل اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋد ﻛﻔﻌل أﺳﺎﺳﻲ ) وذﻟك ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ ﯾﻛون ﺑﻣﻔرده ﻓﻲ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ ( ‪:‬‬

‫‪EX : 1) He is a doctor . 2) He has a car . 3) I usually do my homework .‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬اﻟﻣﻔﻌول ‪Object‬‬ ‫) ﻗد ﯾﻛون اﺳم أوﺿﻣﯾر(‬

‫ﺿﻣﺎﺋر اﻟﻣﻔﻌول‬

‫ﺿﻣﯾر ﻓﺎﻋل‬ ‫‪I‬‬ ‫‪He‬‬ ‫‪She‬‬ ‫‪It‬‬ ‫‪You‬‬ ‫‪We‬‬ ‫‪They‬‬


‫ﺿﻣﯾر ﻣﻔﻌول‬ ‫‪me‬‬ ‫‪him‬‬ ‫‪her‬‬ ‫‪it‬‬ ‫‪you‬‬ ‫‪us‬‬ ‫‪them‬‬

‫‪2‬‬
Complement ‫( ﺗﻛﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ‬٤

: ‫أﺳم‬ : ‫ﺻﻔﺔ‬ : ‫ﺿﻣﯾر ﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ‬ : ‫ﺿﻣﯾر ﻣﻧﻌﻛس‬ : ‫ظروف‬


Ex: He's a doctor. Ex: He's tall. mine / myself /
his / himself / : ‫ظرف ﺣﺎل‬
: ‫ ﺣرف ﺟر‬+ ‫ﻋﺎﻗل‬ Ex: He runs quickly.
with my friend
hers/ herself /
its/ itself / : ‫ظرف ﻣﻛﺎن‬
ours / ourselves / Ex: He goes to the
theirs/ themselves / club.
yours yourself / : ‫ظرف ﺗﻛرار‬
yourselves Ex: He goes to the
club once a week.
: ‫ظرف زﻣﺎن‬
: ‫ھﻧﺎك ﺑﻌض اﻟظروف ﺗﺄﺗﻲ ﻗﺑل اﻟﻔﻌل اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
Ex: He went to the
( always – usually- sometimes- often-rarely-scarcely-seldom- never-
club yesterday.
ever- just- already … ) : ‫ﺑﻌض اﻟﻌﺑﺎرات‬
Ex : I usually go to the park. / My brother never drives a car. Ex : He went to the
He has just gone out. / This is the tallest boy I have ever seen. club to play soccer.

: ‫ﻟﺗﺣوﯾل اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﻲ ﻋﺑﺎرة ﻧﺗﺑﻊ اﻷﺗﻲ‬

Sentence ‫ﺟﻣﻠﺔ‬ Phrase ‫ﻋﺑﺎرة‬

He was smart . his smartness ( ‫ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ‬+ ‫) اﺳم‬

being smart (being + ‫) اﻟﺻﻔﺔ‬

The fact that he was smart . (The fact that + ‫)اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ‬


He wasn’t smart . his stupidity ( ‫ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ‬+ ‫)ﻋﻛس اﻷﺳم‬
not being smart ( not being + ‫)اﻟﺻﻔﺔ‬
The fact that he wasn’t smart.
The weather was cold. The cold weather ( ‫ اﻟﺻﻔﺔ‬+ ‫) اﻷﺳم‬
The weather being cold. ( ‫ اﻷﺳم‬+ being + ‫) اﻟﺻﻔﺔ‬
The fact that the weather was cold.
The weather wasn’t cold. The hot weather ( ‫ ﻋﻛس اﻟﺻﻔﺔ‬+ ‫)اﻷﺳم‬
The weather being hot . ( ‫ اﻷﺳم‬+ being + ‫)ﻋﻛس اﻟﺻﻔﺔ‬
The fact that the weather wasn’t cold.
My brother studied hard. studying hard ( ‫ ﻣﺻدر اﻟﻔﻌل‬+ ing )
The fact that he studied hard.
My brother didn’t study hard. not studying hard ( not + ‫ ﻣﺻدر اﻟﻔﻌل‬+ ing )
The fact that he didn’t study hard.

: ‫ھﻧﺎك رواﺑط ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم ﺑﻌدھﺎ ﻋﺑﺎرات ﻣﺛل‬

like / such as / despite- in spite of / due to – because of – as a result of / during /


in addition to
Ex : There are many ways to become healthy like eating healthy food and doing sports.
( after , before , when , while …. ) ‫وﻛل اﻟرواﺑط اﻟزﻣﻧﯾﺔ اذا ﺣذﻓﻧﺎ اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬
- After eating his breakfast , he went out .

3
Helping Verbs
‫أﻷﻓﻌﺎل اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋدة‬
Verb to Be ‫ﻓﻌل ﯾﻛون‬ Verb to Have ‫ﻓﻌل ﯾﻣﺗﻠك‬ Verb to Do ‫ﻓﻌل ﯾﻌﻣل‬
‫ﻣﺿﺎرع‬ am / is are have / has do / does
‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬ was were had did

‫اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬ Verb to Be ‫ﻓﻌل ﯾﻛون‬ Verb to Have Verb to Do


I am (’m ) / was have (’ve ) /had (’d ) do / did

He is (’s ) / was has (’s ) / had (’d ) does / did


She is (’s ) / was has (’s ) / had (’d ) does / did
It is (’s ) / was has (’s ) / had (’d ) does / did
‫اﻷﺳم اﻟﻣﻔرد واﻟﻐﯾرﻣﻌدود‬ is (’s ) / was has (’s ) / had (’d ) does / did

We are (’re ) / were have (’ve ) /had (’d ) do / did


You are (’re ) / were have (’ve ) /had (’d ) do / did
They are (’re ) / were have (’ve ) /had (’d ) do / did
‫اﻷﺳم اﻟﺟﻣﻊ‬ are (’re ) / were have (’ve ) /had (’d ) do / did

‫ﻧﻔﻲ اﻷﻓﻌﺎل اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋدة‬

‫اﻟﻧﻔﻲ اﻟﻛﺎﻣل‬ am not is not are not was not were not
‫أﺧﺗﺻﺎر اﻟﻔﻌل اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋد‬ ’m not ’s not ’re not
not ‫اﺧﺗﺻﺎر‬ isn’t aren’t wasn’t weren’t

‫اﻟﻧﻔﻲ اﻟﻛﺎﻣل‬ have not has not had not do not does not do not
‫أﺧﺗﺻﺎر اﻟﻔﻌل اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋد‬ ’ve not ’s not ’d not
not ‫اﺧﺗﺻﺎر‬ haven’t hasn’t hadn’t don’t doesn’t don't

Verb to Be ‫ﻓﻌل ﯾﻛون‬


‫ ﻓﻌل‬+ ing Verb to Have ‫ﻓﻌل ﯾﻣﺗﻠك‬
am / is are have / has V3 ‫ﺗﺻرﯾف ﺛﺎﻟث‬
was were V3 had

Verb to Do ‫ﻓﻌل ﯾﻌﻣل‬


do / does ‫ﻣﺻدر اﻟﻔﻌل‬
did
4
Pronouns ‫اﻟﺿﻣﺎﺋر‬

Subject Object Possessive Possessive Reflexive Pronouns


Pronouns Pronouns
Adjectives Pronouns ‫ﺿﻣﺎﺋر اﻻﻧﻌﻛﺎس‬
‫ﺿﻣﺎﺋر اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬ ‫ﺿﻣﺎﺋر اﻟﻣﻔﻌول ﺑﮫ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺎت اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﻣﺎﺋر اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ‬

I me my mine ‫ﻣﻠﻛﻲ‬ myself ‫ ﺑﻧﻔﺳﻲ‬/ ‫ﻧﻔﺳﻲ‬

He him his his ‫ﻣﻠﻛﮫ‬ himself ‫ ﺑﻧﻔﺳﮫ‬/ ‫ﻧﻔﺳﮫ‬


She her her hers ‫ﻣﻠﻛﮭﺎ‬ herself ‫ ﺑﻧﻔﺳﮭﺎ‬/ ‫ﻧﻔﺳﮭﺎ‬

It it its its ‫ ﻣﻠﻛﮭﺎ‬/ ‫ﻣﻠﻛﮫ‬ itself ‫ ﺑﻧﻔﺳﮭﺎ‬/ ‫ ﻧﻔﺳﮭﺎ‬/ ‫ ﺑﻧﻔﺳﮫ‬/ ‫ﻧﻔﺳﮫ‬


( ‫) ﻟﻐﯾر اﻟﻌﺎﻗل‬ ( ‫) ﻟﻐﯾر اﻟﻌﺎﻗل‬
We us our ours ‫ﻣﻠﻛﻧﺎ‬ ourselves ‫ ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺳﻧﺎ‬/ ‫أﻧﻔﺳﻧﺎ‬

They them their theirs ‫ﻣﻠﻛﮭم‬ themselves ‫ ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺳﮭم‬/ ‫أﻧﻔﺳﮭم‬

You you your yours ‫ﻣﻠﻛك‬ yourself ‫ ﺑﻧﻔﺳك‬/ ‫ﻧﻔﺳك‬

You you your yours ‫ﻣﻠﻛﻛم‬ yourselves ‫ ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺳﻛم‬/ ‫أﻧﻔﺳﻛم‬

‫أﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺿﻣﺎﺋر‬

‫اﻟﺿﻣﺎﺋر‬ Usage ‫اﻷﺳﺗﺧدام‬ Examples ‫أﻣﺛﻠﺔ‬

Subject ( ‫ ◄ ﻓﻲ ﺑداﯾﺔ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﺧﺑرﯾﺔ ) ﻗﺑل اﻟﻔﻌل‬- Ali is a good boy . He always gets high marks.
Pronouns ( ‫ ◄ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺳؤال ) ﺑﻌد اﻟﻔﻌل اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋد‬- Where do they go ? – They go to the club.
‫ﺿﻣﺎﺋر اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬
Object ( ‫◄ﻓﻲ ﻣﻧﺗﺻف اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ ) ﺑﻌد اﻟﻔﻌل‬ - My friend gave me a pen .
Pronouns ( for - of ..) ‫◄ ﺑﻌد ﺣروف اﻟﺟر‬ - The little boy made it for her.
‫ﺿﻣﺎﺋر اﻟﻣﻔﻌول ﺑﮫ‬
Possessive ‫ ◄ﻗﺑل أﺳم اﻟﺷﺊ اﻟﻣﻣﺗﻠك‬- I play football with my friends .
Adjectives
‫ﺻﻔﺎت اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ‬
Possessive ‫ﺗﻌﺑر ﻋن اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ وﻻ ﯾﺄﺗﻲ ﺑﻌدھﺎ أﺳم‬ ◄ - These shoes are mine .
Pronouns - I met a friend of mine yesterday .
‫ﺿﻣﺎﺋر اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ‬
Reflexive . ‫◄أذا ﻛﺎن اﻟﻔﺎﻋل ھو ﻧﻔﺳﮫ اﻟﻣﻔﻌول‬ - He fell down and hurt himself .
Pronouns ‫◄ ﻟﻠﺗﺄﻛﯾد ) أن اﻟﻔﺎﻋل ھو اﻟذى ﻗﺎم‬ - I do the homework myself .
‫ﺿﻣﺎﺋر اﻻﻧﻌﻛﺎس‬ ( ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺣدث ﺑﻧﻔﺳﮫ‬ - Help yourself .
. ‫◄ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌض اﻟﺗﻌﺑﯾرات‬ - Enjoy yourself.
- Behave yourself.
- I live by myself. ( I live alone )

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Relative Pronouns ‫ﺿﻣﺎﺋر اﻟوﺻل‬

. ‫ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم ﺿﻣﯾر اﻟوﺻل ﻟﯾﺣل ﻣﺣل اﻷﺳم أو اﻟﺿﻣﯾر ﻓﻲ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ‬


Ex : The boy was tall . He broke the glass. The boy , who broke the glass , was tall.

Relative Pn. Usage Example

Who ( ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻗل ) ﻓﺎﻋل أو ﻣﻔﻌول‬ The boy ,( who ) I met , was playing.
The boy , who studies hard , gets high marks.
Whom ( ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻗل ) ﻣﻔﻌول ﻓﻘط‬ The boy , ( whom ) I met , was playing.
Which ‫ﻟﻐﯾر اﻟﻌﺎﻗل‬ I drove the car which my father bought me.
That ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻗل وﻏﯾر اﻟﻌﺎﻗل‬ The boy ,( that ) I met , was playing.
I drove the car that my father bought me.
Whose ( ‫ﻟﻠﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ ) ﻣﻊ اﻟﻌﺎﻗل وﻏﯾر اﻟﻌﺎﻗل‬ This is the woman whose son died.
The dog , whose leg was broken , was small.
When ‫ﻟﻠوﻗت‬ The holiday is a nice time when we enjoy.
Where ‫ﻟﻠﻣﻛﺎن‬ This is the school where we learn.
Why ‫ﻟﻠﺳﺑب‬ I don’t know the reason why he was absent.
How ‫ﻟﻠﻛﯾﻔﯾﺔ أو اﻟﺣﺎل‬ He told me how to face challenges.
What all ‫ﻟﻸﺷﯾﺎء ﻣﺳﺑوﻗﺔ ب‬ This is all what I have.

‫ﻣﻼﺣظﺎت ھﺎﻣﺔ‬

. ‫ ﻣﻊ ﻏﯾر اﻟﻌﺎﻗل‬Which ‫ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻌﺎﻗل و‬Whom ‫اذا ﺳﺑق اﻟﺿﻣﯾر ﺣرف ﺟر ﻓﺄﻧﻧﺎ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬

Ex : The boy , with whom I played yesterday , made an accident.

This is the school in which I learnt.

. ‫ ( ﻋﻧد أﺳﺗﺧداﻣﮭم ﻣﻛﺎن اﻟﻣﻔﻌول‬who , whom , which , that ) ‫ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﻧﺣذف‬

Ex : The boy I met yesterday was playing. / I drove the car my father bought me.
. ‫ﻻﺣظ وﺟود ﻓﺎﻋل اﺧر ﻓﻲ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ‬

: ‫ﻻ ﯾﺟوز أن ﻧﺣذف ﺿﻣﯾر اﻟوﺻل اذا أﺗﻲ ﻣﻛﺎن اﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻓﻲ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ‬
Ex : The boy , who studies hard , gets high marks.
/ I ate the apple that was on the table.

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Questions ‫ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻻﺳﺗﻔﮭﺎﻣﯾﺔ‬-: ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯾﺎ‬

( ‫( اﻟﺳؤال ﺑﮭل ) ﺑﻔﻌل ﻣﺳﺎﻋد أو ﻧﺎﻗص‬١) ‫ ( اﻟﺳؤال ﺑﺄداة إﺳﺗﻔﮭﺎم‬٢)


"Yes / No" questions " Wh- / How " questions

( ‫( إﺳﺗﻔﮭﺎم ﺑﮭل ) ﺑﻔﻌل ﻣﺳﺎﻋد أو ﻧﺎﻗص‬١)

‫ﻓﻌل ﻣﺳﺎﻋد أو ﻧﺎﻗص‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻋل‬ ‫ﻓﻌل رﺋﯾﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻛﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ‬

. (‫ ) ﻧﺳﺑق اﻟﻔﻌل اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋد أو اﻟﻧﺎﻗص ﻋﻠﻲ اﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﺛم ﻧﺗرك اﻟﻔﻌل اﻟرﺋﯾﺳﻲ ﻛﻣﺎ ھو‬: ‫◄ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ وﺟود ﻓﻌل ﻣﺳﺎﻋد اوﻧﺎﻗص‬
‫اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﺧﺑرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻷﺳﺗﻔﮭﺎﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺟﺎﺑﺔ‬
-They are playing . Are they playing ? Yes, they are .
No , they aren’t .
- He is reading a book. Is he reading a book ? Yes, he is . / No , he isn’t .
- I am eating fish . Are you eating fish ? Yes , I am . / No, I am not .
- I was sleeping . Were you sleeping ? Yes, I was . / No, I wasn’t .
- We were studying . Were you studying ? Yes ,we were .
No, we weren’t .

- I have got a car . Have you got a car ? Yes , I have .


/ No, I haven’t .
- He has got a car . Has he got a car ? Yes, he has .
/ No, he hasn’t .
-We had got a car . Had you got a car ? Yes , we had .
/ No, we hadn’t .

- I will play football . Will you play football ? Yes , I will . / No , I won’t .
- I can ride a bike . Can you ride a bike ? Yes , I can . / No , I can’t .
-You should play sports . Should I play sports ? Yes , you should .
/ No , you shouldn’t .

. ( do , does , did ‫ﻣﺳﺎﻋد ) ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬ ‫◄ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋدم وﺟود ﻓﻌل‬


.( We ، You ، They ، ‫( ﺑﻌد ) اﻷﺳم اﻟﺟﻣﻊ‬do) ‫ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬ ( play ) ‫ اذا ﻛﺎن اﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺻدر‬-
.( He ، She ، It ، ‫ اﻷﺳم اﻟﻣﻔرد‬، ‫( ﺑﻌد ) اﻷﺳم اﻟﻐﯾرﻣﻌدود‬does) ‫ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬ ( plays ) s ‫اذا ﻛﺎن اﻟﻔﻌل ﻣﻧﺗﮭﻲ ب‬ -
. ‫ ( ﻣﻊ اﻟﻛل‬did ) ‫ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬ ( played ) ‫ اذا ﻛﺎن اﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬-
- I play football . Do you play football ? Yes, I do. / No, I don’t .

- He plays football . Does he play football ? Yes , he does .


/ No , he doesn’t .
- He played football . Did he play football ? Yes, he did . / No, he didn’t.

- I went to school. Did you go to school ? Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t .


: ( do , does , did ) ‫◄ اذا أﺳﺗﺧدﻣﻧﺎ اﻷﻓﻌﺎل اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋدة ﻛﺄﻓﻌﺎل رﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ ﻓﺄﻧﻧﺎ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬
- He has a car . Does he have a car ? Yes , he does .
/ No , he doesn’t .
- I had to study hard. Did you have to study hard ? Yes, I did. / No,I didn’t .
- I did my homework . Did you do your homework? Yes, I did. / No,I didn’t .

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( Wh../ How ) questions ‫( إﺳﺗﻔﮭﺎم ﺑﺄداة أﺳﺗﻔﮭﺎم‬٢)

‫أداة اﺳﺗﻔﮭﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻌل ﻣﺳﺎﻋد‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻋل‬ ‫ﻓﻌل رﺋﯾﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻛﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ‬

‫أداة اﻻﺳﺗﻔﮭﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻧﺎھﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺳﺄل ﻋن‬ Examples ‫أﻣﺛﻠﺔ‬


Who ‫ﻣن‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺎﻋل او اﻟﻣﻔﻌول اﻟﻌﺎﻗل‬ Who are you ? – I’m Ahmed .

When ‫ﻣﺗﻰ‬ ( tomorrow… ) ‫اﻟوﻗت او اﻟزﻣن‬ When will you come ? – Tomorrow .

Where ‫أﯾن‬ ( to school / at home... ) ‫اﻟﻣﻛﺎن‬ Where do you go ? – To the club .

Which ‫آى‬ ( the red car ..) ‫ اﻻﺧﺗﯾﺎر أو اﻟﺗﻔﺿﯾل‬Which car do you like ? – The red car .
Which boy is taller :Ahmed or Ali? Ali.
What ‫ ﻣﺎذا‬-‫ﻣﺎ‬ ( car / dog .. ) ‫ﻏﯾراﻟﻌﺎﻗل‬ What did you buy ? – A car .

Why ‫ﻟﻣﺎذا‬ ( because – to – for ) ‫اﻟﺳﺑب‬ Why didn’t you come ? – Because I was ill.

Whose ‫ﻟﻣن‬ ( Ali’s / his … ) ‫ اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ‬Whose book is this ?- It’s Ali’s book .

How ‫ﻛﯾف‬ ( by car ) ‫ اﻟﺣﺎل أو وﺳﯾﻠﺔ اﻟﻣواﺻﻼت‬How do you go to work ? – By car .

How old ‫ﻛم ﻋﻣر‬ ( 10 years old ) ‫ اﻟﻌﻣر او اﻟﺳن‬How old are you ? 10 years old .

How many ‫ﻛم ﻋدد‬ ( two / three …. ) ‫ اﻟﻌدد‬How many pens do you have ? -1 pen.

How much ‫ﻛم ﺛﻣن‬ ( 2 Dollars )‫ اﻟﺛﻣن او اﻟﺳﻌر‬How much is this dress ? – 40 $

How far ‫ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌد‬ ( 5 km far ) ‫ اﻟﺑﻌد او اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻓﺔ‬How far is your school ? –2 km far .

How long ‫ﻛم طول‬ ‫ ( أو اﻟﻣدة‬3 m long )‫ طول اﻷﺷﯾﺎء‬How long is this bridge ? 13 m long .
(for a day / since 1990 ) ‫ اﻟزﻣﻧﯾﺔ‬How long will you stay ? - For 2 days
How tall ‫ﻛم طول‬ ( 150 cm ) ‫ طول اﻷﺷﺧﺎص‬How tall is your father ? – 150 cm
( ‫) ﻟﻸﺷﺧﺎص‬
. ‫ اذا أﺳﺗﺧدﻣﻧﺎ أداة اﻷﺳﺗﻔﮭﺎم ﻓﻲ ﻣﻧﺗﺻف اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ ﻓﻼ ﻧﺿﻊ ﺑﻌدھﺎ ﻓﻌل ﻣﺳﺎﻋد أو ﻧﺎﻗص ﻣﺑﺎﺷرة‬: ‫ﻣﻠﺣوظﺔ‬

Ex : Can you tell me where the bank is , please ?

How + adj.( ‫ = ) ﺻﻔﺔ‬What + n.( ‫) اﺳم‬

How How tall ? How long ? How old ? How far ? How much ? How old ?

What What height ? What length ? What age ? What distance ? What price ? What age ?

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. ‫ ﻧﻛون اﻟﺳؤال اﻟﻣذﯾل ﺑﺄﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﻔﻌل اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋد اﻟﻣوﺟود ﺑﺎﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ ﺛم ﺿﻣﯾر ﯾﻌود ﻋﻠﻲ اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬-
.‫ اذا ﻛﺎﻧت اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﺛﺑﺗﺔ ﻧﻧﻔﻲ اﻟﻔﻌل اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋد واذا ﻛﺎﻧت اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﻧﻔﯾﺔ ﻧﻛﺗب اﻟﻔﻌل اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋد ﻓﻲ ﺷﻛل اﻷﺛﺑﺎت‬-
. ‫ ( ﻟﻠﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬did ) ‫( ﻟﻠﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺑﺳﯾط و‬do , does ) ‫ اذا ﻟم ﯾﻛن ھﻧﺎك أﻓﻌﺎل ﻣﺳﺎﻋدة ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬-

Sentence Tag Question Sentence Tag Question


It is very cold , isn’t it ? My friends play football , don’t they ?
They will come , won’t they ? She watches TV , doesn’t she ?
My friends haven’t studied , have they ? He has to study , doesn’t he ?
He can drive a car , can’t he Ali broke his leg , didn’t he ?

I’m not fine today , am I ? Let’s play soccer , shall we ? ( ‫) أﻗﺗراح‬


I’m a good student , aren’t I ? Let us go out , will you ? ( ‫) طﻠب أذن‬
Open the door , will you ? ( ‫) أﻣر‬ Let us ‫ ( ﺑﻌد‬will you ? ) ‫ و‬Let’s ‫ ( ﺑﻌد‬shall we ? ) ‫ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬
Don’t come late , will you ? (‫) ﻧﮭﻲ‬ Every one is here , Aren’t they ?
. ‫ ( ﻓﻲ اﻷﻣر واﻟطﻠب اﻟﻣﮭذب واﻟﻧﮭﻲ‬will you ? ) ‫ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬ every one / ) ‫ ( اذا ﻛﺎن ھﻧﺎك‬they ) ‫ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟﺿﻣﯾر‬
. ‫ ( ﻓﻲ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ‬every body

: ‫ھﻧﺎك ﺑﻌض اﻟﻛﻠﻣﺎت ﺗﻌﺑر ﻋن اﻟﻧﻔﻲ وﻋﻧد وﺟودھﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ ﻧﺿﻊ اﻟﻔﻌل اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋد ﻣﺛﺑت وﻣﻧﮭﺎ‬
Scarcely - hardly – rarely – never – neither – nor – none – no one – no body – nothing –
no where – little – few – quite often
Ex : He never helps the poor , does he ? / She ate little food , did she ?

( wouldn’t ) ( ’d rather ) ‫وﻣﻊ‬ ( hadn’t ) ( ’d better ) ‫ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم ﻣﻊ‬


Ex : You’d better study , hadn’t you ? / You’d rather come early , wouldn’t you ?

Imperative ‫ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻻﻣرﯾﺔ‬:‫ﺛﺎﻟﺛﺎ‬

Positive Imperative ‫ اﻷﻣر اﻟﻣﺛﺑت‬Negative Imperative ‫اﻷﻣر اﻟﻣﻧﻔﻲ‬


( ‫ﯾﺗﻛون ﻣن ﻣﺻدر اﻟﻔﻌل ) ﻏﺎﻟﺑﺎ ﻧﺣذف اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬ ( Don’t + ‫ﯾﺗﻛون ﻣن ) ﻣﺻدر اﻟﻔﻌل‬
Open the door . Don't open the door.
Sit down, please . Don't sit down .
Always play sports. Never smoke cigarettes.

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Negative Sentence ‫اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﻣﻧﻔﯾﺔ‬

Ex : I haven’t eaten fish. ( ‫ ﻓﻌل ﻣﺳﺎﻋد‬+ not + ‫ ﻋﻧد اﻟﻧﻔﻲ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم ) ﻓﻌل أﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬-

.( ‫ ﺑﻌد اﻟﻔﻌل اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋد أو اﻟﻧﺎﻗص وﻧﺗرك اﻟﻔﻌل اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻛﻣﺎ ھو‬not ‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ وﺟود أﻓﻌﺎل ﻣﺳﺎﻋدة أو ﻧﺎﻗﺻﺔ ) ﻧﺿﻊ‬
1)I’m eating some fish now. 1)I’m not eating any fish now.
2) He’s playing tennis now. 2) He’s not playing tennis now.
3) They were sleeping. 3) They were not sleeping.
4) She has just studied English. 4) She has not studied English yet.
5) I have got a car. 5) I have not got a car.
6) I will come tomorrow. 6) I won’t come tomorrow.
7) You should sleep early. 7) You shouldn’t sleep early.
. ‫( وﻧﻛﺗب اﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺻدر‬not ) ‫( ﺣﺳب زﻣن اﻟﺣدث ﺛم ﻧﺿﻊ‬do / does / did ) ‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋدم وﺟود أﻓﻌﺎل ﻣﺳﺎﻋدة أو ﻧﺎﻗﺻﺔ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬
‫ ( وذﻟك‬He, She , It , ‫ اﻷﺳم اﻟﻣﻔرد‬،‫ ( ﺑﻌد ) اﻷﺳم اﻟﻐﯾر ﻣﻌدود‬does ) ‫ ( و‬I, We ,You ,They ، ‫ ( ﺑﻌد )اﻷﺳم اﻟﺟﻣﻊ‬do ) ‫ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬
. ‫ ( ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم ﻣﻊ اﻟﻛل ﻓﻲ زﻣن اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬did ) ‫ﻓﻲ زﻣن اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺑﺳﯾط أﻣﺎ‬
1) I drive my car every day. 1) I don’t drive my car every day.
2) He drives a car every day. 2) He doesn’t drive a car every day.
3) She drove a car yesterday. 3) She didn’t drive a car yesterday.
.‫( وﻧﻛﺗب اﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺻدر‬not ) ‫( ﺣﺳب زﻣن اﻟﺣدث ﺛم ﻧﺿﻊ‬do / does / did ) ‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻷﻓﻌﺎل اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋدة ﻛﺄﻓﻌﺎل أﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬
1) I have a car. 1) I don’t have a car.
2) He has curly hair. 2) He doesn’t have curly hair.
3) I had some friends. 3) I didn’t have any friends.
4) I have to study. 4) I don’t have to study.
5) He has to get up early. 5) He doesn’t have to get up early.
6) They had to play well. 6) They didn’t have to play well.
7) I do my homework. 7) I don’t do my homework.
8) He does his homework. 8) He doesn’t do his homework.
9) They did all their best. 9) They didn’t do all their best.
.( am / is / are / was /were ) ‫ ( ﻣﻊ ﻓﻌل ﯾﻛون‬do / does / did ‫ﻻ ﺗﻧطﺑق اﻟﻘﺎﻋدة اﻟﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻓﻌل ﯾﻛون ) ﻻ ﯾﺟوز أن ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬
1) I am a boy. 1) I am not a boy.
2) She was ill. 2) She wasn’t ill.
.‫ ( وﻧﻛﺗب اﻟﻔﻌل ﻛﻣﺎ ھو ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺻدر‬had better / would rather ) ‫ ﺑﻌد‬not ‫ﻧﺿﻊ‬
1) You’d better study. 1) You’d better not play.
2) I’d rather have tea. 2) I’d rather not have tea.
.( never , nothing , nobody, no one , none , neither , nor… ) ‫ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم ﻛﻠﻣﺎت ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن اﻟﻧﻔﻲ ﻣﺛل‬
1) He usually plays tennis. 1) He never plays tennis.
2) There was something on the table. 2) There was nothing ( none ) on the table.
3) There was somebody in the park. 3) There was nobody ( no one / none ) in the park.
4) I like fish and meat. 4) I don’t like fish or meat. / I like neither fish nor meat.
5) Both of my parents love shopping. 5) Neither of my parents loves shopping.
6) All ( All of the ) students like English 6) None of the students ( like / likes ) English.
. ‫ ( ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﮭﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺘﺤﺪث ﻋﻦ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬none / no one / no body ) ‫ (ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺘﺤﺪث ﻋﻦ أﺛﻨﯿﻦ أﻣﺎ‬Neither )‫ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬-
‫ ( وﻟﻜﻦ‬like ) ‫ ( أو ﻓﻌﻞ ﻟﺼﯿﻐﺔ اﻟﺠﻤﻊ‬likes ) ‫ ( ﯾﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻓﻌﻞ ﻟﺼﯿﻐﺔ اﻟﻤﻔﺮد‬none ) ‫ ( أﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‬loves ) ‫ ( ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻓﻌﻞ ﻟﺼﯿﻐﺔ اﻟﻤﻔﺮد‬neither ) ‫ ﺑﻌﺪ‬-
.( likes ) ‫اﻷﻓﻀﻞ اﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻓﻌﻞ ﻟﺼﯿﻐﺔ اﻟﻤﻔﺮد‬
none ) ‫ ( و‬both ) ‫ ( ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ‬neither ) ‫ ( و‬and ) ‫ ( ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ‬or ) ‫ ( و‬just / already) ‫ ( ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ‬yet ) ‫ ( و‬some ) ‫( ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ‬any ) ‫ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬-
. ‫ ( ﻓﻲ اﻟﺠﻤﻞ اﻟﻤﻨﻔﯿﺔ‬all ) ‫ ( ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ‬no one / no body /

10
Irregular Verbs ‫أﻓﻌﺎل ﺷﺎذة‬
Present Past P.P. Present Past P.P.
‫ﻣﺿﺎرع‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺻرﯾف ﺛﺎﻟث‬ ‫ﻣﺿﺎرع‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺻرﯾف ﺛﺎﻟث‬
cost ‫ﯾﻛﻠف‬ cost cost break ‫ﯾﻛﺳر‬ broke broken
cut ‫ ﯾﺟرح‬/ ‫ﯾﻘطﻊ‬ cut cut choose ‫ﯾﺧﺗﺎر‬ chose chosen
hit ‫ ﯾﺻطدم‬/ ‫ﯾﺿرب‬ hit hit speak ‫ ﯾﺗﺣدث‬/ ‫ﯾﺗﻛﻠم‬ spoke spoken
hurt ‫ ﯾﺻﯾب‬/ ‫ﯾؤذي‬ hurt hurt steal ‫ﯾﺳرق‬ stole stolen
let ‫ ﯾﺳﻣﺢ‬/‫ ﯾﺗرك‬/ ‫ﯾدع‬ let let wake ‫ﯾوﻗظ‬ woke woken
put ‫ﯾﺿﻊ‬ put put drive ‫ﯾﺳوق‬ drove driven
shut ‫ﯾﻐﻠق‬ shut shut ride ‫ﯾرﻛب‬ rode ridden
rise ‫ ﯾﺷرق‬/ ‫ﯾرﺗﻔﻊ‬ rose risen
lend ‫ﯾﺳﻠف‬ lent lent write ‫ﯾﻛﺗب‬ wrote written
send ‫ﯾرﺳل‬ sent sent
spend ‫ ﯾﻧﻔق‬/ ‫ﯾﻘﺿﻲ‬ spent spent beat ‫ ﯾﻧﺑض‬/ ‫ ﯾﺿرب‬/ ‫ﯾﮭزم‬ beat beaten
build ‫ﯾﺑﻧﻲ‬ built built bite ‫ﯾﻌض‬ bit bitten
burn ‫ ﯾﺣﺗرق‬/ ‫ﯾﺣرق‬ burnt burnt hide ‫ ﯾﺧﺗﺑﺄ‬/ ‫ﯾﺧﻔﻲ‬ hid hidden
learn ‫ﯾﺗﻌﻠم‬ learnt learnt
smell ‫ﯾﺷم‬ smelt smelt eat ‫ﯾﺄﻛل‬ ate eaten
lose ‫ ﯾﺧﺳر‬/ ‫ﯾﻔﻘد‬ lost lost fall ‫ ﯾﻘﻊ‬/ ‫ﯾﺳﻘط‬ fell fallen
shoot ‫ﯾطﻠق‬ shot shot forget ‫ﯾﻧﺳﻲ‬ forgot forgotten
get ‫ ﯾﺣﺻل‬/ ‫ﯾﺻﺑﺢ‬ got got give ‫ﯾﻌطﻲ‬ gave given
light ‫ ﯾﻧﯾر‬/ ‫ﯾﺿﺊ‬ lit lit see ‫ﯾري‬ saw seen
take ‫ﯾﺄﺧذ‬ took taken
sit ‫ﯾﺟﻠس‬ sat sat
keep ‫ﯾﺣﻔظ‬ kept kept blow ‫ ﯾﻧﻔﺦ‬/ ‫ﯾﮭب‬ blew blown
sleep ‫ﯾﻧﺎم‬ slept slept grow ‫ ﯾزرع‬/ ‫ﯾﻛﺑر‬ grew grown
feel ‫ ﯾﺣس‬/ ‫ﯾﺷﻌر‬ felt felt Know ‫ ﯾﻌﻠم‬/ ‫ﯾﻌرف‬ knew known
leave ‫ﯾﺗرك‬ left left throw ‫ ﯾﻘذف‬/ ‫ﯾرﻣﻲ‬ threw thrown
meet ‫ﯾﻘﺎﺑل‬ met met fly ‫ﯾطﯾر‬ flew flown
dream ‫ﯾﺣﻠم‬ dreamt dreamt draw ‫ﯾرﺳم‬ drew drawn
mean ‫ ﯾﻘﺻد‬/ ‫ﯾﻌﻧﻲ‬ meant meant show ‫ ﯾوﺿﺢ‬/ ‫ﯾﺑﯾن‬ showed shown

bring ‫ﯾﺣﺿر‬ brought brought begin ‫ﯾﺑدأ‬ began begun


buy ‫ﯾﺷﺗري‬ bought bought drink ‫ﯾﺷرب‬ drank drunk
fight ‫ ﯾﺗﺷﺎﺟر‬/ ‫ﯾﺣﺎرب‬ fought fought swim ‫ﯾﺳﺑﺢ‬ swam swum
think ‫ ﯾﻌﺗﻘد‬/ ‫ﯾﻔﻛر‬ thought thought ring ‫ ﯾدق‬/ ‫ﯾرن‬ rang rung
catch ‫ ﯾﺻطﺎد‬/ ‫ﯾﻣﺳك‬ caught caught sing ‫ﯾﻐﻧﻲ‬ sang sung
teach ‫ ﯾﻌﻠم‬/ ‫ﯾدرس‬ taught taught run ‫ﯾﺟري‬ ran run

sell ‫ﯾﺑﯾﻊ‬ sold sold come ‫ ﯾﺄﺗﻲ‬came come


tell ‫ ﯾﺣﻛﻲ‬/ ‫ﯾﺧﺑر‬ told told become ‫ ﯾﺻﺑﺢ‬became become
go ‫ﯾذھب‬ went gone
find ‫ﯾﺟد‬ found found Helping Verbs ‫اﻷﻓﻌﺎل اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋدة‬
have ‫ﯾﻣﺗﻠك‬ had had
hear ‫ﯾﺳﻣﻊ‬ heard heard ‫اﻟﻣﺻدر‬ ‫ﻣﺿﺎرع‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺻرﯾف ﺛﺎﻟث‬
hold ‫ ﯾﻌﻘد‬/ ‫ﯾﻣﺳك‬ held held
be ‫ﯾﻛون‬ am / is was been
read ‫ﯾﻘرأ‬ read read are were
say ‫ﯾﻘول‬ said said have ‫ﯾﻣﺗﻠك‬ have / has had had
pay ‫ ﯾﺳدد‬/ ‫ﯾدﻓﻊ‬ paid paid do ‫ﯾﻔﻌل‬ do / does did done
make ‫ ﯾﺻﻧﻊ‬/ ‫ﯾﺟﻌل‬ made made Modal Verbs ‫اﻷﻓﻌﺎل اﻟﻧﺎﻗﺻﺔ‬
stand ‫ﯾﻘف‬ stood stood ‫ﻣﺿﺎرع‬ will shall can may must
understand ‫ﯾﻔﮭم‬ understood understood
‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬ would should could might had to
shine ‫ ﯾﺳطﻊ‬/ ‫ﯾﺷرق‬ shone shone

11
‫أﺷﻛﺎل اﻟﻔﻌل‬

( go / play … ) ‫ ﻣﺻدر اﻟﻔﻌل‬Infinitive (١

‫ﯾﺄﺗﻲ ﺑﻌد‬ Example


(do , does , did , don’t , doesn’t , didn’t ) - Did you go to school yesterday ?
.‫ﻟﻠﻧﻔﻲ وﺗﻛوﯾن اﻟﺳؤال ﻓﻲ زﻣﻧﻲ اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺑﺳﯾط واﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬ - My brother doesn’t play tennis .
‫اﻷﻓﻌﺎل اﻟﻧﺎﻗﺻﺔ‬ - I will visit you tomorrow .
{will (‘ll ) - would (‘d ) / shall - should - You should study your lessons .
can - could / may - might -must - had to / - You ought to play sports .
have ( has ) to - had to - ought to
‫اﻷﺳم اﻟﺟﻣﻊ ﻓﻲ زﻣن اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع‬, We , You , They , I - I usually get up early .
. ‫ اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬- My friends play soccer every week
: ‫ ( ﻓﻘط‬to ) ‫ ﺑﻌض اﻷﻓﻌﺎل اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ ﻣﺳﺑوﻗﺎ ب‬- I forgot to do my homework .
( want - need - would like - hope – plan - try – afford- - I’d like to have tea .
fail- refuse – arrange- tend- decide- forget- learn-
promise - offer - manage ) - My father told me to study .
: to + ‫ او ﻣﺳﺑوﻗﺎ ب ﻣﻔﻌول‬- Does he want to play football ?
ask - tell – advise – teach - persuade - expect -
encourage – help -remind… )
: ( to ) ‫ﺑﻌض اﻷﻓﻌﺎل اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ ﺑدون‬ - The film made me cry .
make / let ‫ﯾﺄﺗﻲ ﺑﻌدھم ﻣﻔﻌول‬ - My father let me go .
had better / would rather ‫ ﻻ ﯾﺄﺗﻲ ﺑﻌدھم ﻣﻔﻌول‬- You had better study your lessons .
- I’d rather have tea .
used to ‫ اﻋﺗﺎد أن‬- When I was young , I used to sleep
early .
to , in order to , so as to ‫ﻟﻛﻲ‬ - I go to school to learn .
to ‫ أن‬- The tea is too hot to drink .
- He isn’t old enough to drive a car .
- Open the door , please .
‫ﻓﻌل اﻷﻣر واﻟﻧﮭﻲ‬ - Never play with matches .
- If you go to the club , call me please .
V+ ing (ing ) ‫( ﻓﻌل ﻣﻧﺗﮭﻲ ب‬2)

‫ﯾﺄﺗﻲ ﺑﻌد‬ Examples


(be / am , is , are / was , were / been )‫ﻓﻌل ﯾﻛون‬ - I am studying English now .
. ‫ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن اﻷزﻣﻧﺔ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣرة‬ - I have been waiting for two hours .
( in , on , at , of , for , about , by , - I’m fond of reading stories .
: ‫ﺣروف اﻟﺟر‬
with , without , through , during ….. ) - My sister is interested in cooking .
: ‫اﻟرواﺑط اﻟزﻣﻧﯾﺔ اذا ﺣذﻓﻧﺎ اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬
- After watching TV , I went to bed .
( After , Before, when, while, As soon as..) -While walking alone , I saw a snake .
: ‫ ﺑﻌض اﻷﻓﻌﺎل اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ‬- Did you enjoy watching the film ?
(go -enjoy -avoid-keep- complete - finish -stop- - My brother fears going out at night .
quit-give up-mind-suggest-imagine-fear-miss- - Healthy lifestyle involves playing
practise-deny-involve- risk- fancy ….) sports.
Verb + object ( ‫ ﻣﻔﻌول‬+ ‫) ﻓﻌل أﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬ - I saw some boys playing football .
- There is a man waiting for you .
( am , is , are ) - He’s used to reading stories .
( was , were ) used to - I get used to sleeping early .
( get , got )
‫ ﯾﺗطﻠﻊ اﻟﻲ‬Look forward to - I’m looking forward to seeing you .
( S ) ‫ اﺳم اﻟﻔﻌل ) ﻓﻲ ﺑداﯾﺔ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ ( واﻟﻔﻌل اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺑﻌده ﯾﻛون ﻣﻧﺗﮭﻲ ب‬- Playing sports makes you healthy .

١2
: ‫ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌض اﻟﺗﻌﺑﯾرات‬
I can’t stand ‫ﻻ أﺳﺗطﯾﻊ ﺗﺣﻣل‬ -I can’t stand waiting for him.
I can’t help ‫ﻻ أﺳﺗطﯾﻊ أن أﻣﺗﻧﻊ ﻋن‬ - I can’t help laughing.
It’s no use / good ‫ﻻ ﻓﺎﺋدة ﻣن‬ - It’s no use smoking cigarettes.
It’s worth ‫ﺗﺳﺗﺣق‬ - It’s worth watching .
How about / What about ? ‫ﻣﺎذا ﻋن‬ - How about playing soccer ?
Would you mind / Do you mind ? ‫ھل ﺗﻣﺎﻧﻊ‬ - Would you mind opening the door ?
( goes / plays …. ) ( V+ S ) ( S ) ‫( ﻓﻌل ﻣﻧﺗﮭﻲ ب‬٣)

‫ﯾﺄﺗﻲ ﺑﻌد‬ Examples


( He , She , It , ‫ اﻷﺳم اﻟﻐﯾر ﻣﻌدود‬,‫ ) اﻷﺳم اﻟﻣﻔرد‬- My brother always gets up early .
‫ ﻓﻲ زﻣن اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬- Water boils at 100 degree .
( ing ‫ﺑﻌد اﺳم اﻟﻔﻌل ) اﻟﻔﻌل اﻟﻣﻧﺗﮭﻲ ب‬ - Playing sports makes you healthy .
( went / played ) ‫( ﻓﻌل ﻓﻲ اﻟﺗﺻرﯾف اﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ‬4 )
‫اﻷﺳﺗﺧدام‬ Examples
. ‫ ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن زﻣن اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬- - Yesterday , I studied English .

( yesterday-last- ago- one day - once - - I went to the zoo and saw many animals .
in the past …)
. ( ‫ ﺣدث ﻣﻔﺎﺟﻲء ) ﯾﻘطﻊ ﺣدث ﻣﺳﺗﻣر ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬- - While I was running , I fell down.

‫ ﺣدث ﯾﺄﺗﻲ ﺑﻌد ﺣدث أﺧر ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ ) اﻷول ﯾﻛون‬- - After I had studied , I went out .
. ( ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎم واﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺳﯾط‬
- I had studied before I went out .
( gone / played ) ‫( ﻓﻌل ﻓﻲ اﻟﺗﺻرﯾف اﻟﺛﺎﻟث‬5)

‫ﯾﺄﺗﻲ ﺑﻌد‬ Examples


( have , has , had ) ‫ﻓﻌل ﯾﻣﺗﻠك‬ - I’ve just done my homework .

( ‫ ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن اﻷزﻣﻧﺔ اﻟﺗﺎﻣﺔ ) ﻣﺿﺎرع ﺗﺎم وﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎم‬- I haven’t studied English yet .
- I didn’t go out till I had studied English .
( be / being / am , is , are / was , were / - Our school was built in 1980 .
been ) ‫ﻓﻌل ﯾﻛون‬
- The children are told to sleep early .
( passive voice ) ‫وذﻟك ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺑﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﻣﺟﮭول‬

‫ﻣﻼﺣظﺎت ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬

be , being , am , is , are , was , were , been ( V + ing ) playing ‫ ﻟﻠﻣﻌﻠوم‬/ (V3) played ‫ﻟﻠﻣﺟﮭول‬

do , does , did , don’t , doesn’t , didn’t ( inf. ‫ ( ) ﻣﺻدر اﻟﻔﻌل‬play / go )

will , would ‫وﺑﺎﻗﻲ اﻷﻓﻌﺎل اﻟﻧﺎﻗﺻﺔ‬ ( inf. ‫ ( ) ﻣﺻدر اﻟﻔﻌل‬play / go )

have , has , had ( V3 ) ( played / gone )

١3
Tenses ‫اﻷزﻣﻧﺔ‬

Tense Affirmative ‫اﺛﺑﺎت‬ Negative ‫ﻧﻔﻲ‬ Question ‫ﺳؤال‬


Present Simple - Inf. ( play / go ) ‫ﻣﺻدر اﻟﻔﻌل‬ ( don’t / doesn’t ) + ‫اﻟﻣﺻدر‬ ( do /does ) + ‫ اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬+‫? اﻟﻣﺻدر‬
‫ﻣﺿﺎرع ﺑﺳﯾط‬
-V+s ( plays / goes )( s + ‫) ﻓﻌل‬ don’t / doesn’t ( play / go ) Do you play? / Does he play?

‫ﻛﻠﻣﺎﺗﮫ‬ always - usually- sometimes - occasionally- often-rarely-seldom-never - every ( day/week .. )

Past Simple Regular ( played ) ‫ﻣﻧﺗظم‬ didn’t + ‫اﻟﻣﺻدر‬ Did + ‫ اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬+ ‫? اﻟﻣﺻدر‬
‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺳﯾط‬ Irregular ( went ) ‫ﺷﺎذ‬ didn’t ( play / go ) Did you ( play / go ) yesterday?
‫ﻛﻠﻣﺎﺗﮫ‬ yesterday - once - one day - ago - in the past - last ( day / week ..) - in 1990 - WW1

Future ( will / shall ) + ‫( اﻟﻣﺻدر‬play ) won’t + ‫ ( اﻟﻣﺻدر‬play ) will + ‫ اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬+ ‫? اﻟﻣﺻدر‬


Simple I will play tomorrow. I won’t play tomorrow. Will you play tomorrow ?

‫ﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑل ﺑﺳﯾط‬ (am-is-are)+going to + inf. (am-is-are) not + going to + inf. (Am-Is-Are)+ ‫ اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬+ going to +inf.?
I’m going to play tomorrow. I’m not going to play…… Are you going to play tomorrow ?
‫ﻛﻠﻣﺎﺗﮫ‬ tomorrow - next ( day / week ..) - soon - today - in the future - in (two weeks) - hope - wish

Present (am-is-are ) + v + ing ( playing) (am-is-are ) not + v+ ing ( Am-Is-Are) + ‫ اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬+V + ing ?
Continuous
‫ﻣﺿﺎرع ﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬ I’m playing now. I’m not playing now. Are you playing ?
‫ﻛﻠﻣﺎﺗﮫ‬ now - at this moment - at the present time - these days - this week - Look !- Listen !

Past (was -were )+ v + ing (playing) (was /were )+ not + v + ing (was / were ) + ‫اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬+ V+ ing
Continuous
‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬ I was playing at 6 last day. I wasn’t playing at 6 last day. Were you playing at 6 last day?

‫ﻛﻠﻣﺎﺗﮫ‬ While ( As ) ‫ ﺑﯾﻧﻣﺎ‬- When ‫ ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ‬- All ( day - night ) ( ‫ اﻟﻠﯾﻠﺔ‬/ ‫ طوال )اﻟﯾوم‬- at 6:00 yesterday

Present Perfect ( have / has ) + V3 (played ) (have /has)+ not + V3 (played) ( have / has ) + ‫ اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬+ V3 ?
‫ﻣﺿﺎرع ﺗﺎم‬
I have just played tennis. I haven’t played tennis yet. Have you played yet ?

‫ﻛﻠﻣﺎﺗﮫ‬ just - already - ever - never - for - since- yet - several times - so far - lately - recently

Present Perfect ( have / has ) + been + V+ing (have /has)+ not + been+ V+ing (have /has) + ‫ اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬+ been+ V+ ing
Continuous
‫ﻣﺿﺎرع ﺗﺎم ﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬ I have been playing for 2 hours. I haven’t been playing ….. Have you been playing ….. ?

Past Perfect had +( V3 ) ( played / gone ) hadn’t + (V3) (played/ gone ) had + ‫ ﻓﺎﻋل‬+ ( V3 ) ( played ) ?
‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎم‬ I had played tennis . I hadn’t played tennis . Had you played tennis ?
‫ﻛﻠﻣﺎﺗﮫ‬ ( After - As soon as ) / ( Till - Until ) / ( Before - By the time )

. ‫◄ ﺷﻛل ﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻷزﻣﻧﺔ ﻛﻣﺎ ھو ) ﻓﻲ اﻷﺛﺑﺎت واﻟﻧﻔﻲ واﻟﺳؤال ( ﻣﺎﻋدا زﻣن اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺑﺳﯾط واﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬
. ( Verb to Do ‫◄ ﻓﻲ زﻣن اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺑﺳﯾط واﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺑﺳﯾط ) ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم ﻣﺻدر اﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ اﻟﻧﻔﻲ واﻟﺳؤال ﺑﻌد‬
Examples
‫أﺛﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺳؤال‬
He plays football . He doesn’t play football . Does he play football ?
He played football . He didn’t play football . Did he play football ?

14
Affirmative ‫ اﻷﺛﺑﺎت‬Negative ‫ اﻟﻧﻔﻲ‬Question ‫اﻟﺳؤال‬

‫اﻟﻣﺻد ر‬ ‫ ﻓﻌل‬+ S don’t ‫اﻟﻣﺻد ر‬ Do


‫اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬ inf
doesn’t Does ..

live lives Do play


go goes don’t ‫اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬ live
Watch watches play Does go
try tries live
study studies doesn’t go Yes, ….. ( do / does )
play plays No, …….( don’t / doesn’t )

I I I
We We we
You ‫اﻟﻣﺻد ر‬ You don’t + inf. Do you + inf.
They They they
‫اﺳم ﺟﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﺳم ﺟﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﺳم ﺟﻣﻊ‬

He He he
Does
She She she + inf.
‫ ﻓﻌل‬+ s doesn’t
It It + inf it
‫اﺳم ﻣﻔرد‬ ‫اﺳم ﻣﻔرد‬ ‫اﺳم ﻣﻔرد‬

I usually go to school. I don’t go to school . Do you go to school ?


Yes, I do. / No, I don’t .

Ali plays football. Ali doesn’t play football. Does Ali play football ?
Yes, he does . / No, he doesn’t .

They ride bikes . They don’t ride bikes . What do they ride ?
They ride bikes .

My sister reads stories . My sister doesn’t read stories. What does your sister read ?
She reads stories .
: ‫◄ اﻟﻛﻠﻣﺎت اﻟداﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ زﻣن اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬
Always ‫ داﺋﻣﺎ‬-usually ‫ﻋﺎدة‬- sometimes ‫ أﺣﯾﺎﻧﺎ‬-often ‫ ﻏﺎﻟﺑﺎ‬-seldom / scarcely / rarely ‫ ﻧﺎدرا‬-never ‫أﺑدا‬
Every / Each ( day – week- month- year…) ( ‫ﺳﻧﺔ‬ – ‫ﻛل )ﯾوم – أﺳﺑوع – ﺷﮭر‬
Once day
Twice a week
Three times month
year

- I usually go to the park . ‫( ﻋﺎدة ﻣﻧﺗظﻣﺔ‬١ : ‫◄ ﯾﻌﺑر اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺑﺳﯾط ﻋن‬


The sun rises in the east . ‫ ( ﺣﻘﯾﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻣﯾﺔ‬٢
My father works in an office. ‫( ﺣﻘﯾﻘﺔ ﯾوﻣﯾﺔ‬٣
: ‫◄ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺑﺳﯾط ﺑﻌد اﻟرواﺑط اﻟزﻣﻧﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑل‬
Ex : When I travel to Paris , I will see Eiffel Tower.

15
Affirmative ‫ اﻷﺛﺑﺎت‬Negative ‫ اﻟﻧﻔﻲ‬Question ‫اﻟﺳؤال‬

didn’t ‫اﻟﻣﺻد ر‬ Did ‫اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬ inf


‫ﻣﻧﺗظم‬ ‫ﺷﺎذ‬
.
watch watched watched didn’t watch Yes , …… ( did )
live lived lived didn’t live No , ……. ( didn’t )
study studied studied didn’t study
play played played didn’t play
go went went didn’t go
see saw saw didn’t see

‫ﺑﻌض اﻷﻓﻌﺎل اﻟﺷﺎذة‬


am / is was are were do / does did
have / has had sell sold tell told
drink drank swim swam ring rang
sing sang run ran come came
become became drive drove ride rode
write wrote take took give gave
get got forget forgot fall fell
speak spoke choose chose break broke
fly flew grow grew blow blew
draw drew smell smelt feel felt
sleep slept eat ate make made

I went to school yesterday. I didn’t go to school. Did you go to school ?


Yes, I did . / No, I didn’t .

Ali played football . Ali didn’t play football . Did Ali play football ?
Yes, he did . / No, he didn’t .

They rode bikes last week. They didn’t ride bikes . What did they ride ?
They rode bikes .

My father traveled last year. My father didn’t travel last When did your father travel ?
year. He traveled last year.

: ‫◄ اﻟﻛﻠﻣﺎت اﻟداﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ زﻣن اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬


yesterday ‫ أﻣس‬- last ( day - week - month - year ) ‫ اﻟﺳﻧﺔ ( اﻟﻣﺎﺿﯾﺔ‬-‫ اﻟﺷﮭر‬-‫ اﻷﺳﺑوع‬-‫) اﻟﯾوم‬

( two days - two weeks …..) ago ( ...... ‫ ﻣﻧذ ) ﯾوﻣﯾن – أﺳﺑوﻋﯾن‬- In the past ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬- Once ‫ذات ﻣرة‬

One day ‫ ذات ﯾوم‬- Once upon a time ‫ ﯾﺣﻛﻲ أن‬- In 1990

: ‫◄ ﯾﻌﺑر اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺑﺳﯾط ﻋن ﺣدث ﺗم ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ وأﻧﺗﮭﻲ ﺗﻣﺎﻣﺎ‬


Ex : I watched a good film on TV. last night .
My friend bought a new car last week .
My sister swam in the sea three weeks ago .
I saw many monkeys when I went to the zoo .
I didn’t come because I was ill .

16
Affirmative ‫اﻷﺛﺑﺎت‬ Negative ‫ اﻟﻧﻔﻲ‬Question ‫اﻟﺳؤال‬

will (’ ll ) won’t Will


‫اﻟﻣﺻد ر‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺻد ر‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺻد ر‬
shall shan’t Shall

Yes, …. will / shall


No , …. won’t / shan’t

. ‫ ( ﻓﻧﺳﺗﺧدﻣﮭﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻟﺿﻣﺎﺋر‬will ) ‫ ( أﻣﺎ‬I , we ) ‫ ( ﻓﻘط ﻣﻊ‬shall ) ‫◄ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬

I will come tomorrow . I won’t come tomorrow . Will you come tomorrow ?
Yes , I will . / No , I won’t .

I will travel next week . I won’t travel next week . When will you travel ?
I’ll travel next week .

‫ﺷﻛل أﺧر ﻟﻠﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑل‬

am am not Am

is isn’t Is
+ going to + ‫اﻟﻣﺻدر‬ + going to + ‫اﻟﻣﺻدر‬ + + S + going to +‫اﻟﻣﺻدر‬

are aren’t
Are

I’m going to watch TV today . I’m not going to watch TV today. Are you going to watch TV ?
Yes , I am . / No , I’m not .

My friend is going to study . My friend isn’t going to study . Is your friend going to study ?
Yes , he is . / No , he isn’t .

: ‫◄ اﻟﻛﻠﻣﺎت اﻟداﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ زﻣن اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑل اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬


tomorrow ‫ ﻏدا‬- next ( day – week – month – year ) ‫ اﻟﺷﮭر – اﻟﺳﻧﺔ ( اﻟﻘﺎدﻣﺔ‬-‫) اﻟﯾوم – اﻷﺳﺑوع‬
soon ‫ ﻗرﯾﺑﺎ‬- hope / wish ‫ ﯾﺗﻣﻧﻲ‬/ ‫ ﯾﺄﻣل‬- In the future ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑل‬- In 2050

Ex: He will travel next week . ‫ ( ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن ﻓﻌل ﺳوف ﯾﺣدث ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑل‬will +inf.) ‫◄ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم زﻣن اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑل اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬
Ex : I think Ali will come soon. : ‫◄ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم زﻣن اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑل اﻟﺑﺳﯾط ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن اﻟﺗﻧﺑؤ‬
Ex: I’m hungry. I will have a sandwich. : ‫◄ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم زﻣن اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑل اﻟﺑﺳﯾط ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن ﻗرار ﻣﻔﺎﺟﺊ‬
Ex: There are dark clouds . It’s going to rain. ( will ) ‫ ( ﺑدﻻ ﻣن‬be + going to + inf. ) ‫◄ﻋﻧد وﺟود دﻟﯾل ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬
Ex : I’m going to study English today. : ‫ ( ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن اﻟﻧﯾﺔ‬will +inf. ) ‫ ( أو‬be+ going to + inf. ) ‫◄وﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬
I will study English today.
: ‫◄ﻻ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم زﻣن اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑل اﻟﺑﺳﯾط ﺑﻌد اﻟرواﺑط اﻟزﻣﻧﯾﺔ ﻣﺑﺎﺷرة واﻧﻣﺎ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم زﻣن اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬
Ex : After I finish university , I will have a job. /When I go to Paris , I’m going to buy a new car.
: ‫◄ﻻ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم زﻣن اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑل اﻟﺑﺳﯾط ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن اﻟﺣﻘﺎﺋق اﻟﻌﻠﻣﯾﺔ‬
Ex : If we boil water , it turns into steam ( will turn ) ‫ﻻ ﯾﺟوز ان ﻧﻘول‬
.( ‫ ( ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑل ) ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ ﯾﻛون اﻟﺣدث ﻣؤﻛد‬am / is / are + ‫ ﻓﻌل‬+ ing ) ‫◄ ﯾﻣﻛن ان ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم زﻣن اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬
Ex : My father has got a ticket . He is traveling next week .

17
Affirmative ‫اﻷﺛﺑﺎت‬ Negative ‫اﻟﻧﻔﻲ‬ Question ‫اﻟﺳؤال‬

am am not Am
‫ ﻓﻌل‬+ ing ‫ ﻓﻌل‬+ ing ‫اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬ ‫ﻓﻌل‬
is isn’t Is
+ing
are aren’t Are

am (’m )
is (’ s ) Yes , … ( am / is / are ) .
are ( ’re ) No , … ( am not / isn’t / aren’t ).

I am I am not Am I

He He He
She She She ‫ﻓﻌل‬
It is It isn’t Is It
‫اﺳم ﻣﻔرد‬ ‫اﺳم ﻣﻔرد‬ ‫اﺳم ﻣﻔرد‬ +ing

We We We
You are You aren’t You
They They Are They
‫اﺳم ﺟﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﺳم ﺟﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﺳم ﺟﻣﻊ‬

I’m eating fish now. I am not eating fish . Are you eating fish ?
Yes, I am . / No, I’m not .

Look ! Ali is playing football . Ali isn’t playing football . Is Ali playing football ?
Yes, he is . / No , he isn’t .

They aren’t singing . Are they singing ?


Listen ! They're singing . Yes , they are . / No, they aren’t .

I'm not studying now . What are you doing now ?


I'm studying now . I'm studying now .

: ‫زﻣن اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬ ‫◄ اﻟﻛﻠﻣﺎت اﻟداﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ‬


now ‫ اﻷن‬- at the moment ‫ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠك اﻟﻠﺣظﺔ‬- Look ! ‫اﻧظر‬- Listen ! ‫ أﺳﺗﻣﻊ‬- today ‫اﻟﯾوم‬
This ( day – week ……) ( ...... ‫ ھذا ) اﻟﯾوم – اﻷﺳﺑوع‬- at the present time ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟوﻗت اﻟﺣﺎﻟﻲ‬
Be quiet ! ‫ ﻛن ھﺎدﺋﺎ‬- Watch out ! ‫ أﺣﺗرس‬- Be careful ! ‫ﻛن ﺣرﯾﺻﺎ‬

: ‫◄ ﯾﻌﺑر زﻣن اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر ﻋن ﻓﻌل ﯾﺣدث اﻷن ) ﻟﺣظﺔ اﻟﻛﻼم ( أو ﺣدث ﻣؤﻗت‬
Ex : 1) My father is reading a newspaper at the moment .
2) Look ! My friend is climbing a tree . 3) We are having exams this week .

: ‫◄ ﯾﻌﺑر زﻣن اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر ﻋن ﻓﻌل ﯾﺣدث ﺗدرﯾﺟﯾﺎ‬


Ex : Air pollution is increasing very fast .
: ( ing ‫◄ ﺑﻌض اﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﻻ ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﻧﺳﺗﺧدﻣﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻷزﻣﻧﺔ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣرة ) ﻻ ﻧﺿﻊ ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ‬
like / love ‫ ﯾﺣب‬- see ‫ ﯾري‬- hear ‫ ﯾﺳﻣﻊ‬- have ‫ ﯾﻣﺗﻠك‬- think / believe ‫ ﯾﻌﺗﻘد‬- feel ‫ ﯾﺷﻌر‬-
understand ‫ ﯾﻔﮭم‬- prefer ‫ ﯾﻔﺿل‬- hope / wish ‫ ﯾﺗﻣﻧﻲ‬- seem / appear ‫ ﯾﺑدو‬- smell ‫ ﯾﺷم‬- taste ‫ﯾﺗذوق‬
sound ‫ ﯾﺑدو ﻣن ﺻوﺗﮫ‬- want ‫ ﯾرﯾد‬- need ‫ ﯾﺣﺗﺎج‬- know ‫ ﯾﻌرف‬- cost ‫ ﯾﻛﻠف‬- own ‫ﯾﻣﺗﻠك‬
: ‫◄ ھذه اﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﻧﺳﻣﯾﮭﺎ أﻓﻌﺎل ﻻ ارادﯾﺔ ) ﻻ ﯾوﺟد ﻓﯾﮭﺎ ﻣﺟﮭود ( وﻧﺳﺗﺧدﻣﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ زﻣن اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬
Ex : I hear a loud sound now .
: ‫◄اذا ﻛﺎن ھﻧﺎك ﻣﺟﮭود ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم ﻣﻌﮭﺎ ﻣﺿﺎرع ﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬
Ex : The food tastes delicious. (‫ ) ﺑدون ﻣﺟﮭود‬/ The cook is tasting the food now. ( ‫)ﯾوﺟد ﻣﺟﮭود‬

18
Affirmative ‫اﻷﺛﺑﺎت‬ Negative ‫اﻟﻧﻔﻲ‬ Question ‫اﻟﺳؤال‬

was wasn’t ‫ ﻓﻌل‬+ ing Was ‫ﻓﻌل‬


‫ ﻓﻌل‬+ ing ‫اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬ +ing
were weren’t Were

Yes , … was / were


No, ….. wasn’t / weren’t

I was I wasn’t Was I

He He He
She She wasn’t Was She
It was It It ‫ﻓﻌل‬
‫اﺳم ﻣﻔرد‬ ‫اﺳم ﻣﻔرد‬ ‫اﺳم ﻣﻔرد‬ +ing
We We We
You were You weren’t Were You
They They They
‫اﺳم ﺟﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﺳم ﺟﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﺳم ﺟﻣﻊ‬

I was eating fish at 6:00 I wasn’t eating fish at 6:00 Were you eating fish ?
yesterday . yesterday . Yes, I was . / No, I wasn’t .

Ali was playing football . Ali wasn’t playing football . Was Ali playing football ?
Yes, he was . / No ,he wasn’t .

They were singing . They weren’t singing . Were they singing ?


Yes , they were .
/ No, they weren’t .

: ‫اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬ ‫◄ اﻟﻛﻠﻣﺎت اﻟداﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ زﻣن اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬


at 6:00 yesterday ‫ اﻟﺳﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﺳﺎدﺳﺔ اﻣس‬- all day yesterday ‫ طوال اﻟﯾوم أﻣس‬- While / As ‫ ﺑﯾﻧﻣﺎ‬-When ‫ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ‬

: ‫◄ ﯾﻌﺑر زﻣن اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر ﻋن ﺣدث ﻛﺎن ﻣﺳﺗﻣر ﻓﻲ وﻗت ﻣﻌﯾن ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬
My father was sleeping at 12:00 last night .
It was raining all night yesterday .
While I was walking , I met my friend .
When I saw Ali , he was playing football .

While / As ‫ﺑﯾﻧﻣﺎ‬ - When ‫ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ‬


‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺳﯾط‬ While / As ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬
My father came while I was studying . / While I was studying , my father came .

‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬ When ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺳﯾط‬


I was riding my bike when I fell down . / When I fell down , I was riding my bike .
I fell down when I was riding my bike .
: ‫ﻣﻼﺣظﺎت‬
‫ ( ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم زﻣن اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر أو زﻣن اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬When ) ‫ ( ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم زﻣن اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر اﻣﺎ ﺑﻌد‬While / As ) ‫◄ﺑﻌد‬
. ‫◄ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر ﯾﻌﺑر ﻋن ﺣث ﻛﺎن ﻣﺳﺗﻣر ﻣدة طوﯾﻠﺔ اﻣﺎ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺑﺳﯾط ﯾﻌﺑر ﻋن ﺣدث ﻣﻔﺎﺟﺊ‬
. ‫◄ اذا ﻛﺎن ھﻧﺎك ﺣدﺛﺎن ﻣﺳﺗﻣران ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔس اﻟوﻗت ﻓﻧﺳﺗﺧدم زﻣن اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬
Ex : While I was studying , my sisters were playing .

19
Affirmative ‫ اﻷﺛﺑﺎت‬Negative ‫ اﻟﻧﻔﻲ‬Question ‫اﻟﺳؤال‬

have haven’t Have


‫اﻟﺗﺻرﯾف اﻟﺛﺎﻟث‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺻرﯾف اﻟﺛﺎﻟث‬
hasn’t ‫اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬ P. P
has Has

have (’ve ) Have played


has (’s ) ‫اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬ lived
Has gone
have / has played haven’t / hasn’t played
have / has lived haven’t / hasn’t lived Yes, … (have / has )
have / has gone haven’t / hasn’t gone No, … ( haven’t / hasn’t )

I I I
We We we
You have You haven’t + + P.P Have you + P.P
They They they
‫اﺳم ﺟﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﺳم ﺟﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﺳم ﺟﻣﻊ‬

He He he
She She hasn’t + P.P she + P.P
It has It Has it
‫اﺳم ﻣﻔرد‬ ‫اﺳم ﻣﻔرد‬ ‫اﺳم ﻣﻔرد‬

I have already studied . I haven’t studied yet . Have you already studied ?
Yes , I have . / No, I haven’t .
My father has just gone out . My father hasn’t gone out
yet . Has your father gone out ?
Yes , he has . / No, he hasn’t .

Have gone / Have been


Have gone ( went but didn’t return ) ‫ذھب وﻟم ﯾﻌد‬
Ex : My father has gone to Paris . ( He is still in Paris )
Have been ( went and returned ) ‫ذھب وﻋﺎد‬
Ex : My father has been to Paris . ( He isn’t in Paris now )

: ‫◄ اﻟﻛﻠﻣﺎت اﻟداﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ زﻣن اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺗﺎم‬


just ‫ ﺣﺎﻻ‬- already ‫ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌل‬- for ‫ ﻟﻣدة‬- since ‫ ﻣﻧذ‬- ever ‫ ﻣن ﻗﺑل‬- never ‫ أﺑدا‬- yet ‫ﺣﺗﻲ اﻷن‬
so far / up till now ‫ ﺣﺗﻲ اﻷن‬- lately / recently ‫ ﻣﻧذ ﻓﺗرة ﺑﺳﯾطﺔ‬- several / many times ‫ﻣرات ﻋدﯾدة‬

. ‫◄ ﯾﺳﺗﺧدم ھذا اﻟزﻣن ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن ﺣدث ﺣﺻل ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ و اﻧﺗﮭﻰ ﻗﺑل ﻟﺣظﺎت أو اﻧﺗﮭﻰ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ و ﻻزاﻟت آﺛﺎره ﻣوﺟودة ﺣﺗﻰ اﻵن‬
Ex : I have lived in Cairo for six years .
I have not visited him since 1995 .
She has written three letters just now .
He has made a great progress in the project .
I have washed my car . ( It looks lovely now )
He is very hungry . He hasn’t eaten anything since morning .

20
Time Words ‫اﻟﻛﻠﻣﺎت اﻟداﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ زﻣن اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺗﺎم‬

Word ‫ اﻟﻛﻠﻣﺔ‬Usage ‫ اﻷﺳﺗﺧدام‬Example ‫أﻣﺛﻠﺔ‬


Just ‫ﺗوا‬ ( ‫ واﻟﺗﺻرﯾف اﻟﺛﺎﻟث‬have/ has ‫ ◄ﻧﺳﺗﺧدﻣﮭم ﻓﻲ اﻷﺛﺑﺎت) ﺑﯾن‬He has just / already gone out .
‫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺳؤال ) ﻟﻸﺳﺗﻐراب ﻋن‬already ‫◄ ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬
Have you already studied your
already ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌل‬ . ( ‫ ﺳرﻋﺔ أﻧﺗﮭﺎء اﻟﺣدث‬lessons ?

ever ‫ﻣن ﻗﺑل‬ ( ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺳؤال ) ﺑﯾن اﻟﻔﺎﻋل و اﻟﺗﺻرﯾف اﻟﺛﺎﻟث‬ever ‫ ◄ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬-This is the best meal I’ve ever
never ‫أﺑدا‬ . ‫ أو ﻗد ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم ﻓﻲ ﺻﯾﻐﺔ اﻟﺗﻔﺿﯾل‬eaten.
-Have you ever been to Paris ?
( ever ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻷﺟﺎﺑﺔ اﻟﻣﻧﻔﯾﺔ ) ﻟﻠرد ﻋﻠﻲ ﺳؤال‬never ‫ ◄ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬No, I have never been to Paris .
. ( never ) ‫ ﻗﺑل‬not ( n't ) ‫ ◄ ﻻ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬Yes , I went there last year .
‫◄ أذا أﺳﺗﺧدﻣﻧﺎ ﻛﻠﻣﺎت داﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ زﻣن اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬
. ‫اﻟﺑﺳﯾط ﻓﺄﻧﻧﺎ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم زﻣن اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬

yet ‫ﺣﺗﻲ اﻷن‬ . ‫ ﻓﻲ ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺔ اﻟﺟﻣل اﻷﺳﺗﻔﮭﺎﻣﯾﺔ أو اﻟﻣﻧﻔﯾﺔ‬yet ‫◄ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬ Have you finished yet ?
No , I haven’t finished yet .

Since For

Since 6 : 00 For an hour ( one hour ) / two hours ……..


Since Monday For a day ( one day ) / two days ………
Since 2003 For five years .
Since yesterday For a day ( one day ) .
Since last ( day / week / month / year ) For a ( day / week / month / year )
Since last decade For ten years
Since last century For 100 years
Since my birthday For a long time ‫ﻟﻣدة طوﯾﻠﺔ‬
Since World war ‫׀׀‬ For ages ‫ﻟﻣدة طوﯾﻠﺔ‬
Since morning For a while / a moment ‫ﻟﻠﺣظﺔ‬
Since he came For a minute ‫ﻟدﻗﯾﻘﺔ‬

: ( ‫ ( ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم ﻣدة زﻣﻧﯾﺔ ﻏﯾر ﻣﺣددة ) ﻻ ﻧﻌرف ﺑداﯾﺗﮭﺎ أو ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺗﮭﺎ‬For ) ‫◄ ﺑﻌد‬


Ex : I have known him for a long time .
: ‫ ( ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم زﻣن ﻣﺣدد‬Since ) ‫◄ ﺑﻌد‬
Ex : I have known him since 1995 .

Since ‫ﻗﺎﻋدة‬

‫ﻣﺿﺎرع ﺗﺎم‬ ( Since ) ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺳﯾط‬


Ex : I have Known him since we were children .
I haven't seen him since he traveled .
( Since ) ‫ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺳﯾط‬، ‫ﻣﺿﺎرع ﺗﺎم‬
Since he traveled , I haven't seen him .
. ( Since ) ‫◄ أذا ﻛﻧﺎ ﻧﺗﺣدث ﻋن ﻓﺗرة زﻣﻧﯾﺔ ﻟم ﺗﻧﺗﮭﻲ ﺑﻌد ﻓﺄﻧﻧﺎ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم زﻣن اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺗﺎم ﻗﺑل وﺑﻌد‬

‫ﻣﺿﺎرع ﺗﺎم‬ ( Since ) ‫ﻣﺿﺎرع ﺗﺎم‬

Ex : He has missed a lot of things since he has traveled abroad . ( He is still abroad )

( How long ) ‫ ( ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬Since , For ) ‫◄ ﻟﻠﺳؤال ﻋن‬


Ex : How long have you visited Paris ?
I have visited Paris for several times .
I have visited Paris since 1998 .

21
Affirmative ‫ اﻷﺛﺑﺎت‬Negative ‫ اﻟﻧﻔﻲ‬Question ‫اﻟﺳؤال‬

had hadn’t
‫اﻟﺗﺻرﯾف اﻟﺛﺎﻟث‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺻرﯾف اﻟﺛﺎﻟث‬
Had ‫اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬ P. P

had (’d )
had played hadn’t played played
Had ‫اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬
had lived hadn’t lived + + lived
had gone hadn’t gone gone

Yes, … (had ) / No, .. ( hadn’t )

I had done my homework . I hadn’t done my homework . Had you done your homework ?
Yes , I had . / No, I hadn’t .
:‫◄ اﻟﻛﻠﻣﺎت اﻟداﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ زﻣن اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺗﺎم‬
after ‫ ﺑﻌد‬-as soon as ‫ ﺑﻣﺟردأن‬-till / until ‫ ﺣﺗﻲ‬- No sooner ‫ ﺑﻣﺟرد أن‬- hardly/ scarcely ‫ ﺑﺻﻌوﺑﺔ‬/ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻛﺎد‬
before / by the time ‫ ﻗﺑل‬- when ‫ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ‬
: ‫◄ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم زﻣن اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺗﺎم ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن ﺣدث ﺗم ﻗﺑل ﺣدث ّأﺧر ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬
Ex : He was hungry because he hadn’t eaten his breakfast .
He hadn’t eaten his breakfast so he was hungry.
I found the key which I had lost .
I had hardly / scarcely done my homework when I went to the club .
Hardly / Scarcely had I done my homework when I went to the club .
I had no sooner done my homework than I went to the club .
No sooner had I done my homework than I went to the club .
: ( said/ told ) ‫◄ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم زﻣن اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺗﺎم ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن أﺣداث ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻛﻼم اﻟﻐﯾر ﻣﺑﺎﺷر وﻓﻌل اﻟﻘول ﯾﻛون ﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬
Ex : He told me that he had done his homework.

: ( had + P.P ) ‫◄ رواﺑط زﻣﻧﯾﺔ ﯾﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﻌدھﺎ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎم‬


After - As soon as - Till / Until - No sooner - Hardly/ Scarcely
After my father had got money , he bought a new car .
My father bought a new car after he had got money .

After ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎم‬ ، ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺳﯾط‬


‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺳﯾط‬ After ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎم‬

. ( had + P .P ) ‫ ( وﺑﻌدھﺎ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎم‬didn’t + ‫ ( ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺳﯾط ﻣﻧﻔﻲ ) اﻟﻣﺻدر‬Till / Until ) ‫ﻗﺑل‬
My father didn’t buy a new car till / until he had got money .

: ‫◄ رواﺑط زﻣﻧﯾﺔ ﯾﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﻌدھﺎ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺳﯾط‬


Before / By the time
Ex : Before my father bought a new car , he had got money .
My father had got money before he bought a new car.

Before ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺳﯾط‬ ، ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎم‬


‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎم‬ Before ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺳﯾط‬
: ‫ ( ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺑﺳﯾط أو اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺗﺎم‬When ) ‫◄ ﺑﻌد‬
When I had finished my homework , I went to the club .
When I went to the club , I had finished my homework .
: ‫وأﯾﺿﺎ ﯾﻣﻛن أﺳﺗﺧدام زﻣن اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺑﺳﯾط ﻓﻲ ﻛﻼ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺗﯾن ﻣﻊ ﻛل اﻟرواﺑط اﻟﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬
Ex: I waited till the train came. / After I studied , I went out .

22
‫اﻟﻣﺑﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﻣﻌﻠوم و اﻟﻣﺑﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﻣﺟﮭول‬
Active & Passive

: ‫ ( ﻧﺗﺑﻊ اﻟﺧطوات اﻟﺗﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬Passive ) ‫ ( إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣﺑﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﻣﺟﮭول‬Active ) ‫ﻟﺗﺣوﯾل اﻟﺟﻣل اﻟﺧﺑرﯾﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻣﺑﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﻣﻌﻠوم‬

( ‫ ) ﯾﻌرف اﻟﻣﻔﻌول ﺑﮫ ﺑوﺟوده ﺑﻌد اﻟﻔﻌل ﻣﺑﺎﺷرة‬.ً‫ اﻟﻣﻔﻌول ﺑﮫ ﯾﺻﺑﺢ ﻓﺎﻋﻼ‬.١


be + V3
.‫ ( ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔس زﻣن اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﻧﺎﺳﺑﺎ ً ﻟﻠﻣﻔﻌول ﺑﮫ‬Verb to be ) ‫ ﻧﺿﻊ ﻓﻌل ﯾﻛون‬. ٢
: ‫ﻣﻊ وﺟود أﻓﻌﺎل ﻣﺳﺎﻋدة ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬
be , being , been .‫ ﺿﻊ اﻟﻔﻌل اﻟرﺋﯾﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺗﺻرﯾف اﻟﺛﺎﻟث‬.٣
: ‫ﻣﻊ زﻣن اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺑﺳﯾط ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬
am / is / are ً‫ ( وﻗد ﯾﺷطب إذا ﻛﺎن ﺿﻣﯾرا‬by ) ‫ ﻧﺿﻊ اﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻣﺳﺑوﻗﺎ ب‬. ٤
: ‫ﻣﻊ زﻣن اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺑﺳﯾط ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬
.‫ أي زﯾﺎدة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ ﯾوﺿﻊ ﻛﻣﺎ ھو ﻓﻲ ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺔ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ دون ﺗﻐﯾﯾر‬.٥
was / were
: ‫ ﻣﻊ اﻷزﻣﻧﺔ اﻟﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﻛﻣﺎ ﯾﻠﻲ‬Verb to be ‫◄ ﯾﺻرف ﻓﻌل‬

am, is, are Present Simple ‫اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬


was, were Past Simple ‫اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬

shall be, will be Future Simple ‫اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑل اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬


am being, is being, are being Present Continuous ‫اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬

was being, were being Past Continuous ‫اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬

has been, have been Present Perfect ‫اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺗﺎم‬


had been Past Perfect ‫اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺗﺎم‬
can be, could be, may be, might be, must be, ought to be Modal Verbs ‫ﻣﻊ اﻷﻓﻌﺎل اﻟﻧﺎﻗﺻﺔ‬

Examples

Active ‫ﻣﺑﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﻣﻌﻠوم‬ Passive ‫ﻣﺑﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﻣﺟﮭول‬


Ali writes letters everyweek . Letters are written ( by Ali ) everyweek.

She wrote a letter yesterday. A letter was written ( by her ) yesterday.


Saif will buy a car next year . A car will be bought ( by Saif ) next year.
Khaled is helping Ahmed now. Ahmed is being helped ( by Ali ) now.
She has already eaten the apple. The apple has already been eaten.
You should study your lessons . Your lessons should be studied .

( ‫ اﻟﻔﺎﻋل ) ﺻﺎﺣب اﻟﺷﺊ‬+ have ( ‫ ) ﺣﺳب زﻣن اﻟﺣدث‬+ ‫ اﻟﻣﻔﻌول‬+ V3

‫اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﻌﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﺳﺑﺑﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﻌﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﺳﺑﺑﯾﺔ‬


My sister makes me cake. I have cake made. My sister will make I’ll have cake made.
me cake.
My sister made me cake. I had cake made. My sister has just I’ve just had cake
made me cake. made.
My sister’s making me I’m having cake My sister had made I had had cake made.
cake. made. me cake.
My sister was making me I was having cake My sister’s going to I’m going to have cake
cake. made. make me cake. made.

23
Adjectives ‫اﻟﺻﻔﺎت‬

Positive Comparative Superlative


Old Older than The oldest
Nice Nicer than The nicest
Big Bigger than The biggest
Happy Happier than The happiest
. ‫ ﻟﻠﺻﻔﺔ‬er ‫( ﻧﺿﯾف‬١ : ‫ﻋﻧد اﻟﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯾن أﺛﻧﯾن ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻗﺻﯾرة اﻟﻣﻘطﻊ‬ *
. ‫ ﺑﻌد اﻟﺻﻔﺔ‬than ‫( ﻧﺿﻊ‬٢
Ex : The elephant is bigger than the lion .
. ‫ ﻗﺑل اﻟﺻﻔﺔ‬the ‫( ﻧﺿﻊ‬١ : ‫ﻋﻧد اﻟﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯾن أﻛﺛر ﻣن أﺛﻧﯾن ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻗﺻﯾرة اﻟﻣﻘطﻊ‬ *
. ‫ ﻟﻠﺻﻔﺔ‬est ‫( ﻧﺿﯾف‬٢
Ex : The blue whale is the biggest animal .

Exciting More exciting than The most exciting


Beautiful More beautiful than The most beautiful
Expensive More expensive than The most expensive
. ‫ ( ﻗﺑل اﻟﺻﻔﺔ‬more / less ) ‫( ﻧﺿﻊ‬١ : ‫ﻋﻧد اﻟﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯾن أﺛﻧﯾن ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺔ طوﯾﻠﺔ اﻟﻣﻘطﻊ‬ *
. ‫ ﺑﻌد اﻟﺻﻔﺔ‬than ‫( ﻧﺿﻊ‬٢
Ex : Football is more exciting than handball .

. ‫ ( ﻗﺑل اﻟﺻﻔﺔ‬the most / the least ) ‫( ﻧﺿﻊ‬١ : ‫ﻋﻧد اﻟﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯾن أﻛﺛر ﻣن أﺛﻧﯾن ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻗﺻﯾرة اﻟﻣﻘطﻊ‬ *
Ex : Football is the most exciting sport .

‫ﺻﻔﺎت ﺷﺎذة‬
Positive Comparative Superlative
Bad / ill ‫ ﻣرﯾض‬/ ‫ﺳﺊ‬ Worse than ‫ أﺳوأ ﻣن‬The worst ‫اﻷﺳوأ‬
Good / well ‫ ﺑﺧﯾر‬/ ‫ﺟﯾد‬ Better than ‫ أﻓﺿل ﻣن‬The best ‫اﻷﻓﺿل‬
Many ‫ ﻛﺛﯾرﻟﻠﻌدد‬/ Much ‫ﻛﺛﯾر ﻟﻠﻛﻣﯾﺔ‬ More than ‫ أﻛﺛر ﻣن‬The most ‫اﻷﻛﺛر‬
Little ‫ﻗﻠﯾل ﻟﻠﻛﻣﯾﺔ‬ Less than ‫ أﻗل ﻣن‬The least ‫اﻷﻗل‬
Far ‫ﺑﻌﯾد‬ farther than ( ‫ أﺑﻌد ﻣن ) ﻟﻠﻣﺳﺎﻓﺔ‬The farthest ( ‫اﻷﺑﻌد ) ﻟﻠﻣﺳﺎﻓﺔ‬
further than ( ‫ أﺑﻌد ﻣن ) ﻟﻠوﻗت‬The furthest ( ‫اﻷﺑﻌد ) ﻟﻠوﻗت‬

‫ﻣﻼﺣظﺎت‬

: ( old / exciting ) ‫ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟﺻﻔﺔ اﻟﻌﺎدﯾﺔ‬١(1


: ( not as / so ….. as ) ‫ ( ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن اﻟﺗﺳﺎوي ﻓﻲ اﻟﺻﻔﺎت وﻋﻧد اﻟﻧﻔﻲ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬as….. as ) ‫ ﺑﯾن‬-
EX : Ali is as tall as Ahmed . / Ali isn’t so short as Omar .
: ( so …. that / such …. that / too ….. to ) ‫ ﺑﯾن‬-
Ex: He’s so clever that he gets high marks . / He’s such a clever boy that he gets high marks.
The tea is too hot to drink .
: enough ‫ ﻗﺑل‬-
Ex : The tea isn’t hot enough to drink .
( much taller / much more exciting ) ‫( ﻗﺑل ﺻﻔﺔ اﻟﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯾن أﺛﻧﯾن‬much / little ) ‫( ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬٢
Ex : My friend is much older than me .
24 ٤
. ( The …. er / more ) The ‫ﺻﻔﺔ اﻟﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯾن أﺛﻧﯾن وﻗﺑﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫( ﻋﻧد اﻟﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن اﻟﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ اﻟﻣﺗوازﯾﺔ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬3
Ex : The more you study , the more marks you will get .
The more you do sports , the happier you will be .
. ‫( ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم زﻣن اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع اﻟﺗﺎم ﻣﻊ ﺻﻔﺔ اﻟﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯾن أﻛﺛر ﻣن أﺛﻧﯾن‬4
Ex : It is the highest mountain I have ever seen .
It is the best meal I have ever eaten .
( more / most ‫ ( ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﻓﺄﻧﻧﺎ ﻧﻌﺗﺑرھﺎ ﻣﺛل اﻟﺻﻔﺎت اﻟطوﯾﻠﺔ ) أي ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم ﻣﻌﮭﺎ‬ly ) ‫( ﻋﻧد أﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟظروف اﻟﻣﻧﺗﮭﯾﺔ ب‬٦
Ex : Ali runs more quickly than Ahmed .
‫ ( أو ﻓﻌل ﻣن أﻓﻌﺎل‬am / is / are ) ‫ ( أﻣﺎ ﻗﺑل اﻟﺻﻔﺔ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم ﻓﻌل ﯾﻛون‬runs ) ‫◄ ﻻﺣظ أن ﻗﺑل اﻟظرف ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم ﻓﻌل أﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
. ( feel / look / seem ...... ) ‫اﻟﺣواس‬
Ex : Ali is quicker than Ahmed .
Ali seems quicker than Ahmed .

Adverbs

‫ ( ﻟﻠﺻﻔﺔ‬ly ) ‫ﻧﻛون اﻟظرف ﺑﺄﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ظروف ﺷﺎذة‬

‫اﻟﺻﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟظرف‬ ‫اﻟﺻﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟظرف‬


quick ‫ﺳرﯾﻊ‬ quickly ‫ﺑﺳرﻋﺔ‬ good ‫ ﺟﯾد‬well ‫ﺑطرﯾﻘﺔ ﺟﯾدة‬
careful ‫ﺣرﯾص‬ carefully ‫ﺑﺣرص‬ early ‫ ﻣﺑﻛر‬early ‫ﻣﺑﻛرا‬
simple ‫ﺑﺳﯾط‬ simply ‫ﺑﺑﺳﺎطﺔ‬ late ‫ ﻣﺗﺄﺧر‬late ‫ﻣﺗﺄﺧرا‬
happy ‫ﺳﻌﯾد‬ happily ‫ﺑﺳﻌﺎدة‬ hard ‫ ﺻﻌب‬hard ‫ﺑﺟد‬
dramatic ‫ھﺎﺋل‬ dramatically ‫ﺑﺷﻛل ھﺎﺋل‬ fast ‫ﺳرﯾﻊ‬ fast ‫ﺑﺳرﻋﺔ‬

‫اﻟﻔرق ﺑﯾن اﻟﺻﻔﺔ واﻟظرف‬

Adverb ‫اﻟظرف‬ Adjective ‫اﻟﺻﻔﺔ‬


: ‫◄ اﻟظرف ﯾﺻف‬ : ‫◄ اﻟﺻﻔﺔ ﺗﺻف اﻷﺳم وﺗﺄﺗﻲ ﻗﺑﻠﮫ‬
(٢ He can run very quickly . ‫( اﻟﻔﻌل اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬1 Ex : He is a rich man .
He is very happy today . ‫اﻟﺻﻔﺔ‬ : ‫◄اﻟﺻﻔﺔ ﺗﺄﺗﻲ أﯾﺿﺎ ﺑﻌد‬
Really , it is a nice city . ‫( اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬٣ ( be / am / is / are / was / were ) ‫( ﻓﻌل ﯾﻛون‬1
‫ ( أو ﻗﺑل‬quickly ) ‫◄ اﻟظرف ﯾﺄﺗﻲ ﺑﻌد اﻟﻔﻌل اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬ Ex : My friend was happy yesterday .
( Really ) ‫ ( أو ﺑداﯾﺔ اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ‬very ) ‫اﻟﺻﻔﺔ‬ : ‫( أﻓﻌﺎل اﻟﺣواس‬٢
( seem / look / appear / smell / taste / sound / feel )
: ‫ ◄ ﻻ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟظرف ﺑﻌد‬Ex : The food tastes delicious .
‫ أو‬Look / seem .. ... ‫ أو أﻓﻌﺎل اﻟﺣواس‬Be ‫) ﻓﻌل ﯾﻛون‬ : ( become / get ) ‫( ﻓﻌل ﯾﺻﺑﺢ‬3
. ( become / get ‫ﻓﻌل ﯾﺻﺑﺢ‬ Ex : My friend got ill yesterday.
: ( make ) ‫( ﻓﻌل ﯾﻌﻣل‬4
Ex : The film made me happy .
: ( find ) ‫( ﻓﻌل ﯾﺟد‬٥
Ex : I found the film interesting .
Order Of Adjectives ‫ﺗرﺗﯾب اﻟﺻﻔﺎت‬

Opinion Size Age Shape Color Nationality Material Purpose


‫رأي‬ ‫ﺣﺟم‬ ‫ﻋﻣر‬ ‫ﺷﻛل‬ ‫ﻟون‬ (origin ) ‫أﺻل‬ ‫ﻣﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﻐرض‬
silly, tiny, ancient, square, blue, French , wooden, sleeping
beautiful, small, new, round, pink, American, metal , roasting
horrible, huge, young, oval , reddish, eastern, cotton,
difficult little old flat grey Greek paper

: ‫ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟﻛﻠﻣﺎت اﻟﺗﺎﻟﯾﺔ ﻗﺑل اﻟﺻﻔﺎت‬


( very , so , extremely , too / fairly, quite, pretty, rather, a bit and a little ).

25
Nouns ‫اﻷﺳﻣﺎء‬

countable ‫ﻣﻌدودة‬ uncountable ‫ﻏﯾر ﻣﻌدودة‬


singular ‫ﻣﻔرد‬ plural ‫ﺟﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﯾس ﻟﮭﺎ ﻣﻔرد أو ﺟﻣﻊ‬
a boy / a man boys / men water

Spelling Rules for plurals ‫ﻗواﻋد إﻣﻼء اﻟﺟﻣﻊ‬

‫“ ﻟﻼﺳم اﻟﻣﻔرد‬s”‫ﻧﻛون اﻟﺟﻣﻊ ﺑﺄﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬


ّ ( es ) ‫ ( ﻧﺿﯾف ﻟﮭﺎ‬s, sh, ch, z, x ) ‫اﻷﺳﻣﺎء اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻧﺗﮭﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺣروف‬

Singular a horse Singular Match Bus Dish Box


Plural horses Plural Matches Buses Dishes Boxes

‫ ( ﺛم‬y ) ‫ ﻧﺣذف ال‬، ‫ ( وﺳﺑﻘﮫ ﺣرف ﺳﺎﻛن‬y ) ‫اﻷﺳﻣﺎء اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻧﺗﮭﻲ ﺑﺣرف‬ ‫ ( ﻣﺳﺑوﻗﺎ ﺑﺣرف ﻣﺗﺣرك‬y ) ‫اﻷﺳﻣﺎء اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻧﺗﮭﻲ ﺑﺣرف‬
. ( ies ) ‫ﻧﺿﯾف‬ .( s ) ‫ ( ﺛم ﻧﺿﯾف ﻟﮭﺎ‬y ) ‫ﻧﺗرك ال‬

Singular Plural Singular Plural


city cities boy boys

. ( es ) ‫ ﻧﺿﯾف‬، ‫ ( وﺳﺑﻘﮫ ﺣرف ﺳﺎﻛن‬o ) ‫اﻷﺳﻣﺎء اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻧﺗﮭﻲ ﺑﺣرف‬ (s) ‫ ( وﺳﺑﻘﮫ ﺣرف ﻣﺗﺣرك ﻧﺿﯾف‬o ) ‫اﻷﺳﻣﺎء اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻧﺗﮭﻲ ﺑﺣرف‬
. ‫ﻓﻘط‬

Singular Plural Singular Plural


potato potatoes radio radios
tomato tomatoes zoo zoos

( fe ) ‫( أو‬f ) ‫ ( ﻧﻘﻠب ال‬fe ) ‫ ( أو‬f ) ‫اﻷﺳﻣﺎء اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻧﺗﮭﻲ ﺑﺣرف‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻣﺎء اﻟﻣرﻛﺑﺔ ﺗﺟﻣﻊ ﺣﺳب اﻻﺳم اﻷﺧﯾر‬
. ( es ) ‫ ( ﺛم ﻧﺿﯾف‬v ) ‫اﻟﻲ‬

Singular Shelf Knife thief Singular Classroom policeman

Plural Shelves Knives thieves Plural classrooms policemen


cliff cliffs : ‫ﺷواذ‬

Singular cactus Oasis criterion curriculum formula bureau


Plural cacti Oases criteria curricula formulae / bureaus /
formulas bureaux

deer , fish , sheep ( ‫ھﻧﺎك أﺳﻣﺎء ﻻ ﺗﺗﻐﯾر ) اﻟﻣﻔرد ﻣﺛل اﻟﺟﻣﻊ‬

26
: ‫◄ھﻧﺎك ﺑﻌض اﻷﺳﻣﺎء اﻟﺷﺎذة‬

Singular Plural

man ‫رﺟل‬ men ‫رﺟﺎل‬


woman ‫أﻣرأة‬ women ‫ﻧﺳﺎء‬
child ‫طﻔل‬ children ‫أطﻔﺎل‬
person ‫ﺷﺧص‬ people ( persons) ‫ ﻧﺎس‬/ ‫أﺷﺧﺎص‬
foot ‫ﻗدم‬ feet ‫أﻗدام‬
tooth ‫ﺳﻧﺔ‬ teeth ‫أﺳﻧﺎن‬
goose ‫وزة‬ geese ‫أوز‬
Ox ‫ﺛور‬ Oxen ‫ﺛﯾران‬
mouse ‫ﻓﺄر‬ mice ‫ﻓﺋران‬
louse ‫ﻗﻣﻠﺔ‬ lice ‫ﻗﻣل‬

Uncountable Nouns ‫اﻷﺳﻣﺎءاﻟﻐﯾرﻣﻌدودة‬

. ‫ ( وھﻲ أﺳﻣﺎء ﺗﻌﺑر ﻋن اﻟﺳواﺋل أو اﻟﻛﻣﯾﺎت أو أﺳﻣﺎء ﻣﻌﻧوﯾﺔ‬a , an ) ‫ ( وﻻ ﻧﺿﻊ ﻗﺑﻠﮭﺎ‬es ) ‫ ( أو‬s ) ‫◄ ﻻ ﻧﺿﯾف ﻟﮭﺎ‬

flour ‫دﻗﯾق‬ food ‫طﻌﺎم‬ oil ‫زﯾت‬ rain ‫ﻣطر‬

salt ‫ﻣﻠﺢ‬ fish ‫ﺳﻣك‬ blood ‫دم‬ steel ‫ﺣدﯾد‬

butter ‫زﺑد‬ chicken ‫ﻟﺣم اﻟدﺟﺎج‬ music ‫ﻣوﺳﯾﻘﻰ‬ grass ‫ﻋﺷب‬

sugar ‫ﺳﻛر‬ water ‫ﻣﺎء‬ hair ‫ﺷﻌر‬ wood ‫ﺧﺷب‬


rice ‫رز‬ tea ‫ﺷﺎي‬ knowledge ‫ﻣﻌرﻓﺔ‬ sand ‫رﻣل‬

bread ‫ﺧﺑز‬ coffee ‫ﻗﮭوة‬ information ‫ﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت‬ gold ‫ذھب‬

cheese ‫ﺟﺑن‬ juice ‫ﻋﺻﯾر‬ furniture ‫ﻣﻔروﺷﺎت‬ glass ‫زﺟﺎج‬


meat ‫ﻟﺣم‬ milk ‫ﺣﻠﯾب‬ snow - ice ‫ﺛﻠﺞ‬ paper ‫ورق‬

. ‫◄ ﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻷﺳﻣﺎء اﻟﻐﯾر اﻟﻣﻌدودة ﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﻣﻔرد‬

Ex : Water is important for our growth.

Milk has proteins.

. ‫◄ و ﻟﻛن ﻟو وﺿﻌت ﻛﻠﻣﺎت ﺗدل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻛﻣﯾﺔ ﻗﺑل اﻻﺳم اﻟﻐﯾر ﻣﻌدود ﻓﺄﻧﮫ ﯾﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﺟﻣﻊ‬

Ex: Two cups of tea are not enough for me.

Five liters of oil do not operate this machine.

27
Noun Quantifiers ( ‫ﻣﺣددات اﻷﺳﻣﺎء ) ﻣﺎ ﯾﺄﺗﻲ ﻗﺑل اﻷﺳﻣﺎء‬

singular ‫اﻷﺳم اﻟﻣﻔرد‬ plural ‫اﻷﺳم اﻟﺟﻣﻊ‬ Uncountable ‫اﻷﺳم اﻟﻐﯾر ﻣﻌدود‬
( water , tea , coffee …..)
A / an ( one ) two / three … / Both
The The The
Every / Each ‫ﻛل‬ All ‫ ﻛل‬/ most ‫ﻣﻌظم‬ All ‫ ﻛل‬/ most ‫ﻣﻌظم‬
Each boy plays soccer. A lot of ( lots of ) / A lot of ( lots of ) /
Each plays soccer. Plenty of Plenty of
Every boy plays soccer.
some ‫ ﺑﻌض‬/ any ‫أي‬ some ‫ ﺑﻌض‬/ any ‫أي‬
each ‫ﻻﺣظ أﻧﻧﺎ ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬ enough ‫ﻛﺎﻓﻲ‬ enough ‫ﻛﺎﻓﻲ‬
‫ ﺑﻣﻔردھﺎ ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن اﻷﺳم اﻟﻣﻔرد أﻣﺎ‬many / more / several / much / more / a great deal of
.‫ ﻓﻼ ﺑد ان ﯾﺄﺗﻲ ﺑﻌدھﺎ اﺳم ﻣﻔرد‬every a number of ‫ﻛﺛﯾر‬ a quantity of / a mount of / a
bit of
A few / few / fewer ‫ﻗﻠﯾل‬ A little / little / less ‫ﻗﻠﯾل‬

some / any ) ‫اﺳﺗﺧدام‬

( some ) ‫أﺛﺑﺎت‬ ( any ) ‫اﻟﻧﻔﻲ‬ ( ‫اﻟﺳؤال ) ﺣﺳب ﻧوع اﻟﺳؤال‬


I have some books . I don’t have any books. Do you have any books ?
. ‫ ( ﻓﻲ اﻟﺳؤال اﻟﻌﺎم‬any ) ‫◄ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬
I’d like some juice . I wouldn’t like any juice . Would you like some juice ?
I want some milk . I don’t want any milk . Can I have some milk ?
. ‫ ( ﻓﻲ ﺳؤال اﻟطﻠب أو اﻟﻌرض‬some ) ‫◄ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬

( many / much / a lot of ) ‫اﺳﺗﺧدام‬

( a lot of ) ‫أﺛﺑﺎت‬ ( many / much ) ‫اﻟﻧﻔﻲ‬ ( many / much ) ‫اﻟﺳؤال‬


I have a lot of books . I don’t have many books. Do you have many books ?

I’d like a lot of juice . I wouldn’t like much juice . Would you like much juice ?
too many / too much ( too ) ‫ ( ﻓﻲ اﻷﺛﺑﺎت ﺑﻌد ﻛﻠﻣﺔ‬many / much ) ‫◄ ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬
Demonstrative adjectives ‫ﺻﻔﺎت اﻷﺷﺎرة‬

‫اﺳم ﻣﻔرد‬ ‫اﺳم ﺟﻣﻊ‬ Examples


‫ﻗرﯾب‬ This These This is my book. / These are my shoes.
‫ﺑﻌﯾد‬ That Those That bird in the sky is flying fast.

Another / Other ‫ أﺧرون‬/ ‫أﺧر‬

‫اﺳم ﻣﻔرد‬ ‫اﺳم ﺟﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﺳم ﻻ ﯾﻌد‬ Examples


‫ ﻏﯾر ﻣﺣدد‬another Other boys / others Other I want another cup. /
Other people disagree.
‫ ﻣﺣدد‬The other ( boy ) The other boys / The other Where’s the other boy ?
The others Where are the other boys ?
( We love each other ) ‫ وﻧﺳﺗﺧدم اﻷﺛﻧﯾن ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ ﯾﻛون اﻟﻌدد ﻏﯾر ﻣﺣدد‬each other ‫ وﺑﯾن اﺛﻧﯾن‬One another ‫ﻷﻛﺛرﻣن اﺛﻧﯾن‬

28
‫أدوات اﻟﺗﻌرﯾف و اﻟﻧﻛرة‬
Definite & Indefinite Articles

.‫ ( ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم ﻛﺄداة ﻟﻠﺗﻌرﯾف‬The ) .‫ ( ﺗﺳﺗﺧدﻣﺎن ﻛﺄدوات ﻧﻛرة‬a / an ) ◄

a book – a pen – a tree – a car – a man - a girl .‫ ﻗﺑل اﻷﺳﻣﺎء اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺑدأ ﺑﺣرف ﺳﺎﻛن‬a ‫◄ ﻧﺿﻊ‬

an apple – an egg – an ice cream – an orange (a , e , i , o , u ) ‫ ﻗﺑل اﻷﺳﻣﺎء اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺑدأ ﺑﺣرف ﻣﺗﺣرك‬an ‫◄ ﻧﺿﻊ‬

( a /an ) ‫أﺳﺗﺧدام‬

.‫ﻗﺑل اﻷﺳﻣﺎء اﻟﻣﻔردة اﻟﻣﻌدودة‬ a table - an egg

.‫ﻗﺑل اﻟوظﯾﻔﺔ أو ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣﻌﯾﻧﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻧﺎس أو اﻟﺟﻧﺳﯾﺔ‬ He is an engineer. She is an English women.

“‫ﺑﻣﻌﻧﻲ ”ﻛل‬ He washes his hands four times a day.

‫ﺷواذ‬ an hour / a European city ( h / E ) ‫◄ﺣروف ﺻﺎﻣﺗﺔ‬


( an umbrella ) an ‫ ﻧﺿﻊ‬a u ‫◄ أذا ﻧطﻘﻧﺎ‬
. ‫ ( ﻓﻘط ﺣﺳب اﻟﻧطق‬a / an ) ‫◄ ﻧﺿﻊ‬
( a university ) a ‫ ﻧﺿﻊ‬y u ‫◄ أذا ﻧطﻘﻧﺎ‬

( The ) ‫أﺳﺗﺧدام‬

.‫اﻻﺳم اﻟذي ﻻ ﯾوﺟد ﻣﻧﮫ ﺳوى ﻧوع واﺣد ﻓﻘط‬ The Ka’aba / The sun / The earth / The universe /
The world / The sky ….
‫أﺳﻣﺎء اﻷﻧﮭﺎر و اﻟﺑﺣﺎر واﻟﻣﺣﯾطﺎت واﻟﺧﻠﺟﺎن واﻟﺟﺑﺎل‬ The Arabian Gulf / The River Nile / The Red Sea /
.… ‫واﻟﺻﺣﺎري واﻟﺟزر‬ The Pacific Ocean / The Alps / The Sahara
desert
‫ﻣﻊ اﻷﺗﺟﮭﺎت‬ The north / the south / The east / The west
‫ﻣﻊ ظروف اﻟﻣﻛﺎن‬ The top / The bottom / The left / The right / The
centre / The middle / The corner
‫ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم أداة اﻟﺗﻌرﯾف أل ﻣﻊ اﻻﺳم اﻟذي ذﻛر ﻟﻠﻣرة اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ‬ I saw a man. The man was young .

‫ﻣﻊ اﻷﺷﯾﺎء اﻟﻣﻌروﻓﺔ‬ The president / The manager / The door / The
roof / The police / The army / The country

‫ﻣﻊ اﻷﻣﺎﻛن اﻟﻣﺷﮭورة‬ The airport / The museum / The club ….

.‫أﺳﻣﺎء اﻵﻻت اﻟﻣوﺳﯾﻘﯾﺔ‬ The piano / The drum / The oud / The guitar

( Who ‫ﻗﺑل ﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻟوﺻل ) اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺣﺗوي ﻋﻠﻲ ﺿﻣﯾر وﺻل ﻣﺛل‬ I know the boy who took your bike .

‫ ( أو اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻟوﺻﻔﯾﺔ‬Of ) ‫ﻗﺑل‬ The name of …/ The winner of…/ The capital of

( ‫ﻗﺑل اﻟﺻﻔﺎت ) ﻋﻧد اﻟﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯾن أﻛﺛر ﻣن أﺛﻧﯾن‬ The tallest / The most exciting

‫ﻣﻊ أرﻗﺎم اﻟﺗرﺗﯾب‬ The first / The second / The third / The fourth ….

‫ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌض اﻟﻛﻠﻣﺎت‬ The radio / The internet / The end / The same

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( The ) ‫ﺣﺎﻻت ﻋدم اﺳﺗﺧدام‬

( ‫ﻗﺑل ﺑﻌض اﻷﻣﺎﻛن ) أذا أﺳﺗﺧدﻣﻧﺎھﺎ ﺑﺷﻛل ﻋﺎم‬ home / bed / hospital / school / college /
university / prison /….

: ( The ) ‫◄ أذا اﺳﺗﺧدﻣﻧﺎ ھذه اﻷﻣﺎﻛن ﺑﺷﻛل ﺧﺎص ﻓﺄﻧﻧﺎ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬

Ex : I go to school ( ‫ ) ﺑﺷﻛل ﻋﺎم‬/ My father came to the school yesterday . ( ‫) ﺑﺷﻛل ﺧﺎص‬

( ‫ﻗﺑل اﻟوﺟﺑﺎت اﻟﻐذاﺋﯾﺔ ) ﺑﺷﻛل ﻋﺎم‬ Breakfast / lunch / dinner

: (The ) ‫◄اذا ﻛﻧﺎ ﻧﺗﺣدث ﻋن وﺟﺑﺔ ﻣﻌﯾﻧﺔ ﻓﺄﻧﻧﺎ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬

The lunch in this restaurant will be very delicious .

‫ﻗﺑل اﻟدول واﻟﻣدن واﻟﻘﺎرات‬ France / Egypt / Cairo / Dubai / South America

: ‫ ( ﻗﺑل أﺳﻣﺎء اﻟوﻻﯾﺎت واﻟﺟﻣﮭورﯾﺎت واﻟﻣﻣﺎﻟك‬The ) ‫◄ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬

The U.A.E. / The K.S.A. / The U.S.A. / The U.K. ( The united kingdom )

‫ﻗﺑل أﺳﻣﺎء اﻟﺷوارع واﻟﻣﯾﺎدﯾن واﻟطرق‬ Times Square / Hope Street / Dubai Road
‫ﻗﺑل اﻟﻣواد اﻟدراﺳﯾﺔ‬ English / Math / IT / Arabic / History ….

‫ﻗﺑل اﻟظروف اﻟزﻣﻧﯾﺔ‬ tomorrow / yesterday / last ( day … )/ next (


day … )
‫ﻗﺑل اﻟرﯾﺎﺿﺎت‬ Football / tennis ……..

‫ﻗﺑل أﯾﺎم اﻷﺳﺑوع وﺷﮭور اﻟﺳﻧﺔ‬ Monday / April / May ………

( ‫ﻗﺑل اﻷﺳﻣﺎء اﻟﻐﯾر ﻣﻌدودة ) أذا أﺳﺗﺧدﻣﻧﺎھﺎ ﺑﺷﻛل ﻋﺎم‬ music / water / work / life / weather / fish
…..
: ( The ) ‫◄ أذا أﺳﺗﺧدﻣﻧﺎ اﻷﺳﻣﺎء اﻟﻐﯾر ﻣﻌدودة ﺑﺷﻛل ﺧﺎص ) ﻣﺣدد ( ﻓﺄﻧﻧﺎ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬

Ex : I don’t like cold weather. ( ‫ ) ﺑﺷﻛل ﻋﺎم‬/ The weather is cold today . ( ‫) ﺑﺷﻛل ﺧﺎص‬

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Conjunctions

‫ﺟﻣﻠﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺑﺎرة‬ Examples ‫أﻣﺛﻠﺔ‬


Because / As / Because of / • He didn’t come because he was ill .
Since / For Due to / • He didn’t come because of his illness /
‫ﻷن‬ As a result of being ill.
On account of • I didn’t go out due to the cold weather.
‫ ﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ ل‬/ ‫ﺑﺳﺑب‬
• Although he is poor, he is happy.
Although • He is happy though he is poor .
Though
Despite /
In spite of • Despite being poor , he is happy .
Even though
‫ﺑﺎﻟرﻏم ﻣن‬ • In spite of his poverty , he is happy.
‫ﺑﺎﻟرﻏم ﻣن‬
• He is poor. Nevertheless, he is happy.
Nevertheless • He is poor. However, he is happy.
However ‫ﻣﻊ ذﻟك‬ • He is poor but he is happy .
But ‫وﻟﻛن‬

So ( ‫) ﺟﻣﻠﺗﺎن ﻣﺗﺻﻠﺗﺎن‬ • He was ill so he didn’t go to school .


Thus / Therefore / As a result / • He didn’t study . As a result , he failed
consequently (‫) ﺟﻣﻠﺗﺎن ﻣﻧﻔﺻﻠﺗﺎن‬ the exam .

• The exam was so difficult that I


So ‫ ظرف‬/ ‫ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻋﺎدﯾﺔ‬that couldn’t answer it .
Such a / an ‫ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻋﺎدﯾﺔ‬+ ‫ اﺳم ﻣﻔرد‬that • It was such a difficult exam that I
‫ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻋﺎدﯾﺔ‬enough to + ‫ﻣﺻدر اﻟﻔﻌل‬ couldn’t answer it .
‫ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻋﺎدﯾﺔ‬enough for + ‫ ﻓﻌل‬+ ing

‫ﺟﻣﻠﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺻدر اﻟﻔﻌل‬ Examples ‫أﻣﺛﻠﺔ‬

in order that To / in order to • I study hard so that I can get high marks
So that ‫ﻟﻛﻲ‬ So as to ‫ﻟﻛﻲ‬
• I study hard so as to get high marks .
• I study hard in order not to fail the
In order not to
exam .
So as not to ‫ﻟﻛﻲ ﻻ‬
For ‫ﻣن أﺟل‬ ‫ﻋﺑﺎرة‬ • I study hard for good marks .
‫ ﻓﻌل‬+ ing • I study hard for getting good marks.

Examples
as, as if, • He speaks as if he were a king.
as though • It looks as if it would rain.
‫ﻛﻣﺎ ﻟو ﻛﺎن‬
. ‫ ( ﻷﻧﮭﺎ ﻏﯾر ﺣﻘﯾﻘﯾﺔ و ﻣﺟرد ﺧﯾﺎل‬was ) ‫ ( ﺑدﻻً ﻣن‬were ) ‫ﻻﺣظ اﺳﺗﺧدام‬
. ‫ ( ﻷﻧﮭﺎ ﻏﯾر ﺣﻘﯾﻘﯾﺔ و ﻣﺟرد ﺧﯾﺎل‬will ) ‫ ( ﺑدﻻً ﻣن‬would ) ‫ﻻﺣظ اﺳﺗﺧدام‬

31
If ( Conditional sentences ) ( ‫ ﻟو ) اﻟﺟﻣل اﻟﺷرطﯾﺔ‬/ ‫أذا‬

‫اﻟﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻌل اﻟﺷرط‬ ‫ﻓﻌل ﺟواب اﻟﺷرط‬


( ‫ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن ﺷﺊ ﺣﻘﯾﻘﻲ ) ﺣﻘﯾﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻣﯾﺔ أو ﻋﺎدة ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺿﺎرع ﺑﺳﯾط‬ ‫ﻣﺿﺎرع ﺑﺳﯾط‬

inf. / V + s don’t / inf. / V + s don’t /


doesn’t + inf. doesn’t + inf.
Ex : If I eat fish , I get ill .
If we heat water , it boils .
. ‫ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن ﺷﺊ ﻣﺣﺗﻣل اﻟﺣدوث ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑل‬
‫ﻣﺿﺎرع ﺑﺳﯾط‬ will (’ll ) / won’t
can / can’t
inf. / V + s don’t /
shall / shan’t inf. ( ‫) ﻣﺻدر اﻟﻔﻌل‬
doesn’t + inf. may / may not
must / mustn’t
Ex : If it rains , I won’t go out .
If I have money , I will buy a new car .

‫ﺷواذ‬
. ( ‫( ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم ﻣﺻدر اﻟﻔﻌل ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن اﻷﻣر ﻓﻲ ﺟﻣﻠﺔ ﺟواب اﻟﺷرط ) واﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﯾﻛون ﻣﺣذوف‬١
Ex : If you meet Ahmed , tell him about the party .
: ‫( ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﻧﻌﺑر ﻋن اﻟﻧﺻﯾﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻣﻠﺔ ﺟواب اﻟﺷرط ﺑﺄﺳﺗﺧدام أﻓﻌﺎل ﻧﺎﻗﺻﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع ﻣﺛل‬٢
( should , have to / has to , ought to , must )
Ex : If you are ill , you should go to the doctor .
. ‫ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن ﻣواﻗف ﺧﯾﺎﻟﯾﺔ أو ﺷﺊ ﻣﺳﺗﺑﻌد اﻟﺣدوث ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع‬
‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺳﯾط‬
would (’d ) / wouldn’t
ed / ‫ﺷﺎذ‬ didn’t + inf.
could / couldn’t inf. ( ‫) ﻣﺻدر اﻟﻔﻌل‬
might / might not
Ex : If I were a bird , I would fly .
If I had money , I would buy a new car .
. ‫ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن اﻟﻠوم أو اﻟﻌﺗﺎب أو ﻋن اﺳﺗﺑﻌﺎد ﺣدوث ﻓﻌل ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎم‬ would (’d ) / wouldn’t
could / couldn’t have + p.p
had + p.p hadn’t + p.p might / might not
Ex : If I had studied hard , I would have succeeded .
If I had had money , I would have bought a car .

( not ‫ وﻟﻛﻧﮭﺎ ﺗﺷﯾر ﻟﻠﻧﻔﻲ ) ﻻ ﻧﺿﻊ ﺑﻌدھﺎ‬If ‫ﻣﺛل ﺣﺎﻻت‬


Ex :Unless you study , you won’t pass the exam . ( If you don’t study , you won’t pass the exam).

Expressing Regret / far wish ‫اﻟﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن اﻟﻧدم أو اﻟﺗﻣﻧﻲ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﺣﯾل‬


Present ‫ﻋﻧد اﻟﺗﻣﻧﻲ أو اﻟﻧدم ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺑﺳﯾط‬ Past ‫ﻋﻧد اﻟﺗﻣﻧﻲ أو اﻟﻧدم ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ اﻟﺗﺎم‬
I wish I were a bird. / If only I were a bird. I wish I had studied my lessons.
If only I knew how to drive a car. If only I had woken up early.
I wish you wouldn’t arrive late all the time.
32
Compound Sentences ‫اﻟﺟﻣل اﻟﻣرﻛﺑﺔ‬

Connectors ‫اﻟﺮواﺑﻂ‬ Examples ‫أﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬


For ‫ﻷن‬ He loves Science for he wants to be a scientist.
And ‫و‬ She went shopping and she bought vegetables.
Nor ‫وﻻ‬ They haven’t relaxed nor have they studied.
But ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ He studied hard but he failed the exam.
Or ‫أو‬ You can join a university or you can have a job.
Yet ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ He got up late yet he slept early.
So ‫وﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ He studied hard so he got high marks.
‫ﺟﻣل ﻣﺛﺑﺗﺔ‬
Paired Connectors Examples
Both ….. and ‫ ﻛﻼ ﻣﻦ‬- Both Reem and her sisters play tennis.
(play ) ‫ داﺋﻤﺎ ﯾﺄﺗﻲ ﺑﻌﺪھﻢ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻟﺼﯿﻐﺔ اﻟﺠﻤﻊ‬- Both Ali and Saif play soccer.
Not only …… but also / as well -Not only Reem but also her sisters play tennis.
-Not only has she succeeded but also / as well she has got
‫ وﻟﻜﻦ أﯾﻀﺎ‬....... ‫ﻟﯿﺲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬ high marks.
not only ‫ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ان ﻧﺴﺒﻖ اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻲ اﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬-
And also ( ‫ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ‬+ ‫) ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬
- Reem plays tennis and also do her sisters.
, so ( ‫ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ‬+ ‫) ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬ - Reem plays tennis , so do her sisters.
And ( ‫ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬+ ‫ ) ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ‬too - Reem plays tennis and her sisters do too.
‫ﺟﻤﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﯿﺔ‬
Neither ……. nor ‫ وﻻ‬..... ‫ ﻟﯿﺲ‬- Neither Reem nor her sisters play tennis.
( nor ) ‫ اﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﯾﺄﺗﻲ ﺣﺴﺐ اﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ‬- Neither Reem nor her sister plays tennis.
and neither ( ‫ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ‬+ ‫) ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬ -Reem doesn’t play tennis and neither do her sisters.
neither ( ‫ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ‬+ ‫) ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬ - Reem doesn’t play tennis , neither do her sisters.
( neither ) ‫ ( ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ‬nor ) ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬
And ( ‫ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬+ ‫ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬+ not ) either -Reem doesn’t play tennis and her sisters don’t either.

‫ﺟﻣل ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن ﺧﯾﺎرﯾن‬

Either ….. or ‫ أو‬...... ‫ اﻣﺎ‬Either Moza or her sister feeds the cat.
( or ) ‫اﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﯾﺄﺗﻲ ﺣﺴﺐ اﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺟﻣل ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن اﻟﺗﺣذﯾر‬

Or / Otherwise ‫ واﻻ‬Hurry up, otherwise / or you will miss the bus.

None ( not one / no one / nothing )


- None of the students want / wants to take exams.
- I wanted some coffee, but there was none left.

‫ وﻟﻛن اﻷﻓﺿل أن ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم ﻓﻌل ﻟﺻﯾﻐﺔ‬none ‫ ( ﺑﻌد‬want ) ‫ ( أو ﻟﺻﯾﻐﺔ اﻟﺟﻣﻊ‬wants ) ‫ﯾﻣﻛن ان ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم ﻓﻌل ﻟﺻﯾﻐﺔ اﻟﻣﻔرد‬
(wants) ‫اﻟﻣﻔرد‬
Ex: Neither of my parents lives with me. ( none ) ‫ ( ﻋﻧد اﻟﺗﺣدث ﻋن اﺛﻧﯾن وﻻ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬Neither ) ‫ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬
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Prepositions of Time
a period of time ( .... ‫ ﻣوﺳم‬/ ‫ ﺷﮭر‬/ ‫ﯾﺳﺗﺧدم ﻟﻠﺗﺣدث ﻋن ﻓﺗرة زﻣﻧﯾﺔ ) ﺳﻧﺔ‬
in
in 2003 / in July / in the winter – summer – spring-fall (autumn) / in the morning – afternoon - evening
/ in the middle of the day / in three hours / in a few weeks
For days and dates: ‫ﻟﻸﯾﺎم واﻟﺗوارﯾﺦ‬
on
on my birthday / on July 4th / on Saturday / on Tuesday afternoon / on holiday / on weekend

A point in time: (.... ‫ وﺟﺑﺎت ﯾوﻣﯾﺔ‬/ ‫ﯾﺳﺗﺧدم ﻟﻠﺗﺣدث ﻋن ﻧﻘطﺔ زﻣﻧﯾﺔ ) ﺳﺎﻋﺎت‬
at
at 4 o'clock / at 10:45 / at breakfast- lunch - dinner
: ‫أو ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌض اﻟﺗﻌﺑﯾرات‬
at the moment / at the same time / at night / at noon / at the weekends
Prepositions of place
: ‫ﯾﺳﺗﺧدم ﻟﻠﺗﺣدث ﻋن أﻣﺎﻛن ﺗﺣوطﻧﺎ أو أﻣﺎﻛن ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ‬
in in a room / in Dubai / in Egypt / in a taxi
: ‫ﻟﻠﺗﺣدث ﻋن أﺷﯾﺎء ﻓوق أﺷﯾﺎء أﺧري أو ﻟﻠﺗﺣدث ﻋن أﻣﺎﻛن ﻣﻔﺗوﺣﺔ‬
on on the wall / on the table / on a tree / on a field / on a plain / on a farm
: ‫ﯾﺳﺗﺧدم ﻟﻠﺗﺣدث ﻋن أﻣﺎﻛن ﻧذھب اﻟﯾﮭﺎ ﻟﻧري اﻟﻧﺎس أو ﻧﻔﻌل ﺷﺊ‬
at at the bus stop / at the doctor's / at school / at the end of the road / at the mall / at the door / at home

Prepositions of place ‫ﺣروف ﺟر ﻟﻠﻣﻛﺎن‬


over ‫ﻓوق‬ below / under / beneath ‫ﺗﺣت‬ in the middle / centre ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟوﺳط‬
behind ‫ﺧﻠف‬ in front of ‫أﻣﺎم‬ on the corner ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻟزاوﯾﺔ‬/ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟرﻛن‬
near / by ‫ ﻗرﯾب‬/ next to ‫ﺑﺟوار‬ far away from ‫ﺑﻌﯾد ﻋن‬ across from ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺟﺎﻧب اﻷﺧر ﻣن‬/ ‫ﻋﺑر‬
inside ‫داﺧل‬ outside ‫ﺧﺎرج‬
at the top ‫ﻓﻲ اﻷﻋﻠﻲ‬ at the bottom ‫ﻓﻲ اﻷﺳﻔل‬
: ‫ ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن وﺳﺎﺋل اﻟﻣواﺻﻼت‬by ‫ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم ﺣرف اﻟﺟر‬
by bus / by car / by taxi ‫ ﺑﺎﻟﺗﺎﻛﺳﻲ‬/ ‫ ﺑﺎﻟﺳﯾﺎرة‬/ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺑﺎص‬
on foot ‫ﺳﯾرا ﻋﻠﻲ اﻷﻗدام‬
Prepositional verbs
consists of / approve of / think of get into ‫ﯾﺮﻛﺐ‬ get off ‫ﯾﻨﺰل‬
believe in / succeed in / persist in Turn on ‫ﯾﻔﺘﺢ‬ Turn off ‫ﯾﻐﻠﻖ‬
concentrate on / focus on / depend on / rely on / insist on put on ‫ ﯾﻀﺊ‬/ ‫ ﯾﻠﺒﺲ‬put off ‫ ﯾﺆﺟﻞ‬/ ‫ ﯾﻄﻔﺊ‬/ ‫ﯾﺨﻠﻊ‬
laugh at / look at / point at
talk about / complain about / worry about / ask about / speak about / hear about / think about / wonder about
wait for / apologize for / pay for / ask for
Noun + Preposition
a cheque for / a demand for/ a need for / a reason for
an advantage of / A disadvantage of / a cause of / a photograph of / picture of / a map of / a plan of / a drawing of
an increase in / a rise in / a decrease in / a fall in
a damage to / an invitation to / a solution to / a key to / an answer to /a reply to / a reaction to / an attitude to
a relationship with / a connection with / a contact with
A relationship between / a connection between / a contact between / a difference between
Adjectives + Preposition
afraid of / frightened of / proud of / aware of / tired of /sick of /sure of / certain of
good at / better at /bad at / annoyed at
famous for / dangerous for / responsible for
fond of interested in
furious with /angry with / familiar with
excited about / worried about / upset about / nervous about / happy about

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Modal Verbs ‫أﻓﻌﺎل ﻧﺎﻗﺻﺔ‬
Modals of Ability ‫أﻓﻌﺎل ﻧﺎﻗﺻﺔ ﺗدل ﻋﻠﻲ اﻟﻘدرة‬
Affirmative Negative Question
Present can + inf. cannot ( can't ) + inf. Can + ‫ اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬+ inf. ?
Ex : He can swim. Ex : He can't swim. Ex: Can he swim ?

( am / is / are ) able to + inf. ( Am / is / are) not able to + inf. Am / Is / Are + ‫ اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬+ able to + inf. ?
Ex: He's able to swim. EX: He's not able to swim. Ex: Is he able to swim ?
Past could + inf. could not (couldn't) Could + ‫ اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬+ inf. ?
Ex : He could swim last day. Ex : He couldn't swim last day. Ex : Could he swim last day ?

( was / were ) able to + inf. ( was / were) not able to + inf. Was / Were + ‫ اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬+ able to + inf. ?
Ex: He was able to swim. Ex: He wasn't able to swim. Ex : Was he able to swim ?
Future will be able to + inf. won't be able to + inf. Will+ ‫ اﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬+ be able to + inf. ?
Ex: He'll be able to swim. Ex: He won't be able to swim. Ex: Will he be able to swim ?

Modals of Obligation ‫أﻓﻌﺎل ﻧﺎﻗﺻﺔ ﺗﻌﺑر ﻋن اﻻﻟزام‬

Affirmative Negative
Present Must + inf. Mustn’t + inf.
You must come on time . You mustn’t smoke here.
Past had to + inf. / must have + V3 didn’t have + inf. / mustn’t have + V3
You had to come on time yesterday. You didn’t have to come on time yesterday.
I failed the exam. I must have studied. I failed the exam. I mustn’t have played.

Modals of Necessity ‫أﻓﻌﺎل ﻧﺎﻗﺼﺔ ﺗﻌﺒﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻀﺮورة‬

Affirmative Negative
Present have to / has to + inf. ( don’t / doesn’t ) have to + inf.
You are fat. You have to go on a diet. -You are thin. You don’t have to go on a diet.
He is fat. He has to go on a diet. - He is thin. He doesn’t have to go on a diet.

have got to / has got to + inf. haven’t got to / hasn’t got to + inf.
You have got to go on a diet. You are thin. You haven’t got to go on a diet.

need to + inf. needn’t to + inf. / don’t need to + inf.


You need to study for your exam. -There is no exam. You needn’t to study. / You
don’t need to study.

: ‫ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾرﻋن ﺷﺊ ﻏﯾر ﺿروري وﻻ أﻓﻌﻠﮫ داﺋﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﺎﺿر ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬


. needn’t to ‫ ( وﻻ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬don’t need to + inf. )
- My eyesight is good. I don’t need to wear
glasses.

Past had to + inf. didn’t have + inf.


He was ill. He had to take medicine. He was well. He didn’t have to take medicine.

had got to + inf. hadn’t got to + inf.


He had got to take medicine. You hadn’t got to take medicine.

Need have + p.p. Needn’t have + V3 / didn’t need to + inf.


We need have booked a table. The - We needn’t have booked a table. The restaurant
restaurant is full. is empty.
-We didn’t need to book a table . The restaurant is
empty.

: ‫ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾرﻋن ﺷﺊ ﻏﯾر ﺿروري وﻟم ﻧﻔﻌﻠﮫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬


needn’t have + V3 ‫ ( وﻻ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬didn’t need to + inf. )
- We had much petrol so we didn’t need to
stop.

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Modals of Advice ‫أﻓﻌﺎل ﻧﺎﻗﺻﺔ ﺗﻌﺑر ﻋن اﻟﻧﺻﺢ‬

Affirmative Negative
Present should + inf. shouldn’t + inf.
ought to + inf. oughtn’t to + inf.
had better +inf. had better not + inf.
Ex : You’re tired. You should rest. Ex: You’re fat. You shouldn’t drink pop.
Past should have + V3 shouldn’t have + V3 / oughtn’t to have + V3
ought to have + V3 Ex: He made an accident. He shouldn’t have driven
Ex: He was tired. He should have rested. very fast.
He was tired. He ought to have rested. He made an accident. He oughtn’t to have driven
very fast.

Modals of Possibility / Probability / deduction ‫أﻓﻌﺎل ﻧﺎﻗﺻﺔ ﺗدل ﻋﻠﻲ اﻷﺳﺗﻧﺗﺎج أو اﻷﺣﺗﻣﺎل‬

Degrees of certainty Present Past


Very sure ‫ﻣﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﺟﺪا‬ Must be must have been
He looks tired. He must be ill. He looked tired. He must have been ill.
Quite sure ‫ﻣﺘﺄﻛﺪ اﻟﻲ ﺣﺪ ﻣﺎ‬ May be may have been
He isn’t here. He may be at home. He didn’t come. He may have been at home.
Not sure ‫ﻏﯿﺮ ﻣﺘﺄﻛﺪ‬ might be / could be might have been / could have been
I’m not sure . He might be ill . Ali didn’t come. He might have been ill.

( am / is / are / was / were ) ‫ ﻓﺄﻧﻧﺎ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم ﻓﻌل ﯾﻛون‬%١٠٠ ‫ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ ﻧﻛون ﻣﺗﺄﻛدﯾن ﺑﻧﺳﺑﺔ‬
. ‫ ( ﻟﻼﺳﺗﻧﺗﺎج اﻟﻣﻧﻔﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬can’t have been ) ‫ ( ﻟﻼﺳﺗﻧﺗﺎج اﻟﻣﻧﻔﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺿﺎرع و‬can’t be ) ‫ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬
Ex : Ali is in the class. He can’t be absent.
Ali was in the class. He can’t have been absent.

Modals Of Prediction ‫أﻓﻌﺎل ﻧﺎﻗﺻﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﻧﺑؤ‬

Affirmative Negative
Will (’ll ) won’t
I think it will rain. I think it won’t rain.

( Am / is / are ) going to + inf. ( am / is / are ) not going to + inf.


It’s cloudy. I believe it’s going to rain. It’s not cloudy. It’s not going to rain.

Making requests ( Modal + you ) : ‫أﻓﻌﺎل ﻧﺎﻗﺻﺔ ﻟﻠطﻠب‬

Formal / Could you give me your book , please ? / Would you give me your book , please ?
Informal Can you give me your book ?

Modals of Permission ( Modal + I / We ) : ‫أﻓﻌﺎل ﻧﺎﻗﺼﺔ ﻟﻸﺳﺘﺌﺬان‬

Formal / Could I have some tea , please ? / May I have some tea , please ?
Polite Shall I have some tea , please ?
Informal Can I have some tea , please ?

Modals to express habits : ‫أﻓﻌﺎل ﻧﺎﻗﺼﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﯿﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻌﺎدات‬

Present Will (’ll )


When we go to Paris , we’ll often eat in restaurants.

Past Would (’d ) + inf.


When we went to Paris , we would often eat in restaurants.

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‫اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﺧﺑرﯾﺔ‬ -Reem told me ( that )she felt tired. . ‫ ( ھﻮ اﻟﺮاﺑﻂ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ اﻟﺨﺒﺮﯾﺔ وﯾﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻓﮫ‬that )

-Ali said to me ( that ) he had been ill. ( me ) ‫ﻣﺨﺎطﺐ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﮭﻢ اذا ﻛﺎن ھﻨﺎك‬ ( said to / told )

- Reem said ( that ) she had studied. ‫ ( ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﮭﺎ اذا ﻟﻢ ﯾﻜﻦ ھﻨﺎك ﻣﺨﺎطﺐ‬said )

‫اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻷﺳﺗﻔﮭﺎﻣﯾﺔ‬ - I wondered if she had won the race. . ‫ ( ھﻤﺎ اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺎن ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﺆال ﺑﮭﻞ‬if / whether )

- She asked me whether I would come. .‫ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪم أداة اﻷﺳﺘﻔﮭﺎم ﻧﻔﺴﮭﺎ ﻛﺮاﺑﻂ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﺆال ﺑﺄداة أﺳﺘﻔﮭﺎم‬

- He asked me where I was going. ‫ ( أﻓﻌﺎل ﻗﻮل ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﺆال اﻟﻐﯿﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬asked / wondered .. )

‫اﻟﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻷﻣرﯾﺔ أو‬ - He told me to study. .‫ ( ھﻤﺎ اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺎن ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻞ اﻷﻣﺮ واﻟﻨﺼﺢ‬to / not to + inf. )
‫ﺟﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﻧﺻﺢ‬
- He advised me not to eat sweets. ‫ ( ھﻲ أﻓﻌﺎل اﻟﻘﻮل وﻻ ﺑﺪ أن ﯾﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﺨﺎطﺐ ﺑﻌﺪھﻢ‬told / advised …)

.‫ ( وذﻟك ﻓﻲ اﻟﺟﻣل اﻟﺧﺑرﯾﺔ واﻷﺳﺗﻔﮭﺎﻣﯾﺔ‬told / said / asked / wondered ) ‫ ﺗذﻛر أن ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم أزﻣﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﻌد أﻓﻌﺎل اﻟﻘول‬-
.( to / not to ) ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺟﻣل اﻷﻣرﯾﺔ وﺟﻣل اﻟﻧﺻﺢ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟﻣﺻدر ﺑﻌد‬-

:( says / asks / tells …. ) ‫ ﻻ ﻧﻐﯾر اﻷزﻣﻧﺔ اذا ﻛﺎن ﻓﻌل اﻟﻘول ﻣﺿﺎرع‬-
Ex: He says he lives in UAE. ( Says lives )
: ‫ﻻ ﻧﻐﯾر ﻓﻲ اﻷزﻣﻧﺔ اذا ﻛﺎن اﻟﻛﻼم ﯾدل ﻋﻠﻲ ﺣﻘﺎﺋق ﯾوﻣﯾﺔ أو ﺣﻘﺎﺋق ﻋﻠﻣﯾﺔ أو ﺣﻛم‬
Ex: My teacher said Time is gold. / It is said that eating an apple a day keeps the doctor away.

‫ﺗﺣوﯾل اﻷزﻣﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻛﻼم اﻟﻐﯾر ﻣﺑﺎﺷر‬

( ‫ﻛل زﻣن ﯾﺗم ﺗﺣوﯾﻠﮫ اﻟﻲ اﻟزﻣن اﻷﻗدم ﻣﻧﮫ ) ﻣﺿﺎرع ﯾﺗﺣول اﻟﻲ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ واﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﯾﺗﺣول اﻟﻲ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎم‬

Direct Indirect Direct Indirect


am / is / are was / were didn’t + inf. hadn’t + V3

( am / is / are ) playing ( was / were) playing didn’t play hadn’t played

was / were had been play- plays played

( was / were ) had been played had played


have / has had Will / can / may … Would / could / might …

( have / has ) played had played Will play would play

had had had should + inf. should have + V3

had played had played must + inf. must have + V3

don’t / doesn’t didn’t Ought to + inf. Ought to have + V3


(don’t / doesn’t ) play didn’t play Should study Should have studied
‫ﺗﺣوﯾل اﻟظروف اﻟزﻣﻧﯾﺔ وأﺳﻣﺎء اﻷﺷﺎرة‬

Direct This These today tonight now Yesterday / last Tomorrow / next …… ago
Indirect That Those That day That night then The day before / The day after / The …… before
The previous day The following day

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Prefixes ‫اﻟﺑﺎدﺋﺎت‬

: ‫( ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن ﻋﻛس اﻟﻛﻠﻣﺔ‬not ) ‫ ( ﺑﻣﻌﻧﻲ‬un / in / im / il / ir / dis / anti / non ) ‫ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬

unhappy / unreal / unable / unlucky / unfortunate / unmarried / unimportant / unwise/unsuitable


inaccurate / incomplete / inefficient / inactive / inexact / inappropriate / inconvenient / indirect
/ insincere / incorrect / inability / informal
improper / impolite / impossible / impatient / imperfect / impure / immaterial / immoral
illegal / illiterate / illogical
irregular / irrelevant / irrespective / irresponsible
discover / dislike / disinfect / dishonest / disagree / disobey / disobedient / discontinue
anti-smoking / anti-slavery / antibiotic / anti-racism
nonsmoker / nonstop / nonsense / nonresident / nonstop

: ‫ ( ﺑﻣﻌﻧﻲ زﯾﺎدة ﻋن اﻟﻠزوم‬over ) ‫ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬

overcrowded / overpopulated / overwork / over time / over dose / overeat / oversleep


: ‫ ( ﺑﻣﻌﻧﻲ ﺗﺣت أو أﺳﻔل‬under / sub ) ‫ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬

subway / submarine / subordinate

underground / under age / underline

Suffixes ‫اﻟﻠواﺣق‬

For people ar ( liar ) / er ( teacher ) / eer ( engineer ) / or ( visitor ) / ist ( scientist ) /


ent ( president ) / ant ( assistant ) / ian ( musician )

Abstract tion ( pollution ) / ion ( expression ) / ure ( creature ) / ance ( allowance ) /


nouns ence ( confidence ) / ment ( development ) / ness ( weakness ) / ship ( friendship ) /
dom ( freedom ) / hood ( childhood ) / th ( growth ) / t ( weight ) / ty ( loyalty ) /
ity ( ability ) / y ( delivery ) / al ( arrival )

Verbs fy ( beautify ) / en ( widen ) / ise ( advise ) / ize ( summarize ) / ate ( activate )

Adjectives able ( comfortable ) / ful ( careful ) / less ( careless ) / ive ( expensive ) / ese ( Chinese ) /
an (urban ) ian ( Asian ) / ant ( ignorant ) / ent ( different ) / ish ( selfish ) /
ous ( obvious ) / y ( windy ) / ly ( lovely ) / ar ( popular ) / al ( normal )
ing ( interesting ) / ed ( interested )
‫( ﻟﻸﺷﺨﺎص‬ed) ‫ ( ﻟﻸﺷﯿﺎء واﻟﺼﻔﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺘﮭﻲ ب‬ing ) ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺘﮭﻲ ب‬

Adverbs ly ( slowly - simply - happily- dramatically ) / wards ( forwards - backwards- towards )

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