615
~ 616
KEIITI AKI SEISMIC CODA OF LOCAL EARTHQUAKES 617
'L
'i[,,,.v'
I
p:
E
...
IQ
II)
T
' ~.~,
coveredareas
f" ili. """ p.ili i.,','i"
and Oliver,1964; Kizawa and Yamaguti, 1960].
.",,,
and Press, 1!J52; Sykes
[Ewing
.. . ".
the farther stations. whICh show sDcetral eon lows. We try to look at the coda spectrum of
u:'" tents similar to the ones observed at the closer each earthquake only at frequencies lower than
I~
CFF SCAI.£
II ,l' ,!!J',
iJ:
' , ,
~
~
4 , " ~' . HIGH GAl< (2,400,000 AT 3 'pol
stJItions. All these difficulties disappear
regard the coda as the backscattering
if we
waves
coming from scatterers (heterogeneities) dis
tributed over a large area surrounding the sta
the characteristic
finiteness,
frequency due to the source
which is roughly the rupture
divided by the source length. At these frequen
cies, S(..) becomes a constant proportional to
velocity
.~ OR'"
STATION NO.1 (lI' 17.9km)
tions and epicenters. the intensity of the equivalent point source, i.e.
, ,l.J!
II'": $'" ' ]
To.£
, , "'h',.
~
I The above observation that the coda excita the seismic moment., Therefore, if the seismic
\ t,'
.
,t
t J'
,
,
~ .
:.:;S
GAJN
tion appears to be independent of epicentral
distance is not limited to the Parkfield area. It
moment is known independently, we can deter
mine C(..lt) for frequencies lower than the
I
it"
~
'jt)~!
n ORO<
To.£
STATION NO.9 (6' 2.1km)
LOW GAIN
HIGH GAIN
of epicentral distance, as long as the epicentral
distance is shorter than about 100 km. In fact,
a very simple method of calculating the earth
moment is not'known,
be obtained.
higher for smaller
the shape of C(..lt) can
The characteristic
earthquakes,
frequency
but smaller
is
{I".,;
I '\ "'
I ~i .JOf'F SCALE
quake magnitude from the FP times has been
devisedby Bisztricsany [1958] and successfully
earthquakes do not generate lowfrequency
waves. Therefore, we can only recover the
" ;,1" applied to Sakhalin earthquakes by Soloviev shape of C(..lt) for a limited frequency range
~i' ,
t~i' '
iiJi,' I~ ' . CODA [1965] and to Japanese earthquakes by Tsu from the observation of a single event. We use
"
, "
~ I: , I
1 I 1 I I 1 I
mu,a [1967]. many earthqnakes of different sizes to connect
I , The similarity of speetral contents of the them over the required range of frequency
Fig. 1. The records of two aftershocks of the Parkfield earthquake obtained by EV17
\. 1" ,J:, .j' vertical seismographs (unfiltered) at two of the temporary stations of U. S, Geological Survey.
coda wavesbetween different epicenterstation (0.23.0 cps).
~
,
;, r
"t
j!,
,10
t; : , 1
' ~i,
,
One of the shocks is located close to the station 1 and the other close to the station 9.The
wave groups arriving earlier than 15 see ehow the feature that indicates that they are propagat
paths has also been observed elsewhere. For
example, Aki [1956] studied the power spectra
Thus we can determine C (..It) empirically,
without knowing the detail of the mechanism of
to "l1il ' ,
f"'\ M n' ii
,i'
" ing outward from the BOurce.However, the later portion of the records, which ia only clearly of various portions of local earthquake seismo coda propagation. We want to know, however, if
'
seen on the highgain trace. seems to share the same spectra, whether the station is as close grams in Japan and found that the earlier a realistic model of coda propagation can be
~!, /IHf"
, , Ii , ,
as I or 2 km to the BOurce or is located at 15 or 18 km from the source. We assume that they
t 'I ,
!
W) ' (
'HI'I
, "
I are backscattering waves due to distributed heterogeneities. portions (including P and S waves) show strong
variation due to the path difference, although
constructed to account for the observed C(..lt).
For this purpose, we need more specific models
'ii'\' records, which is too small to be seen on the
i I" i\I"i'l waves, which suggest that they may really be tbe coda spectrum is less sensitiveto thc path for both wave and medium. We shall assume
~ .' " '
the backscattering waves due to the lateral lowgain trace and is only clearly shown on the elfect. that the lateral heterogeneity responsible for
II U'
!'~ ." I heterogeneity. highgain trace, seems to share similar ampli the coda waves may be approximated by ran
'1 Ii"'
,
,
.,
Figure 1 (see Figure 7 for station location).
18 kID from the source. In other words, the
patheffectis encouraging to anyone looking for
amethodthat can recover the source mechanism
waves as well as the scattered waves. Some of
\"fi ' 'j ~I' ; One of the shocks is located close to station 1
power spectra of coda waves at a giventime by eliminating the path effect. The energy
the assumptions in our specific model may seem
"~;'fH~~; and the other close to station 9. As can be seen extremely oversimplified. We feel, however, that,
' :
'
.f measured from the earthquake origintimeap carried by the coda is negligible as compared at least for coda waves, they may be much
~, .;, "~,I "'If
,
V''', ,
,
i,
in the lowgain traces, the wave groups arriving
pear to be nearly independent of the epicentral wilh the early arriving waves. Yet they may II
earlier than 15 sec (measured from the origin
,I
, time) show larger amplitudes and earlier arrivals
distance. be useful for the determination of the seismic
more realistic than the other
tion that the earth is laterally
extreme assump
homogeneous.
It is difficult to explain the above observatioa I:
~IJ.111:,:,,
' 'Il:/f 'i;,
: "' just as longperiod surface waves are
:: ~ ;It je t} C . / I t
~'/ ~(f J)
618 ?J SEISMICCODAtF LOCALEARTHQUAKES 619
propagating waves in the local earthquake SIMPLE METHOD OF MEASURING POWEH 2
the following two assumptions. (1) The scat seismograms after the arrival of S waves.
terers responsible for coda waves are distrib I SPECTRUM P(w 1 t) = /<I>(w
I r)12~ 2 te"'/Q (12)
uted twodimensionally over the earth's surface. REPRESENTATION OF TRANSIENT POWER ! As is well kno:vn, the Fourier tr~n"form ~f a Since
( The distribution is random and uniform SPECTRUM powerspectrum IS the autocorrelatIOn functIOn.
'orzero lae:tthe autocorrelation function is the
(space stationary). (2) The prImary waves ana
the secondary waves are surface waves of the
Suppose that the scatterers are numbered ac meansquare of the time series. In our case of y(w) = log P(w I t) (13)
same kind. We assume for simplicity, that a cording to the distance'from a given station. Let tnlnsient time series, the mean squarc may bc we get
smgle group velocity u, independent of fre
fo (t) be the secondary waves from the nth I eotimatedfrom a shorttime sample around a a
quency, applies to them. Assumption 1 may be
justified by the fact that the obstacles respon
scatterer located at distance ro. From assump
tions 2 and 3, we expect that the coda wavesat
\
\
&ivenabsolute time t. Putting such an estimatc
(v'(t)), wehave
g'(w) = 2 &:; log /<I>(w I r) /  tjQ (14) ,
where u is the group velocity of the waves. 1 ' I Wesimplifythe measurementof powerspec
surface. Assumption 2 naturally follows assump f tnlm by an approximate method that is an
Taking a distance range Ar long enough,80 t(w.) = 2Q{aj(aw) log /<1>(",
I r)I)"", (16)
tion 1, because body waves mostly propagate
downward to deeper parts where less hetero that the corresponding At =
(2Ar)/u is greater oquivalentof the stationary phase method used
t in analysis of dispersed wave trains. To facili g"(w.) = (1/Q)(dt (w.)jdw.) (17)
than the duration of individual fort), we ean
geneity is expected. For simplicity, we neglected write the expression for coda waves at t as I tatethe practical analysis procedure, we shall Inserting (17) into (10), we get
the dispersion.
In addition to the above assumptions, we J
lltimatethe powerspectrum by measuring the
, 1 Q '/2
t II."
,!fw"
'1'1
'
! ("
620
portion of a record may depend on the response
of the seismograph, we simulated the EV17
seismograph to the Benioff by passing the
record (written on magnetic tape) through a
lowpass filter with a cutoff frequency of 3 cps.
The frequency responses of the Benioff and
EV17 seismographs (without filter) are given
KEIITI AKI
that the
time measured
coda spectrum is only
SOURCE SPECTRUM
a function of
from the earthquakeorigin
~2.0
en
3.0... ..
SEISMIC CODA OF LOCAL EARTHQUAKES
DISPERSION
L FilTER
OF CODA WAVES
CUT OFF
621
, t2'
i
f
I" in Table 1. at a Iven tIlDe measured from . a.
u
'. The measurement of period was made by origin time IS rouJ!:hlv ind~pendell1..W..so~
counting the number of peaks within a certain size. This is expected if the frequencies of coda t; 1.0 ,
time interval (5 sec for earlier portions, 1020 'are sufficiently low, so that the source can he Z
w
01 '0(
" 'j sec for later portions). The result for all the regarded as a point. The finiteness of the SOUI'«! ::>
0 .
"' ' earthquakes is plotted in a single diagram (Fig
ure 2). It is remarkable that the points obtained
acts as a highcut filter with the cutoff fre
quency determined by its size. If the frequrn. ~0.5
{ , from many earthquakes fall within a limited cies of the coda are lower than the cutoff fre U. 0.4 ,
!,,(t ~ range from a single common curve. This means quency for each earthquake, there will be DO :.:: t
I If' ~0.3
w
that a single ",.t relation applies to all the finiteness effect on the coda spectrum. a. t f 1.5
> 1 coda waves, roughly independent of earthquake
size, epicentral distance, and nature of the direct
The spectrum density, in the absence 01the
finiteness effect, will be simply proportional to
0.2 ( )
iQO=o:ez
", "
'{ " I
,I
"
"
! K(t) (1fv'8)Il(w)I" LAPSE TIME (SEC)
l
i:,
r'" , , t EV17 Benioff, (24db), correction
quakes areofshown
coda amplitudes.
together. The linear relation shown in this figure is used for dispersion

, ,
, '
t ',
,
, ,
~11~;i!li , ,
"" I,
sec
/,
cpa Idt/dfl"' (1)'''ldt/dfl"'
exp (r/t/Q)
(Q 200)
Benioff,
X to,
(24 db),
X to,
X to, cm X 10<""
sec/mm /m..
I Qr,jlji;~: i pooentcouple of the equivalent doublecouple ,
f,'
" ~Jr' I'~
" ' "I ,
poiotsource.The moment is related to the
GEOMETRICAL SPREADING
~
",'i hi!::! , 15 3.00 1.66 6.41 2.0 4.2 0.83 0.10
1966]parameter by the formula [e.g., Aki,
OMJrce Since we assume that the scattered waves are
f \; 20
25
2.45
2.10
1.87
2.06
8.37
10.3
2.2
2.3
4.3
4.5
1.03
1.17
0.71
0.99
0.18
0.26 surface waves in our specific model, their spectra
bi~'""II"'
'" Ii'
Ii
30 1.85 2.22 12.2 2.4 5.0 1.33 1.34 0.37 P(",lr) will depend on travel distances accord
! 35 1.67 2.37 14.0 2.5 5.7 1.44 1.9 0.48 ing to
"t ::'"I
I 40 1.55 2.49 15.7 2.6 6.3 1.58 2.4 0.61 , Mo = JJ(D)8 (19)
1 45 1.42 2.58 17.3 2.7 7.2 1.78 3.2 0.78 p. is the rigidity of medium in which fault
'
shere
", '
50 1.32 2.75 19.4 2.8 7.8 1.94 4.0 1.00 'P(", I r)1 = Ip(", I ro)/(80/8)'/'(ro/r)'/2 (22)
: 1 . lormed,(D) is the average dislocation over
, t ,."1i!>':r,1'"",1" where
:
"
60 1.17 2.96 22.9 3.0 9.8 2.22 6.4 l.43
,
, ",
70 1.05 3.16 26.4 3.2 9.1 !.berault plane, and 8 is the area of the fault
pUnt.
%1 ','., t'i . 11.5,
, ""
29.9
W
~ 80 0.96 3.34 3.4 15 14.3 r,r adistance between station and scatterer.
,
',r .11;, 90 0.88 3.52 33.4 3.5 19 21.2 Ifths assumption of a point source is valid in
reference.
I
!
~ '
t,~~~ t ,:~
.;'., 100 0.82 3.68 36.8 3.6 23 29 !.befrequencyrange of the coda, we Can isolate 8 ' distance between scatterer and epicenter.
8, a reference distance.
'.'~p Iifjl
"
I ,:1:
120
150
0.73
0.62
3.96
4.36
43.4
53.4
4.0
4.3
30
47
49
t02 !.belOurceeffect in the power spectrum. We re
(' rrite(11) and (12) as
.' Under assumption 3, we can write
"
!,f I<,
450 0.30 6.89 146.2 8.3 430 4900
fVc)J 500 0.275,7.23 161.7 8.7 570 7570 1'(0.11)'= Mo' '<1>0('"
I r)I' "''; Ie.'/o (21)
,
600 0.245 7.79 190.8 10.1 800 14,00 P(", I t) == Mo' '<1>0('"I ro)" (~)' ",~u' Ie.'/0 I
j"t ~" 700 0.22 8.31 219.9 11.2 1150 26700 C;:(:~a only a function of the medium and is (24)
j f '1 , IIItIredto a point source with unit moment.
H! ,,' Putting r = utj2, we get
,>I ,{
,iilll:~
! 1,1
~ ~'",=~~" ~
.)
1
in the assigned area. However, it is possible to wavelengths greater than crack size, if plane ~f~
:ill!,!, ).
meet both efficiency and geometric conditions, harmonic waves of fixed displacement are in.
r if I is smaller than 10 km. cident on the crack [Ang and KnopofJ, 1964].
l t;.~t...
,~ If the incident waves have a displacement t: "',
DETERMINATION OF [2N(r,)]'I'I</>,1 (",Iro)
I spectrum proportional to '",'1' like the one
JO2 n 'i
'~ f,~ !
In the preceding section, we determined the shown in (32), then the displacement of 8Ctt. ,. 1
'I ~,~,'
,I
value of [2N(r.)]'''I</>,('''lr.)Iin the frequency
range 0.450.28 cpa (equation 31), using the
data of an earthquake with known seismic mo
ment. We now want to extend the determination
tered waves will be proportional
is a special case of the Rayleigh scatterina
[Rayleigh, 1896] that applies to waves 10JlCtl
than the size of sca tterer.
to ..'. 'Ib
~
. t!
'" to higher frequencies. We cannot do this by
using the same earthquake data because of the
The observed frequency independence of
 ,f' .I
</>,(",Ir,) may be explained, if the crack size ~ ~ 10'
</) ,
Ii ,
;, limited dynamic range of instruments and also larger than the wavelength, in which case the
,I because of the restriction that we must look at approximation of Rayleigh scattering breab :::!:
u /'V ,.1,
,', only those frequencies which are lower than the
! down. The finiteness effect of crack size may ael .!; l.IJ.
i:' cutoff frequency due to the finiteness of the as a double integrator and compensate for tho x v~.;
" source. Instead, we shall determine them by ",' dependence due to the Rayleigh scatterine. f ~
,,'I. ;, ::; combining the results for many earthquakes,
~
:::!:
The longest wavelength involved in our study iI =>
,ji' Ii each covering different frequency ranges. about 10 km. On the other hand, we found in a 0::
I'
.,'"
I, Figure 3 shows the reduced coda spectra for previous section that a scatterer size of 10kill t
ILl
0..
10. It
f
I
twenty foreshocksand aftershocksof the Park
field earthquake obtained from the Gold Hill
and density of 1 per 10 km X 10 km sre &eo
ceptable. These values are not inconsistent with
</)
c(
! e.
~" ..,"
0 ,II \ !
record (Benioff shortperiod seismograph). Our the supposition that the scatterer sizes art 0
u
task is to find a common curve that fits the greater than the wavelengths. F.
0 t
shape of all the observed curves. As discussed in ILl
U
SEISMIC MOMENT AND EARTHQUAKE
earlier sections, our basic assumption is that =>
MAGNITUDES fa J()'
, I such a common curve exists. Fortunately, as a 0::
:t! result of reductions based on our specific me The calculation' of seismic moment is straight.
dium model, the reduced coda spectra, shown forward once the function [2N(r,)J'/lI~C..lr.)1
in Figure 3, vary only little with frequency.
This makes it easier to find a common shape.
We may say, as a rough approximation, that the
commoncurve is a straight line parallel to the
is determined. The value of this functionfOl
Gold Hill station was previouslyobtainedfl'Olll
the earthquake/ (June 28, 1966, 04h OSm67.
GMT) with known moment, as 1.5 X 10'. em
1 ii'
, frequency axis. A closer look at the curves, how sec/dyne cm for frequencies 0.280.45 cps.The 106 COMMON
ever, suggests a slight tendency to increase with values for higher frequencies are obtained by
frequency. We see that a solid curve designated using the common curve given in Figure 3.Tbt1
as 'common shape' fits the shapes of all the are shown in Table 3.Then, the seismicmomatll
observed curves reasonably well and seems to is determined as the ratio of the reduced coda
~.
justify our basic assumption.
The common shape of the reduced coda spec
trum has a physical meaning in our specified
spectrum X(",)
The moment
to [2N(r,)]'I'I</>,C..lr,)I.
obtained at various frequencie8
are then aV,eraged for each earthquake. TIlt
107
! ."..
model. It is proportional to I</>. (",Ir.)I, which result is given in Table 4, .together with the . 0.2
is the ahsolute value of the Fourier transform 1.0 2.0 3.0
local magnitudes determined at Pasaden&aad
of displacement due' to secondary waves gen Berkeley.
FREQUENCY(CPS)
erated at a scatterer at a distance r. by a source The relation between the seismic moment j/.
of unit moment at the same distance from the and magnitudes M. are shown in Figure 4. AI .Fig.3. Reducedcoda spectra for differentearthquakesobtainedby applyingdispersion, 'i
scatterer. d""pation, and geometrical spreading correction to coda amplitudes observed at Gold Hill
expected from the scaling law of seismic II*' llllion.Theyseemto sharea commonshapethat is indepenedentof sourcesizeand location. I ,~
,
KEIlTI AKI SEISMIC CODA OF LOCAL EAHTIIQUATms 627
626
, '''';
~ TABLE 3. Values of (2N(ro)11I'I4<o(",lro)1
magnitude. However, examining the original
data of Gutenberg and Richter [1956, Figure 3],
SEPT. I 10 15, 1966 the cumulative number of earthquakes is plotted
against this mngnitude in Figure 5. The b value
. .,liI" \2N(ro)I'''I4<o(",\ro)\, we find that the (34) applies equally well to <II
'"
u ,~ b. 1.44 is 1.44, which is rather high but not unusually
j I ~
.. ,., t, cps cm Bec/dyne cm tho local magnitudo for ML > 3. Thus, we 0~
<II ," high for an aftershock sequence.
t. combine (33) and (34) and get ~ , There are many smaller earthquakes for which
3.00 4.4 X 10" 0
~f 2A5 3.8 X 10" log.. (E/ Mo) =, 4.4 (35) 0:
'"
\
" we could not apply our method beeause they do
not show measurable coda. Since the smallest
, ~, 2.10 3.2 X 10" '"
'"
~ 10
1.85
1.67
2.6 X 10"
2.1 X 10"
The physical meaning of tbis ratio is very
clear if we assume a dislocation model of an f z
'"
magnitude we measured is about 1, they must
have a magnitude around O. According to (33),
1.55 1.9 X 10" earthquake. The work done at the fault is > ~
the seismic moment eorresponding to !vIL = 0 is
t:ll 1.42 1.7 X 10" ;:
4
\
(r)'(D)'S, whero (r) is the mean of...pr.e&xisted .J 10" dyne em, that is, /l(DS) = 10" dynes em.
1.32 1.7 X 10" ~ ,
~
1.17
1.05 ~ 0.22
1.6 X 10"
1.5 X 10"
~sJlI\d_re.sidual.mress
~ation
aruLill) is tho average
over the fault plane. If we compare
'"
~
u " If we assume that the stress drop is of the order
of 10', wemay write (/l(D»/d "" 0(10'), where
this with the similar expression for seismic d is the width of the fault strip. Assuming also
moment (equation 19), we get \ 1'.0 2.0
\
, S "" cr, we get cr "" 0(10') em'. Thus, the
3.0
trum [Aki, 1967], the moment, which is propor
tional to the lowfrequency spectrum, does not E/ M. = fI(r)/,. (36) \ MAGNITUDE
size of crack associated with microearthquakes
of magnitude 0 is about 10 meters. Surprisingly,
Fig. 5. Number of ParkfieId aftershoeks for the i!
increase linearly with the amplitude of short where '1 is tho efficiency of seismic energy radia this fits the extrapolation of Utsu's formula
period waves, from which magnitudes are meas tion and,. is the rigidity of medium. Assuming period August 115, 1966,with magnitudes greater [Utsu and Seki, 1954] log A (em') = 6 + M,
than the value specified on the abscissa. b is the
",
ured. The relation may be expressed as ,. =
3' X 10" dynes cm', we get from (35) .Iope of the dashed line. The magnitude is deter which relates the area of the aftershoek zone to
the magnitude of mainshDck for large earth
and (36) miaed by (33) using the seismic moment esti
logl. M. = 15.8 + 1.5ML (33) mated from coda amplitude. quakes in Japan.
fI(r) = 12 X 10' dynes cm2 (37)
It is interesting to compare the above formula DEPENDENCE OF CODA EXCITATION ON
with the GutenbergRichter energy formula
This shows that the stress level (7) varies from GEOLOGY OF STATION SITE
log,. E = 11.4 + l.5M (34) 1024 12 to 120 bars, for the range of TJfrom 1.0 to
0.1. So far, we have studied the coda of different
This formula was proposed to apply to the earthquakes at the same station (Gold Hill).
surface wave magnitude and not to the local SIZE OF MICROEARTHQUAKES Our basic assumption that the coda spectrum
TABLE 4. Comparison of Solemlo Moment witb M..nitud. ( The measurement of seismic moment Was
extended to microearthquakes using the data
is independent of epicentral distanee may be
best examined if we study the coda of the same
earthquake at different stations. We will use
~:
OriginTime
CGMT} MCPAS) MCBRK)
SolemloMoment,
dyne om
~1023
w
Z
I ohtained at Gold Hill station for the period
September 1 to 15, 1966. The moment value is
the records of many temporary stations oper
ated by the U. S. Geological Survey in the Park
> converted to magnitude by the use of (33), and
0 fieldCholame area. The seismographs are of the I:
Juoe 28, 1966 ~. I~I
Olb OOmS3. 3.5 3.1 1.4 X 10"
!': lili
;'1' 2.0 X 10" TABLE 5. Relative Coda Excitation at Some of the U. S. GeologicalSurvey Seismograph Stations in
04b 08m 57. 4.S 5.1 !z 1022 the ParkfieldCholame Area
8.2 2.6 3.8 X 10" w
Otb ISm 38a ::;;
13b 48m 21. 8.8 2.7 1.2 X 10" 0
jl'l, 20b 46m 59. 8.4 8.1 4.8 X 10" ::;; Coda
I .i'lI!'" 28b 57m 241 8 .5 .2 X 10"
~ Station Height, Excitation
::;; Lat. N Long. W ft Factor
Juoe 29, 1966 <n Surface Geology
4.1 8.6 0.7 X 10"
02b 19m 410
8.2 2.9 0.9 X 10" \jj1021 35°45.35' 120°18.73' 1220 7.8
08b Mm 56&
8.8 X 10" PlioPleistocene nonmarine sediments i
18b 12m 01. 8.8 8.1
1.6 X 10" 2 35°47.46' (gravel). I
19b 58m 27. 4.8 5.0 : 120'21.44' 1240 6.6 Same as station 1, i I
3 35°43.20' 120°16.85' 1370 4.8 f
4 35°48.84' Same as station 1.
June 80, 1966
1.6 X 10"
120°16.07' 1590 1.5 Lower Miocene marine sediments
Olb 17m 87. 4.3 4.1
5 35°42.59' (sandstone).
July I, 1966
10201 I I I 5.0 120°22.72' 1470 5.2 Same as station 1. I!
1.1 X 10"
2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 7 35°39.06' 120°19.22' 1530 4.7
OOb 41m 281 3.6 8.2 MAGNITUDE 8 35°47.39' Same as station 1.
120°10.55' 1700 2.1 Eocene marine sediments. i
July 2, 1966 Fig. 4. Relation between the seismic moment 9 35°52.79' 120°24.72' 1540 6.1
1.6 X 10" 10 35°49.47' Same as station 1.
12b OSm 86. 8,9 8,7 estimated from coda amplitude and the local mag 120°26.31' 2120 5.4 Same as station 1. ii
3.4 8.4 0.6 X 10"
nitude. The Berkeley magnitude for smaller earth 11 35°49.88' 120°21.18' 1430
12b 16m 24&
8.1 2.3 X 10" 1.0 Mesozoic granitic rocks. ,I
8.1
12b 26m 24& quakes are excluded because of larger scatter. if ,
:"
SEISMIC CODA OF LOCAL EARTHQUAKES 629
KEnTI AKI
120'15' 120'00
628 Figure 3 for Gold Hill station seems roughly to 36'00'
type E17, with frequency response given in apply to all the other stations. However, there
Table 1. The station locations are given in are large differences in the level of curves among
Table 5 and Figure 7. the stations. For example, station 11 shows con
We selected ten earthquakes with epicenters sistently the lowest values and station 1 shows
:";
' " 1
the highest values. We assumed that the 10 KM
distributed from one end of the station network ~_u...,
'
i\ , ,,<i to the other. We measured the reduced coda spectrum curves have a common shape among
,'.'1> q'
stations but differ hy a constant factor, which is
&. , "'..
..
. spectra at each station, and divided them by
the value at station 11 (Gold Hill) at a fre determined for each station. The result is given
~,i<~;
I~ ,
.
"1
quency of 2.5 cps. If our assumption is correct,
the normalized coda spectrum should be the
in Table 5 and Figure 7.
There is a remarkable correlation between the
~
.
!. ,," 'f' station factor and the geology of the station
;1 'Wlfii
same at all the stations for all the earthquakes.
site as indicated in Table 5 and Figura 7.
8(2.1)
The actual normalized spectra are shown in Fig
" , ""''' .1
ure 6. Younger sediments ahow greater values of the
35'45'
~j"'j"'" I As shown in Figure 6, we find that the nor factor. We find the smallest value for granitic
'~I"i malized spectra at a given station agree within rocks. Such a correlation may be expected be
a factor of about 2. Furthermore, all the curves cause the part of the medium with lower im.
I"~ . 1>'1
show a slight tendency to increase with fre pedance would vibrate with greater amplitudes.
" ~,~ .'i" , . if . ' , 1:;::':':;':;1
Alluvium
, I' ~rtY'''';?' quency, and the 'common shape' obtained in .0 .."".~ ':';.::. . , t'!
~ ~
,
0
7' '
f~a 'f::,
::.::. ' ~4.7) , '. , '.', PlioPleistocene
' .
STATI~
,
. "
'..:;.. ,
.' .::':. '. . .
,0 , '. Sediments
11: ) ,
~
~ Mesozo,c ~ Ir i
1'1 STATION 3
35' 30'1 I
§ Sediments ~ EoceneSediments
~
STAT~
Fig. 7. Map of stations operated by the U. S. Geological Survey. The number in brackets
~r
.... = '0 shows the relative factor of coda excitation at each station.
0 =
~ '0
~0
STATIO~ 
STATION 7
Tbus, we must conclude that the coda excita
tionstrongly depends on the surface geology of
waves on the assumption that the coda spectra
are independent of epicentral distance and de
"i'
0 tbe station site. A station correction is needed tails of the direct wave path from source to
eN in tbe use of the coda for the determination of station. The existence of a common <»ptrela
~
J" aeismicmoment. tion (Figure 2) as well as of a common shape of
, ,m ~ 10 Oncethe station correction is made, however, reduced coda spectrum (Figure 3) supports the
0 the seismic moments determined from different above assumption.
z
~
J Itations agree well. Each curve in Figure 8 It was found that the coda excitation strongly
".', ~, "', mowsthe seismic moment for a single earth depends on the surface geology of the station
!( ' ' :.., .""o~~~ quske obtained from the coda spectrum cor site. However, once the station effect is cor
" STATION /;;"
.,l
~'t'
~..i~ L
.
,\~.~
I
'j,
.":;p
STATION II (GOLO HILL)
,:'~
.
t
$~
" :~.,.
\ 0:
1.0 I.e
50.5.0" '"
'
2.0
Z5
~
20
'
F.REQUENCT
".
TIME
(CPS)
~. " . .
eo'540"
(SEC)
'" 25 .
20 ""
15
epicentraldistance.
CONCLUSION
M. = 15.8 + 1.5M.: The size of a microearth
quake with M. = 0 is estimated to be about
10 X 10 meters. .
We proposed a, method of determining the A simple specific mode! of the wave medium
Fig. 6. Reduced coda spectra for several earthquakes rneasured simultaneously at different 8eismic moment of a !oca,! earthqua,ke from coda was presented to account for the observa,tion on
.stations. The values are normalized to the one observed at station 11 for a frequency of
2. 5 CpR.
KEIITI AKI SEISMIC CODA OF LOCAL EARTHQUAKES
630 631
Eslimation of earthquake moment, released
energy and stressstrain drop from the G wave surfacewave dispersion, 2, Solomon Islands
spectrum, Bull. Earthquake Res. Inst. Tokyo Earthquake of July 29, 1950,Bull. Sei8mol. Soc.
Univ., 44, 7388, 1966. Am., 42, 315325,1952.
_'00 Aki, IC, Sealing law of seismic spectrum, J. Geo Gutenberg, B., and C. F. Richter, Earthquake
"' phys. Res., 72, 12171231,1967. magnitude, intensity, energy, and acceleration,
Aki, K, and M. Tsujiura, Correlational study of Bull. Sei8mol. Soc. Am., 40, 105, 1956.
~
~ near earthquake waves, Bull. Earthquake Res. Kizawa, T., and R. Yamaguti, Some new phases
'" Inst., Tokyo Univ., 37, 207232, 1959. observed in a study of earthquake swarms relat
~ .Hi, K., M. Tsujiura, M. Hori, and K Goto, ing to volcanic
93129, 1960. activity, 2, Geophys. Mag., 30,
~... Spectral study of near earthquake waves, Bull.
Earthquake
1958. Res. Inst. Tokyo Univ., 36, 7198, Rayleigh, J. W. 8., The Theory of Sound, Mac
.~_d_".km
ffi 10 millan, New York, 1896. (Reprinted by Dover,
"0
"
u
'0.8km
~ Ang,D. D., and L. Knopoff, Diffraction of scalar New York, vol. 2, 149152,1945.)
elastic waves by a finite crack, Proc. N at/. Acad. Soloviev, S. L., Seismicity of Sakhalin, Bull.
~
OJ
Sci., U. S., 61, 593598, 1964. Earthquake
102, 1965. Res. Inst., Tokyo Univ., 43, 95
'" ~d0.8km
BenMenahem, A., Radiation of seismic surface
wavesfrom finite moving sources, Bull. Sei8mol. Sykes, L. R., and J. Oliver, The propagation of
Soc. Am., 61, 401435,1961. shortperiod seismic surface waves across oceanic
30 35 BenMenahem, A., and D. G. Harkrider, Radia area, Bull. Sei8mol. Soc. Am., 64, 13491416,
1964.
'0 10 15 20 25 lion patterns of seismic surface waves from
EPICENTRALDISTANCE (KM)
buried dipolar point sources in a flat stratified Tsai, Y. B., and K. Aki, Simultaneous determina
earth, J. Geophys. Res., 69, 26052620,1964. tion of the seismic moment and attenuation of
Bisztricsany,E. A., A new method for the deter seismic1969.
69(1), surface waves, Bull. Sei8mol. Soc. Am.
100 mination of the magnitude of earthquakes,
w Geoliz.Kozlemen., 7, no. 2, 1958. Tsumura, K, Determination of earthquake mag
~d'O.. d'" Eaton, J. P., Dependence of hypocenter deter nitude from total duration of oscillation, Bull.
minations on the distribution of recording sta Earthquake
1967. Res. Inst., Tokyo Univ., 46, 718,
tions and the precision of the seismic velocity
~ /""~/'./~~d'1.5 model of the earth's crust in the Parkfield Utsu, T., and A. Seki, A relation between the area
;;;
;
~
10
~ "4.0

Cholame area, paper presented at the Confer
ence on Geologic Problems of the San Andreas
of aftershock region and the energy of main
shock, Zi8in
233240, 1954.(J. Sei8mol. Soc. Japan), Ser. 2, 7,
r ~
doT.' fault system,
California,1967. Stanford University, Palo Alto,
~
" (Received March 25, 1968;
Ewing,M., and F. Press, Crustal structure and
revised September 16, 1968.)
*
Iii
IL '
0.,0" 20,,'0
EPICENTRAI. OISTANCE (KM)
Fig. 8. The seismic moment obtained from simultaneous observations of coda amplitudes
at different stations is plotted against the epicentral distance. The parameter d indicates the
focaldepth of eachearthquakein kilometersas givenby Eaton [19671.d ==0 is a restricted
value.
the coda of local earthquakes. Our specific model for their constructive criticism, upon which ilie
is extremely simplified ' but seems to1 be more This workhaswas
manuscript beenpartly supported
extensively by the Ad.
revised.
h
use ful as a mod e1 0f cod a waves, at east, t ~ vanced Research Projects Agency and was mODi.
the laterally homogeneous earth models. In thIs tored by the Air Force Office of Scienlific
model, the coda of local earthquakes are as Research under contract AF 49(638)1632.TbiJ
surned to be composed of secondary waves com work was done partly at the National Ce~ter for
.
ing from uniformly distributed discrete scat with the GeologICal
E~rthquake Rese.archSurvey.
under a publicatIOn author
Tap~r appOlntmeD(
terers. The scatterer sIze appears to be about ized by the Director, U. S. Geological Survey.
10 kIn, and the density about 1 per 100 kIn'.
REFERENCES
Acknowledgments. It is my pleasure to ac
knowledge the assistance of Mr. Roger Greens Aki, K., Correlogram analyses of seismogram. by
felder in the analysis of seismograms. I am also means of a simple automatic computer, J. PhU'
grateful to Dr. J. P. Eaton for his helpful advice Earth, 4, 7179, 1956.
and stimulating comments. Dr. Frank Press kindly Aki, K, Generation and propagation of G wave!
read the manuscript and gave me valuable sugges from the Niigata earthquake of June 16,11)64,t
tions. I wish to express my thanks to the reviewers