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Anda di halaman 1dari 8

of Trapezoidal Channels

Amlan Das1

Abstract: Trapezoidal open channels are designed for specified slope, specific lining materials, and for a specified design flow. These

input design parameters are prone to uncertainties. The freeboard is used to confine the flow within the limits of the channel cross section

and to accommodate the uncertainty effects. Because of the size of uncertainty, the flow can overtop the freeboard with a “flooding

probability.” To design an optimum channel cross section for safety against overtopping, the flooding probability constrained optimum

channel design concept is introduced. An optimization model was developed which has two objective functions of minimizing the total

cost of the channel and minimizing the flooding probabilities subject to uniform flow equation as constraint. The constraint method of

multiobjective optimization is used in which the objective of minimizing the flooding probability is converted to a constraint, and the

resulting single objective optimization problem is solved. The flooding probability constraint is developed by using the first order analysis.

The final single objective optimization model is highly nonlinear and requires the use of the projected augmented Lagrangian technique.

The optimization model is applied for two cases, namely, channels having composite roughness and channels having uniform roughness.

The solution results of the analysis established the potential of the model.

DOI: 10.1061/共ASCE兲0733-9437共2007兲133:1共53兲

CE Database subject headings: Open channels; Roughness; Floods; Optimization; Lining.

the development of the optimization model for channel design

Trapezoidal open channels are widely used as irrigation, drainage, that takes the flooding probability into account.

water transmission, and power canals. These channels are laid on To reduce cost and improve the aesthetic appearance, the chan-

a specified slope, fabricated by using specific lining materials, and nel is usually fabricated by using locally available cheaper con-

designed to convey a specified design flow. These input design struction materials along the side of the channel and more costly

parameters are prone to various uncertainties. The inaccurate con- cement concrete on the bed. Chow 共1959兲 defined these channels

trol at the off take point of the channel, and lateral inflow caused as composite channels in which roughness varies along the wetted

by variable surface and subsurface runoff, introduce uncertainty perimeter. The open channel cross-sectional design is generally

in the estimation of design flow. The actual roughness values of based on a one-dimensional analysis of steady flow in which the

the lining materials after fabrication may differ from the mean composite roughness is conventionally expressed as an equivalent

roughness values assumed in the design. The freeboards are used Manning “n.” Yen 共2002兲 listed 17 equivalent roughness formu-

to confine the flow within the limits of the channel cross section lations out of which the equivalent roughness expression of

and to accommodate the uncertainties. A channel design is a suc- Horton 共1933兲 and Einstein 共1934兲 present a case in which the

cess so long as the flow does not overtop the freeboard limits. A channels having uniform roughness become a special case of

good design seeks to maintain the economy and success of the channels with composite roughness. Das 共2000a兲 used the Horton

canal throughout its period of operation. The traditional optimal 共1933兲 and Einstein 共1934兲 equivalent roughness equation, and

design seeks to determine the optimum geometric dimensions of a Jain et al. 共2004兲 used Lotter’s 共1993兲 equation for optimal design

cross section that can carry the specified design flow for assumed of a trapezoidal cross section with composite roughness. Guo and

values of channel roughness along the channel of specified cross- Hughes 共1984兲 used freeboard as an input variable in the optimal

sectional shape and size, longitudinal bed slope, and other im- design of open channels. Monadjemi 共1994兲, Froehlich 共1994兲,

posed limitations on some geometric dimensions. In this process a and Das 共2000a兲 used the Lagrange multiplier method of con-

freeboard is needed to accommodate the uncertainties. However, strained optimization technique in optimal design of channels.

because of the size of the uncertainties, the flow can still overtop Das 共2000a兲 presented computational algorithms for solving the

system of simultaneous equations that result from the application

1

Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Institute of of the Lagrange multiplier method in optimal design of channels.

Technology, Durgapur 713209, West Bengal, India. These studies considered deterministic optimal design.

Note. Discussion open until July 1, 2007. Separate discussions must The Manning equation is widely used to estimate the uniform

be submitted for individual papers. To extend the closing date by one flow in an open channel 共Chow 1959兲. According to Manning’s

month, a written request must be filed with the ASCE Managing Editor.

equation, there exists one unique discharge for a given set of

The manuscript for this paper was submitted for review and possible

publication on August 2, 2005; approved on May 17, 2006. This paper is values of Manning’s n, longitudinal bed slope, side slope, bed

part of the Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Vol. 133, width, and flow depth. Given that other parameters and geometric

No. 1, February 1, 2007. ©ASCE, ISSN 0733-9437/2007/1-53–60/ dimensions are specified, the flow depths increase when either or

$25.00. both the design flow and the Manning’s n increase. The flow and

Downloaded 19 Jan 2009 to 59.162.23.221. Redistribution subject to ASCE license or copyright; see http://pubs.asce.org/copyright

mean equivalent roughness; 共3兲 the Manning’s n values, longitu-

dinal slope values, design flow, and flow depths are probabilistic;

共4兲 the Manning’s n values, longitudinal slope values, and design

flow are mutually independent and flow depth is dependent on

these mutually independent variables; 共5兲 all randomly variable

parameters follow normal distribution; and 共6兲 the first order un-

certainty analysis method given in Chow et al. 共1988兲 depicts the

random variations. The objective function seeks to minimize the

total construction cost per unit running length of channel cross

section that is obtained by summing up the cost for the cross-

sectional area, cost for lining the two side faces using two differ-

ent lining materials, and cost for lining the bed. These costs apply

Fig. 1. Definition sketch for trapezoidal cross section having for the total cross section that includes the wetted part and free-

composite roughness board part. The overall objective function is expressed as

F共x兲 = c1A f + c2 P1f + c3 P2f + c4 P3f 共1兲

Manning’s n are random variables and the randomness arises in which A f ⫽total area of the cross section; c1⫽per unit area cost

from uncertainties associated with their values. In the literature, for cross-sectional area; c2⫽per unit length cost for perimeter P1f ;

the probabilistic design of open channels are addressed by Easa c3⫽per unit length cost for perimeter P2f ; c4⫽per unit length cost

共1992兲. The risk analysis for hydraulic design is addressed by for the perimeter P3f ; F共x兲⫽objective function expressed as a

Tung and Mays 共1980兲, Lee and Mays 共1986兲, and Chow et al. function of x; and x⫽vector dependent on b, y, Z1, and Z2. The

共1988兲. The deterministic optimum channels are also prone to first constraint of the model is the Manning’s uniform flow equa-

variation in design parameters. A flooding probability analysis is tion describing the mean channel capacity which may be ex-

performed before formulating a flooding probability constrained pressed as 共Das 2000a兲

optimum design model, and a part of the present study is devoted

A5/3

to this end. Q = 冑S0 共2兲

The traditional risk analysis is used to determine the probabil-

ity of overtopping the freeboard limits when the input parameters

共兺 n 3/2

i Pi 兲

2/3

equal or exceed a specified upper limit of a given probability. The where Q⫽design flow; S0⫽longitudinal bed slope;

chance constrained design seeks to obtain channel dimensions A⫽cross-sectional area of flow; Pi⫽flow wetted perimeters

that have extra allowances for the variation of specified probabili- 共i = 1 , 2 , 3兲; and ni⫽Manning’s n values 共i = 1 , 2 , 3兲. The next con-

ties in design flow, channel roughness, and other parameters over straint is the chance constraint. In real life situation, the actual

the mean design values. The flooding probability constrained op- flow may exceed the design flow because of probable fault in the

timal design seeks to obtain the optimum dimensions of the chan- control of flow at the off take point, and the uncertain lateral

nel cross section along with the specified freeboard in a manner inflow. The actual Manning roughness values may exceed the

that the flow cross section will just convey the design flow and assumed design values because of imperfections in fabrication.

the freeboard will just accommodate with a specified flooding The physical bed slope achieved may differ from the design val-

probability. The present study introduces this concept of flooding ues because of fabrication faults. These variations can cause the

probability constrained optimal design of open channels. occasional flooding of man made open channels. To maintain pro-

The objective of the present study is to develop a model for visions for these possible variations within the designed cross-

flooding probability constrained optimal design of channels hav- sectional dimensions, a flooding probability constraint must be

ing composite roughness that addresses the random variation of incorporated in the optimal design model. In this study, the flood-

design input parameters. To ensure that the channel flow will not ing probability constraint is developed by using the first order

overtop the freeboard with a certain probability, a flooding prob- analysis that essentially uses the calculus based differentiation of

ability constraint is added to the optimization model. The flooding the Manning uniform flow Eq. 共2兲 with respect to the random

probability constraint is developed by considering the random variables. To include the effect of change in design flow, the

variation of the composite Manning’s n values along the channel following derivative of Eq. 共2兲 is required.

冋 册

perimeter for the design flow, flow depths, and longitudinal

slopes. The incorporation of a flooding probability constraint

dQ

=Q

5 1 dA 2

−

1 d

共兺 n 3/2

i Pi 兲 共3兲

within the traditional optimization models for channel cross- dy 3 A dy 3 共兺 n3/2

i Pi 兲 dy

sectional design is the main contribution of the present study.

To account for the uncertain chance of variation of bed slopes, the

following derivative is needed:

Mathematical Formulation dQ Q

= 共4兲

Fig. 1 shows a definition sketch of the trapezoidal cross section dS0 2S0

having composite roughness. In this definition sketch: b⫽bed The following derivative is to account for the effects of variation

width; y⫽flow depth; Z1 and Z2⫽side slopes; n1, n2, and of Manning’s roughness:

冋 共兺 册

n3⫽ Manning’s n values for perimeters P1f , P2f , and P3f , respec-

tively; and f⫽freeboard above the free water surface. The present dQ

=−Q

2 1 d

共兺 n 3/2

i Pi 兲 共5兲

optimization model is based on the assumptions that: 共1兲 the cost

parameters are deterministic; 共2兲 the Horton 共1933兲 and Einstein

dni 3 n3/2

i Pi 兲 dni

共1934兲 equivalent roughness formula is valid for computation of The following results from application of basic calculus:

Downloaded 19 Jan 2009 to 59.162.23.221. Redistribution subject to ASCE license or copyright; see http://pubs.asce.org/copyright

dy

=

dQ dQ

1

共6兲 S2y = 冉 冊 冉 冊 冉 冊 冉 冊

dy

dQ

2

SQ2 +

dy

dn1

2

S2n1 +

dy

dn2

2

S2n2 +

dy

dn3

2

S2n3

dy

+冉 冊 dy

冉 冊

冋

dS0

冉 冊 冉 冊2

S2S0 =

1

dQ 2 SQ2 +

dQ

dn1

2

S2n1 +

dQ

dn2

2

S2n2

dy dy dQ 1 dQ dy

冉 冊 冉 冊 册

= = 共7兲

dni dQ dni dQ dni dQ 2

dQ 2

dn3 dS0

which may be rearranged to give the following:

冋 冉 冊 冉 冊 冉 冊

dy dy dQ 1 dQ

= = 共8兲 dQ 1 2 dQ 2

dQ 2

dQ 2

dS0 dQ dS0 dQ dS0 = SQ + S2n1 + S2n2 + S2n3

dy Sy dn1 dn2 dn3

冉 冊 册

dy

2 1/2

dQ

According to the fourth assumption, the variance of y 共=Sy兲, is + S2S0 共10兲

dS0

dependent on the variance of mutually independent variables

Q 共=SQ兲, n1 共=Sn1兲, n2 共=Sn2兲, n3 共=Sn3兲, and S0 共=SS0兲 and is ex- After substituting dQ / dy from Eq. 共3兲 in Eq. 共10兲 the following is

pressed as 共Chow et al. 1988兲 written:

5 dA

−

A dy 共

兺

2 d

n P 兲 dy

3/2

共兺 n 3/2

i Pi 兲 = S3 再再 冋 共兺

SQ2 4

+

Q2 9

1 d

ni Pi dn1

3/2

兲

共兺 n 3/2

i Pi 兲 册 冊 冋 共兺

2

S2n1 +

4

9

1 d

ni Pi dn2

3/2

兲

共兺 n 3/2

i Pi 兲 册 2

S2n2

冎

i i y

+

4

9 冋 共兺 1

n3/2 兲

d

dn3

共兺 n 3/2

i Pi 兲 册 2

S2n3 +

1

4S20

S2S0

1/2

再再

i Pi

=

3

Sy

SQ2

Q2 9

+

共兺 n

4

3/2 2

兲

再冋 d 3/2

dn1

2

共n1 P1兲 S2n1 +

d 3/2

dn2

册 册册 冋

2

共n2 P2兲 S2n2 册

冎

i Pi

+ 冋 d 3/2

dn3

2

1

册

共n3 P3兲 S2n3 + 2 S2S0

4S0

1/2

=

3

Sy 再再 SQ2

Q2

+

共兺 n

1

3/2

i Pi 兲 册

2 关n1 P1Sn1兴 +关n2 P2Sn2 + n3 P3Sn3兴 +

2 2 2 2 2 2

4S0

1 2

2 S S0 冎 1/2

共11兲

Finally, the following compact form of the flooding probability Two specific cases of Eq. 共12兲 are of interest to practical en-

constraint is written: gineering. Case 1 where n1 ⫽ n2 ⫽ n3 represents the ideal case, in

which the chance constraint takes the form as given in Eq. 共12兲.

Case 2 where n1 = n2 = n3 represents channels with all faces having

5 dA

−

2 d

共兺 n 3/2

i Pi 兲

共兺 兲

identical roughness. For this case terms containing n2 and n3 get

A dy n3/2 dy

再 冎

i Pi dropped, P1 and P1f capture the complete perimeter information,

3 SQ2 1 1 1/2 c2 = c3 = c4, and Eq. 共2兲 is written as

= + 兺 ni P2i Sn2i + 2

2 S S0 共12兲

Sy Q2 共兺 n 3/2

i Pi

2

兲 4S0

冑S0 A5/3

The constraint 共12兲 represents the deterministic equivalent of the Q= 共14兲

n1 P2/3

1

actual probabilistic constraint that is represented as

and Eq. 共12兲 is written as

P共y ⬎ y + f兲 = K1 共13兲

which literally means that the probability of exceedence of flow

depth over the freeboard is a fixed value K1. Because of the con-

straint 共13兲 the overall optimization problem is a probabilistic

5 dA 2 d

−

A dy P1 dy

共P1兲 = +

2

+

2

3 SQ2 Sn1 SS0

Sy Q2 n21 4S20

再 冎 1/2

共15兲

optimization problem. To obtain a solution, the deterministic ver- For the general case of composite roughness, Eqs. 共2兲 and 共12兲

sion of the problem is solved, for which a procedure for obtaining represent the constraints of the optimization model. The complete

the values of variances must be explained and is given optimization problem is expressed as

separately. Minimize

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F共x兲 = c1A f + c2 P1f + c3 P2f + c4 P3f 共16兲 C2共x兲 at the current iterate xi. ⫽scalar penalty parameter. The

subproblems are solved by using the reduced-gradient algorithm

Subject to in conjunction with a quasi-Newton algorithm. MINOS 共Murtagh

1. Uniform flow constraint and Saunders 1993兲, a standard implementation of the aforesaid

Q A5/3 computational algorithm that was used in Das 共2000b兲, was used

C1共x兲 = − =0 共17兲

冑S0 共兺 n 3/2

i Pi

2/3

兲

to solve the present optimization problem.

Procedure of Obtaining Values of Variances

C2共x兲 =

5 dA

−

2 d

共兺 n3/2

i Pi 兲

A dy 共兺 ni Pi dy

3/2

兲 Chow et al. 共1988兲 defined the standard normal variable Z as

−

3

Sy 再 SQ2

Q2

+

共兺

1

n3/2

i Pi

2

兲

兺 ni P2i Sn2i +

1

4S0

2

2 S S0 冎 1/2

=0 Z=

X−

where X⫽value of the random variable; ⫽mean value of X;

共22兲

共18兲

2⫽variance of X. In sample statistic, = X̄, and = SX. For a

Here, C1共x兲 and C2共x兲 represent the two constraints as functions given value of Z, the standard normal probability distribution

of x 共i.e., b , y , Z1, and Z2兲. The objective function 共16兲 together function value FZ共Z兲 is obtained from a table of cumulative prob-

with equality type constraints 共17兲 and 共18兲 constitute the deter- ability of the standard normal distribution 共see Chow et al. 1988兲.

ministic version of the actual probabilistic optimization problem. For Z ⬍ 0, one has to use FZ共Z兲 = 1 − FZ共兩Z 兩 兲 where

The non-negativity restrictions are also applied. Note that, drop- FZ共兩Z 兩 兲⫽tabulated value for 兩Z兩 and 兩Z兩⫽absolute value of Z. For

ping out of constraint 共18兲 will convert the optimization problem the present optimization problem, independent values of K1 for

to a deterministic version reported in Das 共2000a兲. Here, the ap- Q , y , n1 , n2 , n3, and S0 are specified which represent the 关1

plication of Lagrange multiplier 共LM兲 technique based methodol- − FZ共Z兲兴 values for the respective random variables. The FZ共Z兲

ogy of Monadjemi 共1994兲, Froehlich 共1994兲, and Das 共2000a兲 will and corresponding Z values are stored in array form. From speci-

give the required governing equations for the desired optimal so- fied values of K1, the Z values are determined by using linear

lutions and was attempted. However, the LM technique was interpolation of array of 关FZ共Z兲 , Z兴. The next step is to obtain the

found to be inadequate to solve this optimization problem be- values of the variances. As an example, for variable y , 兵共y + f兲

cause, by starting from any arbitrary starting point, the arrival to − y其 represents 共X − 兲. Therefore, Sy is obtained by using Eq.

a final optimal solution could not be ensured. A series of explor- 共22兲. The procedure is repeated for other random variables.

atory attempts were made to finally identify that the constraint

共18兲 makes the optimization problem highly nonlinear and the

LM technique based methodology performs unsatisfactorily for Flooding Probability Analysis of Deterministic

the present problem. Therefore, the projected augmented La- Optimum Channel Cross Section

grangian 共PAL兲 technique 共Murtagh and Saunders 1993兲 was

adopted. Starting from an initial guess solution, the PAL tech- The objective of this flooding probability analysis is twofold.

nique performs a sequence of linearly constrained subproblem First, it will reflect the vulnerability of the deterministic optimum

solving major iterations. In each major iteration the following channel cross section against the random variation of design input

optimization problem is solved: parameters and establish the need for a chance constrained de-

Minimize

冋冋 再 冎册

sign. Second, the present flooding probability constrained optimal

C1共x兲

x

冏 共x − xi兲

design model can be verified for its correctness by using the re-

sults of flooding probability analysis. The flooding probability

analysis is performed for two specific cases of 共1兲 channels hav-

冋冋 再 冎册

x=xi

C2共x兲

x

冏 共x − xi兲

ing composite roughness, and 共2兲 channels having uniform rough-

ness. To perform this probability analysis, optimal channel cross

冋冋 再 冎册

x=xi sections are designed as a first step, thereafter, the actual flooding

1

+

2

C1共x兲 − C1共xi兲 +

C1共x兲

x

冏 共x − xi兲

2 probability analysis is performed for the optimal cross section.

冋冋 再 冎册

x=xi

冏

Flooding Probability Analysis of Optimum Channel

1 C2共x兲 2

Cross Section Having Composite Roughness

+ C2共x兲 − C2共xi兲 + 共x − xi兲 共19兲

2 x x=xi An optimal open channel is to be designed for conveying a design

Subject to flow of Q = 100 m3 / s. The values of various costs are c1 = 0.50,

冏 冏

c2 = 0.3, c3 = 0.35, c4 = 0.4; mean values of channel roughness

C1共x兲 along the wetted perimeter are n1 = 0.030, n2 = 0.025, n3 = 0.020,

C1共xi兲 + 共x − xi兲 = 0 共20兲

x x=xi

the freeboard to be provided is f = 0.5 m, the longitudinal bed

slope is S0 = 0.0025. The optimal design is performed by solving

C2共xi兲 + 冏 C2共x兲

x

冏 x=xi

共x − xi兲 = 0 共21兲

the following optimization model 共Das 2000a兲:

Minimize

Here, 1i and 2i⫽estimate of the Lagrangian multipliers 1 and

2, respectively, that are associated with constraints C1共x兲 and Subject to uniform flow constraint

Downloaded 19 Jan 2009 to 59.162.23.221. Redistribution subject to ASCE license or copyright; see http://pubs.asce.org/copyright

Q A5/3 case has a flooding probability of 38.27% which is also consid-

− =0 共24兲

冑S0 共兺 n 3/2

i Pi 兲 2/3 ered to be very high. In field situations, the channels should be

designed with lesser flooding probabilities. In this context, the

The final optimal solution gives the total cost per unit running methodology developed in the present study should be used.

length⫽22.935 currency units, and the channel dimensions as

y = 4.033 m, b = 6.404 m, Z1 = 0.253共H兲 : 1共V兲, and Z2

= 0.292共H兲 : 1共V兲. The flooding probability analysis is performed Flooding Probability Constrained Optimal Design

for random change in the parameter values to n1 = 0.033, of Channel Cross Section

n2 = 0.028, n3 = 0.023, S0 = 0.0028, and Q = 120 m3 / s, with 30, 25,

20, 30, and 35% exceedence probabilities, respectively. The The flooding probability analysis of deterministic optimum chan-

FZ共Z兲, Z, and SX values for these specified values of exceedence nels established the need for flooding probability constrained op-

probabilities are timal design of channel cross section in order to reduce the flood-

ing probability. A channel cross section designer may think to

FZ共Z兲n1 = 1 − P共n1 ⬎ 0.033兲 = 1 − 0.3 = 0.7; simultaneously minimize both the cost of the channel and the

flooding probability. Therefore, the present optimal design is vi-

Zn1 = 0.5244; Sn1 = 0.00572

sualized as a two objective optimization problem. The first objec-

tive is to design a minimum cost channel cross section. The sec-

FZ共Z兲n2 = 1 − P共n2 ⬎ 0.028兲 = 1 − 0.25 = 0.75; ond objective is to minimize the flooding probability. The

Zn2 = 0.6745; Sn2 = 0.00445 constraint is the uniform flow equation. This two objective opti-

mization model is formally expressed as

Minimize

FZ共Z兲n3 = 1 − P共n3 ⬎ 0.023兲 = 1 − 0.2 = 0.8;

Zn3 = 0.8418; Sn3 = 0.00356 J1 = c1A f + c2 P1f + c3 P2f + c4 P3f 共25兲

Minimize

FZ共Z兲S0 = 1 − P共S0 ⬎ 0.0028兲 = 1 − 0.3 = 0.7;

ZS0 = 0.5244; SS0 = 0.00057 J2 = P共y ⬎ y + f兲 共26兲

Subject to uniform flow constraint

FZ共Z兲Q = 1 − P共Q ⬎ 120兲 = 1 − 0.35 = 0.65;

ZQ = 0.3854; SQ = 51.89414 Q A5/3

C1 = − =0 共27兲

By inserting these values in Eq. 共12兲 and after solving the follow-

冑S0 共兺 n 3/2

i Pi 兲

2/3

Here, an element of probability is associated with the second

Sy = 1.4984; Zy = 0.3337; FZ共Z兲y = 0.6307; objective only, and hence it falls in the stochastic optimization

category. Also, this is a two objective vector optimization prob-

P共y ⬎ y + f兲 = 1 − FZ共Z兲y = 1 − 0.6307 = 0.3693

lem, and its solutions are expressed in the form of Pareto optimal

Thus, the deterministically designed optimal cross section for the solutions, i.e., the noninferior set of solutions. The constrained

present case of composite roughness has a flooding probability of method of multiple objective programming technique is used to

36.93% which is considered to be very high. To obtain an optimal obtain the Pareto optimal solutions for the two objective optimi-

cross section that has lesser flooding probabilities, the flooding zation problem of the present study. The constrained method

probability constrained optimal design model developed in the transforms the vector optimization problem to a scalar one. In the

present study could be used. present study, the transformation from vector to scalar optimiza-

tion is done by treating the first objective that seeks to minimize

the total cost of the channel as the single objective in the scalar

Flooding Probability Analysis of Optimum Channel

problem and the second objective that seeks to minimize the

Cross Section Having Uniform Roughness

flooding probability as an additional constraint in the form of

For this case of channels having uniform roughness 共n1 = n2 = n3兲 objective bound. The Pareto optimal solutions are obtained by

the deterministic optimization model is formulated by taking Eq. solving the scalar problem such that the new constraints 共i.e., the

共23兲 as an objective function and Eq. 共14兲 as a constraint along transformed objectives兲 are satisfied to desired levels 共i.e.,

with the non-negativity restraints. The specified data that are used bounds兲 in a progressive manner. In other words, parametric

in this deterministic optimal design are Q = 100 m3 / s, c1 = 0.50, variations of the objective bounds trace out the noninferior set of

c2 = c3 = c4 = 0.3, n1 = n2 = n3 = 0.030, f = 0.5 m, and S0 = 0.0025. The solutions 共Cohon and Marks 1975兲. The optimization problem

final results of the optimal design are total cost per unit running formulation given by the single objective function 共16兲, and two

length⫽24.963 currency units, y = 4.883 m, b = 5.406 m, Z1 constraints 共17兲 and 共18兲 represent the scalar-cum-deterministic

= 0.369共H兲 : 1共V兲, and Z2 = 0.369共H兲 : 1共V兲. The flooding probabil- equivalent of the vector-cum-stochastic optimization problem of

ity analysis is performed by using Eq. 共15兲 for random change in the present study, and is solved in parametric order.

the parameter values to n1 = n2 = n3 = 0.033, S0 = 0.0028, The two objectives J1 and J2 may conflict each other. To

Q = 120 m3 / s, with 30, 30, and 35% exceedence probabilities, re- explore the possible existence of any conflict between the objec-

spectively. By performing the flooding probability analysis in a tives J1 and J2, the developed optimization model is applied to

manner identical to that of the composite roughness case, two examples, namely, 共1兲 the case of channels having composite

P共y ⬎ y + f兲 = 0.3827 is obtained. Thus, the deterministically de- roughness, and 共2兲 the case of channels having uniform

signed optimal cross section for the present uniform roughness roughness.

Downloaded 19 Jan 2009 to 59.162.23.221. Redistribution subject to ASCE license or copyright; see http://pubs.asce.org/copyright

duced to 0.35 the total cost increases to 23.066 and it opposes the

objective of minimizing the total cost. The present results show

that there is a trade off between these two objectives for flooding

probabilities less than 0.3693. The flooding probability of 0.3693

is resulted from deterministic optimum channel design in the

flooding probability analysis presented earlier. At this flooding

probability the total cost of the channel is minimized and repre-

sents an extreme point of the trade off relationship between the

two objectives. Intuitively, this verifies the correctness of the de-

veloped optimization model. In order to use the results of these

Pareto optimal solutions, the user’s utility function, i.e., a math-

ematical function formulated by incorporating the money valued

weightage of the individual objective function, must be made

available by the policy makers.

The general trend of the results in Fig. 2 are that the bed width

required for an optimum cross section increases as the flooding

probability reduces, and the required flow depth decreases as the

flooding probability also reduces. The specified freeboard value is

kept fixed at 0.5 m for the complete range of study. The above

particular trend of the result is attributed to the mathematical

expression of the flooding probability constraint. Also, intuitively,

the flooding probability of a channel will be less when its flow

depths are less and bed widths are large. Another trend is the

Fig. 2. Flooding probability constrained optimal solutions for required side slopes for an optimum channel increase with re-

composite roughness case duced flooding probability to a certain limit and thereafter it re-

duces. This particular trend may be attributed to the mathematical

character of the constraints and the objective functions. However,

the exact value of flooding probability at which the required side

Flooding Probability Constrained Optimal Design of slope values become maximum is not investigated because the

Channel Cross Section Having Composite Roughness particular issue may have academic importance only.

An optimal open channel is to be designed for conveying a design

flow of Q = 100 m3 / s. The mean values of various input param- Flooding Probability Constrained Optimal Design of

eters are c1 = 0.50, c2 = 0.3, c3 = 0.35, c4 = 0.4, n1 = 0.030, Channel Cross Section Having Uniform Roughness

n2 = 0.025, n3 = 0.020, f = 0.5 m, and S0 = 0.0025. Some of the input

parameter values randomly change to n1 = 0.033, n2 = 0.028, Here, an optimal open channel is to be designed for conveying a

n3 = 0.023, S0 = 0.0028, and Q = 120 m3 / s, with 30, 25, 20, 30, and design flow of Q = 100 m3 / s. The mean values of various input

35% exceedence probabilities, respectively. Explore the optimal parameters are c1 = 0.50, c2 = c3 = c4 = 0.3, n1 = n2 = n3 = 0.030,

design of the channel cross sections that minimize both the total f = 0.5m, and S0 = 0.0025. Some of the input parameter values

costs and the flooding probabilities. randomly change to n1 = n2 = n3 = 0.033, S0 = 0.0028, and

For the given input information, Sn1 = 0.00572; Sn2 = 0.00445; Q = 120 m3 / s, with 30, 30 and 35% exceedence probabilities, re-

Sn3 = 0.00356; SS0 = 0.00057; and SQ = 51.89414 are taken from spectively. The optimal design of the channel cross sections that

previous calculations and are used as additional input data for the minimize both the total costs and the flooding probabilities re-

final optimization model. To obtain the set of noninferior solu- quires study.

tions, a value of P共y ⬎ y + f兲 is assumed and corresponding Sy This explorative study is performed by following identical

value is calculated which constitute the final input parameter of procedures to that of the previous case. Here, the appropriate

the optimization model. P共y ⬎ y + f兲 is a continuous parameter, expressions for the uniform roughness case are used in the opti-

but, the noninferior set of solutions are obtained for its discrete mization formulation. The outcome of the study is shown in Fig.

values in the range of 0.025 to 0.475 in steps of 0.025. For each 3 in terms of the plot of Pareto optimal solutions and variation of

value of P共y ⬎ y + f兲 the scalar deterministic version of the biob- required geometric dimensions for given flooding probabilities for

jective optimization problem which is given by Eqs. 共16兲 through uniform roughness case in a single figure. The general trends are

共18兲 is solved to obtain one particular point in the Pareto optimal again observed to remain identical to that of the composite rough-

solutions. ness case except the specific numerical values.

Fig. 2 shows the Pareto optimal solutions for the present opti- The results again show the absence of any conflict between

mization problem. In Fig. 2 the variations of total cost, y, b, Z1, minimization of flooding probabilities and minimization of total

and Z2 are plotted against flooding probability in a single figure. cost for flooding probabilities greater than 0.3827, and the pres-

To minimize the total cost and the flooding probability, one has to ence of conflict between the two objectives for flooding probabili-

move toward the origin along the vertical and horizontal axes, ties less than 0.3827. The flooding probability of 0.3827 that

respectively, following the total cost variation curve. For flooding resulted from deterministic optimum channel design in the flood-

probabilities greater than 0.3693, there is no conflict between the ing probability analysis presented earlier represents one of the

two objectives. However, for flooding probabilities less than extremities of the zone of conflict between the two objectives.

0.3693, the two objectives conflict with each other. For example, The observations and conclusions about the results remain iden-

the total cost of the channel at flooding probability 0.3693 is tical to that of the composite roughness case except the numerical

22.935. In order to minimize the flooding probability if it is re- values.

Downloaded 19 Jan 2009 to 59.162.23.221. Redistribution subject to ASCE license or copyright; see http://pubs.asce.org/copyright

and Mays 1980兲. Further, the identification of the best probability

distribution for flooding probability constrained optimal design of

open channels remains unexplored in this study. The use of other

relationships for equivalent Manning roughness expression can

also be a topic for future research. To solve the optimization

model a standard nonlinear optimization solver routine is used

because of the numerical difficulties with other existing methods,

and the presently used optimization routine is easily portable,

used to solve a large variety of nonlinear optimization problems,

robust and stable. The main objective of the present study is to

establish the need for the optimization model and the results of

the present study establish this. In this regard, scope exists to

develop simpler numerical methodologies for solving the devel-

oped optimization model.

Conclusions

overall economy open channel construction. All open channels

are subject to a flooding risk. The traditional deterministic opti-

mum channels are no exception. To design an optimum channel

Fig. 3. Flooding probability constrained optimal solutions for cross section for safety against flooding, the flooding probability

uniform roughness case constrained optimum channel design concept is introduced. The

optimal design model is developed as a two-objective nonlinear

optimization model that considers minimizing the total cost of the

The two aforesaid applications of the developed optimization channel and minimizing the flooding probabilities subject to

models are demonstrated for specified sets of input values and uniform flow equation as a constraint. The constraint method of

show the potential of the developed model for use in the design of multiobjective optimization is used in which the objective of

drainage channels. Extension of the study for other sets of input minimizing the flooding probability is converted to a constraint,

data requires routine application of the developed model and can and the resulting single objective optimization problem is solved.

be done easily. A fixed value of freeboard is used in the design as The effect of parametric variation of this converted constraint on

per common practice. The freeboard can be specified as a func- the channel design is investigated in this study. For the converted

tion of either flow depth 共Chow 1959兲 or flow velocity 共ASCE single objective optimization model, the flooding probability con-

1993兲. The incorporation of these types of freeboard specification straint is developed by using the first order analysis. The final

requires the substitution of the freeboard term by appropriate ex- single objective optimization model is highly nonlinear and re-

pressions in the formulation of the optimization problem. Further, quires the use of projected augmented Lagrangian technique. The

one may think to specify a probability and then determine the developed optimization model is applied for two cases, namely,

freeboard. In this regard, the Guo and Hughes 共1984兲 determinis- channels having composite roughness and channels having uni-

tic optimization results show that the freeboard must be specified form roughness. The following major conclusions are drawn from

as an input parameter in the optimization model. But the issue this study.

remains open for future studies.

• The two objectives of minimizing the flooding probability and

Simplified models for assessing the random variation of pa-

minimizing the total costs conflict with each other;

rameters are used in the present study. For field situations, the

• The deterministic optimum channel design is an extremity in

experience from a large number of existing channels need to be

this conflict;

collected and analyzed to obtain a general estimate of the random

• For lesser flooding probabilities, the channels of smaller flow

variability limits and the probability distributions. These

depths and larger bed width and steeper bank slopes are re-

estimates give a general guideline for assuming the probability

distribution. For example, the present study is based on the as- quired rather than the deterministic optimum channel;

sumption of validity of standard normal distribution that is used • The total costs increase as the flooding probability is reduced;

for many hydrological and hydraulic systems and is conservative • User’s utility function must be defined by the policy makers to

共Easa 1992兲. For practical application of the developed optimiza- use the present study results; and

tion model, the user specifies the probability values for which the • The developed optimization model has a potential for future

design is to be made. The value of the normalized variate corre- use.

sponding to the probability value is then obtained by following

the standard probability distributions for the assumed probability.

The limiting values of variation of design parameters are specified

either from previous records or user’s choice. The variance values Notation

are then obtained from Eq. 共22兲 which are used in the optimiza-

tion model. In this regard, scope exists to develop the methodol- The following symbols are used in this paper:

ogy by considering the use of other probability distributions such A ⫽ area of flow cross section;

as Poisson, Type I extremal, and lognormal distributions 共Tung A f ⫽ total area of cross section;

Downloaded 19 Jan 2009 to 59.162.23.221. Redistribution subject to ASCE license or copyright; see http://pubs.asce.org/copyright

b ⫽ bed width; References

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P共. . . . . . . 兲 ⫽ probability of 共. . . . . . . . 兲;

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