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Project Report

Dated: 31-08-2017

Title:
Effectiveness Analysis of Additive Manufactured Heat Exchanger through
Selective Laser Sintering Process for HRV.
Timeline: Jun 2017 ~ Aug 2017
Report by: Saad Saleem

Supervisor: Mika Salmi


Additive Manufacturing Group,
Mechanical Engineering Department.
Aalto University.
Contents
1. Project Description:................................................................................................................................................... 3
2. Experimental Setup: .................................................................................................................................................. 3
3. Heat Exchangers:....................................................................................................................................................... 4
4. Testing: ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7
I. 1st Experiment: ...................................................................................................................................................... 7
II. 2nd Experiment: ..................................................................................................................................................... 9
III. 3rd Experiment: ................................................................................................................................................... 10
a. Volume Flow Rate, External Leakage, Internal Leakage, Static Pressure Drop .............................................. 10
5. Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................... 13
6. Recommendation & Improvements ....................................................................................................................... 14
7. Measuring Equipment Usage .................................................................................................................................. 15
I. Arduino Temperature Sensing ............................................................................................................................ 15
II. Thermal Anemometer (Air Volume Flow rate) ................................................................................................... 15
III. Pressure differential Meter ................................................................................................................................ 16
Appendix: ........................................................................................................................................................................ 17
1. Project Description:
In the winter seasons, Heaters/Radiators are used extensively to maintain the temperatures within the
rooms, at a comfort level that is 20 ~ 25 ˚C. But, in some dwellings where there is lack of ventilation systems
causes reduced fresh air, leading to rise in CO2 within the room with the occupants. While, letting cold fresh
air in the room through windows, would result in loss of heated air to maintain the room temperature, means
loss of heat energy and more heating bill.
For this, Mechanical heat recovery ventilators are used to recover maximum possible heat from exhaust air
(Room) and transfer it to the incoming cold fresh air (Outside), in order to reduce heating cost and keep the
room ventilated with fresh air. In this project, Recuperative type HRV is being used which has a cross flow
type heat exchanger (HX) and radial air fans are used in a manner Exhaust Fan is installed in upstream and
Supply fan is on downstream side to supply air in the room, creating a desired volume flow rate.

Figure 1: Mechanical HRV operation Schematic showing passing cold & hot air streams

2. Experimental Setup:
A commercially available HRV was purchased to measure effectiveness of the different heat exchangers, with
flexible ducting installed in a way to keep air flow through pipes at minimum, so as the loss of kinetic energy,
heat energy to surroundings, prevent mixing of both incoming and outgoing streams and able to measure
the In-Out air temperatures at specific locations as shown in the schematic.

Figure 2: Setup of HRV in a Room and for Experiment

In general, temperature controlled labs are used to do these sort of experiments but due to unavailability
different setup was arranged to maintain temperature difference between Fresh air and exhaust air. As
experiments have been performed in the summer season, and outside air temperature varies between 15 ~
21 ˚C, room air was supplied using Hot air gun to create a temperature difference of up to 15 ˚C. So, instead
of winter season, summer season was simulated in the experiment, where it can also be used to keep the
room cool, while the Air conditioner is running and prevent hot air from outside to get in the room causing
loss of energy occurred in cooling the room. This way, ventilation can be done to bring in the fresh air within
the room and minimizing the loss of cooled air through the use of heat exchanger.
Moreover, temperature sensors were installed near the openings of HRV to log the temperature instantly
and store data in the computer for further analysis. Four temperature sensors were being used to do the
data acquisition, and acquire any change in the readings, in order to measure the effectiveness of HX.

Figure 3: Inside view of HRV showing HX, Filters, insulated surface and Air fans

Figure 4: Temperature sensing Arduino Setup

Arduino Setup:
Total 04 Temperature sensors were used (Model LM35) to acquire the readings, and Arduino UNO kit was
acquired to convert the analogue signals from sensors into temperature values (code in Appendix). Using
these temperature sensors, there could be an error of ±0.5 degrees from each other. Also, at different places
within the room, while the temperature is stable, there could be slight difference in the temperature values
by 1 or 1.5 degrees at different places, which could result in trash value of effectiveness (as per the formula),
so has to be rectified manually. 2nd drawback of these sensors is that they respond well with rise in
temperature but are slow during cooling, and testing is done to increase the temperature of the room
anyway, due to unable to simulate cold environment or supply of cold air below 15 degrees.

3. Heat Exchangers:
Recuperative Heat exchangers are designed in a way, that there is no moving part to be used to perform its
function i.e transfer of heat energy (Sensible or total) from one fluid stream to another. There are several
types of heat exchangers, such as Counter Flow, Parallel flow or Cross flow heat exchangers. Within these
categories, they further divide into mixed & unmixed fluid flow type. Cross-Flow HX are generally compact
in size and are used in various applications where mixing of flow of both fluid is not desired, one of it is car
radiators and other is mechanical HRV.
In this type, flow is in normal direction to each other and generally separated by a sheet to prevent inter-
mixing and to conduct heat from heated air to cold air. And transfer of heat is
Convection>Conduction>Convection.

Figure 5: Conduction of heat through medium schematic

Currently, for the experiment total 05 Heat exchangers were available, Paper type with corrugated
(triangular channels) shape, Coroplast Plastic type (square shape channels), SLS Printed Wavy design, SLS
Printed Slit type channels and SLS Printed Tubes shape.
Design Parameters:
While, designing HX, several parameters have to be taken into consideration such as following:

• Geometrical dimensions
• Conductance of the material
• Stiff enough (to remain static without deforming on its own weight)
• Effectiveness: High enough to conduct heat as much as possible, cost
• Channel shape of the channels to have least pressure drop in fluid stream and able to drain moistures
without choking the channel
• Greater exposed area to let pass air without causing resistance to flow or blockage
• Greater surface area to conduct heat and thin walls but strong enough to support the HX itself
Details of available Heat Exchangers:
a) Heat exchanger with straight channels and triangular corrugated shaped is made up of paper with water
permeable property. This type of HX is for the use where humidity is low and a low cost alternative.
b) This HX (brand name coroplast) is Fluted Polypropylene sheet with straight channels and are non-
permeable of water moistures, so with this type of HX the HRV has a drain plate to flush out the condensate
water, when accumulates.
c) This HX was manufactured using PA 2200 material (Nylon) using Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) method.
This additive manufacturing method allows making complex shaped parts with ease and using same material
as in comparison with the previous ones, where irregularities in shape, intrusion of foreign material such as
dust, glue could reduce conductance of the material. The shape is wavy in both directions; normal to the
surface and on the plate, in order to increase the surface area. As higher the surface area means more
conductance.
d) Fourth heat exchanger was manufactured using same PA2200 material, but with straight thin channels.
e) Fifth type of HX manufactured with same PA 2200 material but instead of connected adjacent channels,
this has straight tubes to allow greater surface area of conduction and the cold air passing through the
vertical slits would come in contact with whole perimeter of the surface and incoming fresh air moistures
would condensate and fall on the plate rather than choking the channels, in contrast to previous ones.
a) b) c)

d) e)
Figure 6: Available Heat exchangers for experiments

Table 1:Description of HX with geometry, material and dimensions

Part Type/Shape Material Dimensions LxWxH


a) Cross Flow – Corrugated Paper 196x196x187mm
Stacked sheets Straight 37 channels each side
channels
b) Cross Flow – Stacked Coroplast Fluted Polypropylene 198x198x190mm
Straight Channels Sheet 36 channels each side
3mm thick opening
c) Cross Flow – PA 2200 (PA 12/Nylon) 193x193x190mm
Additive Manufactured (SLS) 23 channels each side
wavy channel flow
d) Cross Flow – PA 2200 (PA 12/Nylon) 195x195x189mm
Additive Manufactured (SLS) 47 channels each side
Straight channel flow
e) Cross Flow – PA 2200 (PA 12/Nylon) 198x198x191mm
Additive Manufactured (SLS) Tubes qty: 552
Tubes channel flow Tubes Id: 3.8mm
Tubes Od: 6mm

Using SLS method, there are only few material choices available out of which PA 2200 is most common
Table 2: SLS Materials availability on different company sites:

S.No Company Material


1 Shapeways Nylon (PA2200)
2 Shapeways Nylon Plastic & Al powder
3 3DHub Nylon
4 Materialflow Nylon (PA2200)
5 I Materialise PA2200
6 I Materialise TPU 92A-1 (Rubber Like)
7 I Materialise Alumide (Majority PA2200)
4. Testing:
To validate and get accurate performance results, several iterative tests has to be performed in order to
converge better results and avoid any measurement, experimental or human error. Such as error in
measured values, data reading, leakage of air.

I. 1st Experiment:

Setup:

- Heated Air supplied using Hot Air Gun


- Temperature sensing & data logging
using Arduino and sensors
- Condensation not considered as HX
material is water permeable (Paper HX)
- Measurement at full speed
- Warm upto 20min before measurement
- Measurement time 01 min, when
temperature values stabilized.
- Temp error ±0.5 ˚C

Figure 7: Experiment Setup

Mode Values:
TEI = Temp. Exhaust In = 27.85
TEO = Temp. Exhaust Out = 21.99
TFI = Temp. Fresh In = 16.61
TFO = Temp. Fresh Out = 26.39

Figure 8: 1st Experiment Temperature Graph over time

Efficiency Calculation:
Theoretical assumptions:
1 Steady operating conditions exist.
2 The heat exchanger is well insulated so that heat loss to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat
transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to the cold fluid.
3 The mass flow rate is equal at both sides of stream
4 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible, due to little or no change in
height or velocity of fluid stream.
5 The overall heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform.
6 No fouling is considered nor condensation latent heat
Calculations:
Temperature values (Modal values):
TEI = 27.85 ˚C, Density (ρ) = 1.17 kg/m3, Specific Heat Capacity (Cph) = 1.007 KJ/kg. ˚C
TEO = 21.99 ˚C
TFI = 16.61 ˚C, Density (ρ) = 1.22 kg/m3 , Specific Heat Capacity (Cph) = 1.006 KJ/kg. ˚C
TFO = 26.39 ˚C
Volume flow rate (Referenced from specs at full speed) = 0.0294 m3/s
mh=0.034kg/s
mc=0.0358 kg/s
Ch = mh*Ch= 0.034*1.007 = 0.0342 KW/ ˚C // Heat Capacity rate of Hot air
Cc= = mc*Cc= 0.0358*1.006=0.0360KW/ ˚C // Heat Capacity rate of cold air
Cmin = Ch=0.0342
Qmax = Cmin * (TEI - TFI ) = 0.0342*(27.85-16.61) = 0.3844 KW // Max Possible Heat Transfer
Qactual = mc*Cc * (TFI - TFO )= 0.0358*1.006*(26.39-16.61) = 0.3522 KW // Actual Heat Transfer
System efficiency = 0.3522/0.3844 * 100 = 91 % (Of heat content recovery)

Heat Exchanger Effectiveness/ Temperature Ratio (dry)


Using this formula from European Standard, latent heat energy from condensation is not taken in
consideration and also this is being performed in relatively warm air.
Using formula:

HX Effectiveness = 87%
Results Summary: At 10 ˚C temperature difference and running constantly for a stable time at maximum
speed generate good effectiveness values, but little errors listed below could result in bad data. So, this
trial is initial and has to be validated further with more proper measurements and considering the listed
precautions.
Assumptions & Possibility of Errors:
- Pressure as per EN 13141-7 (European Standard) is taken as 100 Pa on both sides
- Mass flow rate may not be equal on both sides due to same fan speed and cross section area
opening (could be different due to pipe length, leakage, or obstruction)
- Sensor fluctuation (Temperature sensors shows delay while decrease in temperature only, but
readings acquired when stabilized)
- Mixing of both air streams within the device
Improvements:
- Use of Mass flow or Volume flow rate sensors
- Static Pressure Sensor within the device
- Humidity measurement as additional data
- Proper air heater.

II. 2nd Experiment:

2nd Experiment was performed with two set of parameters changing combination, 03 different Fan speed
and 03 different Temperature Differences for all 04 Heat exchangers. But the HX (d) couldn’t be tested due
to warping and almost causing blockage.
Test Method:
Fan Speeds: Low, Medium, High (max flow rate = 106 m3/h)
Temp. Difference: 5, 10, 15 ˚C
HX types: a, b, c
Readings recording method: Readings recorded for 60 seconds after temperature difference stabilized at
desired level and acquired mode values to determine the Effectiveness
Pre-cautions: Any possible leakage, Early morning to get cold air below 20 degrees, less fluctuation in air
temperature.

a) Paper HX b) Plastic HX

Outside Temp: 16.1 ~ 17.1 ˚C


Room Temp.: 21.5 ~ 31.1 ˚C
Pre-defined efficiency of HRV (Specs
Sheet): 70~76% @ 70% of max flowrate

c) SLS Printed Wavy Design


Figure 9: 2nd Experiment Temperature Graphs

Results summary: In above graphs, Temperature difference of 5 degrees could be excluded due to abnormal
readings, because during the start of experiment, Temperature sensors at Fresh air outlet & Exhaust Air Inlet
(within rooms) are at the same temperatures with 0.5 – 1 ˚C error, so are the other two, due to which
efficiency readings are off.
Only, readings at 15 degrees can be considered, which shows the effectiveness could be within 60-90%, so
the 3rd experiment is carried out on suspect of internal leaking.

III. 3rd Experiment:

In third experiment is carried to re-verify the results with more precautions to take care of internal leakage
and acquisition of data early morning when temperatures are stable. Further, Plastic (Coroplast) HX is taken
as benchmark to evaluate results of additive manufactured HX and also, readings were logged for longer
time period in order to see the stability in outcome.
Moreover, Air flow rate, static pressure, Internal leakage, external leakage was checked to ensure the
reliability of performance results.

Figure 10: Transient Graph of Effectiveness over Time for 4 HX (Paper, Coroplast, Printed Wavy, Printed Tube)

The credibility of the performance results can be verified by different measurement of parameters. And also
taking into consideration, that the device performs as desired, such as suppling specified volume of air, less
power consumption in running the fan, least possible intermixing of air streams and max plausible heat
exchange.
a. Volume Flow Rate, External Leakage, Internal Leakage, Static Pressure Drop
First Volume flow rate is measured using Thermal Anemometer, usage method is written under separate
heading, and found the following results:
Figure 11: Air Volume Flow rate wrt Fan Speed with Heat Exchangers

It can be ascertained that, printed wavy HX is blocking most of the air, so it’s capability can be crossed out.
While, Tube design produces same almost same flow rate as the existing HX.
Second, External Leakage Test is done to find the leakage of air to the outside the device. It was performed
according to Engineering standard (Standard reference given in appendix), by plugging 02 ducts of one side
and supplying air from another as depicted in the schematic below. And volume flow rate is measured using
the Thermal anemometer. The leakage should be minimum, and gives a good idea that how tightly the HRV
should be covered.

Figure 12: External Leakage schematic

This test is enough to be done once in a while, to check if all the insulation sealing is intact. Leakage was to
be 12.6 m3/hr at medium speed, which is alright.
Third is Internal Leakage Test, and this is one of the necessary measurement to perform as mixing of air
streams could completely change the results. One of the best method is by Tracer gas method, mentioned
in EN 306 reference, but presently it was done using differential pressure measurement method and flow
rate.
Figure 13: Internal Leakage schematic & Test setup

In this measurement, different HX are installed to test the leakages. At one side, both ducts are closed and
pressure meter tubes are inserted to measure drop in static pressure as referenced to the atmospheric. Only
one Fan has to be running on the open duct side, so another fan is disconnected by utilizing the thermal
switch inside the HRV by increasing the temperature. The pressure at airstream side has to be over pressured
and adjacent side should remain near zero pascal, but packaging is not always perfectly leak proof, so it is
normal to have some flow rather than creating vacuum inside when the duct is sealed. In the test picture,
the shorter ducts are sealed to prevent any air leakage inside the HRV. Further, sides have to be switched
to test leakaging on different side, but tracer gas method is still better method by keeping all ducts open and
using smoke air.
Fourth test, Static Pressure drop is more related to measure the power consumption by the fans with respect
to the air flow. As it can be translated into, power consumed to supply the desired air flow rate. Lesser the
Static Pressure drop means more power consumed and also less volume flow rate, as channels would be
blocking the air flow.

Figure 14: Static Pressure drop

Similar to last setup, but only one Pressure measuring meter is enough to measure the value of the air stream
at both sides (most preferably the Inlet ducts). Benchmarking the Plastic HX, it shows 99 Pa, for Paper around
89-91 Pa and Printed Tube design around 86-89 Pa.
Results summary: In above performance graphs, Temperature difference (Between Fresh Inlet and Exhaust
Inlet) varies linearly and increases from 5 degrees to 15 degrees over the time period of measurement. Total
04 HX were tested Paper, Plastic, Printed Wavy and Printed Tube Design.
Following can be summarized: In start effectiveness is higher due to really slight difference in Temperature
of Exhaust Outflow and Inflow Fresh air into the room, because sensors are at room temperature. As the
temperature difference increase and sensors pick up the readings then those are the meaningful values.
Although, Printed Wavy Heat exchanger still remains below effective, as compared to the commercial ones
but this printed wavy values can be disregarded on basis of low flow rate.
Experimental Benchmark is drawn using Curve fitting tool to show a decent curve of averaged effectiveness
value and also effectiveness as mentioned in specs sheet is also shown in the graph. Then finally, Printed
Tube design HX is measured, while keeping at similar temperature and fan speed conditions, and found to
have good volume flow rate around almost near as Paper/Plastic. But the effectiveness remains stable near
40-45% which is still below at par.

5. Conclusion
This project was initiated to develop high performance Heat exchangers utilizing the additive manufacturing
capabilities, in Heat recovery and ventilation for small houses without ventilation systems. Additive
manufacturing is an attractive manufacturing method to develop parts in single station manufacturing
process and developing complex geometries using the available material while also preventing at some
extent the contamination of foreign material. While, also on the other hand there are some limitations
related to the mechanics of the part structure in order to keep the part stable and self-supported, several
designs aspects have to be considered according to the application.
It was found that, still existing HX (Plastic & Paper) were more efficient, at around 50% at specific conditions,
and costs less than the printed one for now. While, printed Tube design HX costs almost 5-6 times higher
and shows effectiveness of up to 45% at similar conditions but results are stable as compared to the Wavy
HX. While, testing different conditions has to be taken of simultaneously, such as controlling temperature,
observing data logging, proper packing of HRV to prevent leaking, supply of air. As supply of cold/hot air is
cumbersome process in the absence of temperature controlled room, but still these ball park results can still
become basis of further results.
6. Recommendation & Improvements
Some recommendations and improvements which can included in further research of this projects are following:

- As winter season is near, heated room at 25 ˚C and cold air would result in good performance data. As per
different Journal papers and 1st experiment, it can be written that temperature difference due to cooling side
gives better performance results. As higher temperature and heat affects and reduces the conductance
through the HX material.
- CFD could be utilized at scaled down design to correlate results with the experimental data, to make sure the
test setup was properly done. As one of the problems occurred during CFD, was the analysis of HX because of
heavy CAD file with a lot of surfaces and analyzing coupled thermal-fluid flow of both air and heat conductance
of through material (i.e HX).
- Flow rate using Tube design HX could be improved more by reducing the partition holders and properly sealing
the partition as in figure. So as to open up more channels for the air flow and also reduce internal leaking.

- Optimizing the wall thickness and increasing the exposed surface area is one way to increase conductance and
ultimately effectiveness, as current tube design has wall thickness of 1mm while plastic HX has around 0.5mm.
- By Benchmarking the Plastic HX, the design should have greater exposed area of surface and also through area
to let air pass.
- Pressure drop should be as much as less than the existing would keep Fans consuming power at lower side,
leading to net energy gain would be higher.
- Use of alternative printing methods, to reduce wall thickness and more stiff design and surface area would be
beneficial or printing the HX in parts.
- Analyzing the use of Counter-flow HX which is more efficient than the Cross flow design.
- Optimizing HRV shape for testing purpose, to easily load/unload the HX or permanent commercial compact
design, example as in figure.

Fan 2

Fan 1 HX

- Also taking in consideration the condensation, as for now only sensible energy (dry air) was being computed.
One of the pros of printed Tube design was found that cold air passing could condensate water droplets would
fall on the base rather than choking the channels contrary to the Plastic HX.
- If managed to design HX with more air flow and effective, cost-benefit analysis could be performed by
measuring power consumption, net energy gain, and volume flow rate needed to supply to the room to keep
air fresh and reducing needed amount of stale air.
7. Measuring Equipment Usage

I. Arduino Temperature Sensing

Total 04 LM35 thermistor (Temperature Sensors) are being


used to measure temperature at 4 points of Entry/Exhaust of
air streams. All 04 sensors are connected in Parallel (Input
current at 5V & Ground) to the Arduino and Analogue pin
(Center pin) goes into the analogue input connection.

To upload Arduino program to convert voltage reading from


sensor to temperature is done by Arduino software and code is
given below in Appendix. While, data logging is done using
Matlab, first installing the Arduino add-on and using the given
code in Appendix to do data logging. It can be modified based
on requirement.

Starting readings, should be skipped as all sensors are initially at room temperature and should be logged when
temperature changes at each points.

II. Thermal Anemometer (Air Volume Flow rate)

One of important aspect in analyzing performance of Heat Exchanger is to measure


the amount fluid passing through it. Several, methods are possible to use to measure
the flow rate, using dynamics pressure gauges, or fan type or ultrasonic transducers
and Anemometer. One of the available resource was Thermal Anemometer, which
works on a principle of sensing the heat conductance by the passing air through the
probe, and converting the current (required to maintain heated probe) is translated
into velocity of air.
It can be used in following way, first probe exposing the heating element is inserted
in the hole, and should be perpendicular to the air stream. To measure, correct value
of flow rate, as due to turbulence and non-uniform flow values would vary at
different points, so should be measured, recorded and averaged out at same
position. As shown in the below pictures, insert the probe, away from the entry/exhaust point to account
for somewhat uniformity and less turbulence in the flow and then press ‘store’ and take several values by
gradually lowering down the probe until the end of dia, afterwards, press ‘average’ to get the average result.
Before taking readings, insert the shape of duct (Round) and Dia size to auto calculate the flow rate.
Volume flow rate = Area of Cross section x Velocity
III. Pressure differential Meter

Pressure Differential meters are simple equipment to


measure pressure value (atmospheric pressure
adjusted at 0 value) relative to pressure at different
point.

In this experiment, two uses of this equipment are:

1) It is used to measure static pressure drop


relative to atmospheric pressure to determine
the resistance in flow through HX. Example,
two points Exhaust Out, Fresh In and Exhaust In
are blocked to prevent any leakage in or out.
Without HX, static pressure drop corresponds to around 99+ Pa value, while only one Fan is blowing out the
air at Fresh Out Point. With Plastic HX, value is 90 Pa at medium Fan speed and for Tube design around 85
Pa. Higher static pressure drop relative to atmospheric means more Flow rate. One tube inserted in one
point to measure the static pressure.

2) To test the internal leakage, mixing of hot and


cold air stream, one tube from equipment’s
pressure port is fixed at one point and 2nd
Pressure Meter’s tube is inserted into adjacent
duct. While, leaving 2nd port pressure open to
atmosphere. Example, Fresh out Fan is running
while Exhaust Out fan is shut off by turning the
temperature switch inside HRV. Sealed ducts are
installed on both ducts of one side (as depicted in
image) and pressure readings are measured.

Pressure Differential and Anemometer equipment can be procured from Mr. Kilpeläinen Simo (Laboratory Manager)
from HVAC group in K4 building.
Appendix:
1. Specification Sheet of Mechanical HRV – Airsec 30V (Plastic):

2. Dimensions of HRV:
3. 2nd Experiment Temperature Data:

HX-a
Fan Speed Temp Diff TEI TEO TFI TFO EFS
5 21.5 19.1 16.1 20.0 72.0
S1 (min) 10 26.4 19.1 16.1 23.0 66.7
15 31.8 20.5 16.1 27.9 75.0
5 21.5 19.1 16.1 20.5 81.5
S2 10 25.9 20.0 16.1 24.4 85.0
15 31.3 22.5 15.6 30.2 93.1
5 21.5 18.6 16.6 20.5 80.0
S3(max) 10 26.4 21.0 16.1 24.9 85.5
15 30.8 23.5 15.6 29.5 91.3
HX-b
TEI TEO TFI TFO EFS
5 21.5 19.6 16.1 20.4 79.4
S1 (min) 10 26.4 19.1 16.1 23.0 66.7
15 30.3 21.0 15.6 26.9 76.7
5 21.5 19.1 16.1 20.5 81.5
S2 10 26.4 20.5 16.6 24.9 85.0
15 31.3 21.5 16.1 26.9 71.0
5 21.0 18.6 16.1 20.0 79.8
S3(max) 10 25.9 21.5 16.6 23.9 78.4
15 31.3 23.0 16.1 27.9 77.4
HX-c
TEI TEO TFI TFO EFS
5 21.5 19.6 16.6 23.0 130.0
S1 (min) 10 26.9 20.5 16.6 24.4 76.2
15 32.3 20.5 16.6 25.4 56.3
5 21.5 20.5 16.6 23.0 130.0
S2 10 27.4 20.5 17.1 24.9 76.2
15 30.8 20.5 16.1 25.9 66.7
5 21.0 21.0 16.1 23.0 140.0
S3(max) 10 26.4 20.5 16.1 24.9 85.7
15 32.3 21.0 17.1 26.9 64.5

4. Arduino Temperature Sensing Program Code:

/* Arduino Sketch for reading temperature from the Analog sensor LM-35 */

// Global declarations
float sensorTemp0 = 0.0; // For storing raw data from LM-35
float Temperature0 = 0.0; // For storing the converted temperature
float sensorTemp1 = 0.0;
float Temperature1 = 0.0;
float sensorTemp2 = 0.0;
float Temperature2 = 0.0;
float sensorTemp3 = 0.0;
float Temperature3 = 0.0;
int analogInputPin0 = 0; // Data out of LM-35 is connected in Arduino's analog Pin A0
int analogInputPin1 = 1; // Pin A1
int analogInputPin2 = 2; // Pin A2
int analogInputPin3 = 3; // Pin A3
void setup(){
Serial.begin(9600);
}

void loop(){
sensorTemp0 = analogRead(analogInputPin0); // Reads sensor data from pin A0
Temperature0 = sensorTemp0 * 0.48875855; //(+Vcc * 1000 / 1023) / 10
sensorTemp1 = analogRead(analogInputPin1); // pin A1
Temperature1 = sensorTemp1 * 0.48875855;
sensorTemp2 = analogRead(analogInputPin2); // pin A2
Temperature2 = sensorTemp2 * 0.48875855;
sensorTemp3 = analogRead(analogInputPin3); // pin A3
Temperature3 = sensorTemp3 * 0.48875855;
//Line 18-21 prints a formatted output
Serial.print("Temperature0 = "); //Print the strings
Serial.print(Temperature0); //Print temp. value
Serial.print("Temperature1 = ");
Serial.print(Temperature1);
Serial.print("Temperature2 = ");
Serial.print(Temperature2);
Serial.print("Temperature3 = ");
Serial.print(Temperature3);
delay(1000); // Temperature is printed in the Serial Monitor every seconds
}

5. Matlab Transient Data Logging Function Code with respect to increasing Temp. Difference:

function tempmonitor
%a = arduino('COM6','Uno'); %Initialize the board
i=inf;
s=0;
count=1;
temp1=0;
temp3=0;
temp2=0;
temp4=0;
tempdiff=0;
global a

ButtonHandle = uicontrol('Style', 'PushButton', ...


'String', 'Stop loop', ...
'Callback', 'delete(gcbf)')
while i~=s
temp1(count)=readVoltage(a,'A0')*100;
temp3(count)=readVoltage(a,'A2')*100;
temp4(count)=readVoltage(a,'A3')*100;
temp2(count)=readVoltage(a,'A1')*100;
tempdiff=temp1(count)-temp3(count);
fprintf('tempEI= %.2f tempFI= %.2f tempdiff= %.2f
\n',temp1(count),temp3(count),tempdiff)
fprintf('tempEO= %.2f tempFO= %.2f \n',temp2(count),temp4(count))
if ~ishandle(ButtonHandle)
disp('reading stopped');
break;
end
pause(1)
count=count+1
end
t1=temp1.';
t2=temp2.';
t3=temp3.';
t4=temp4.';
xlswrite('tempreadtransienttempEI',t1);
xlswrite('tempreadtransienttempEO',t2);
xlswrite('tempreadtransienttempFI',t3);
xlswrite('tempreadtransienttempFO',t4);
end

6. Static FEA analaysis of HX (e) for deformation due to weight:

7. Referenced European Mechanical Heat Recovery Ventilation Standards:


1. EN 13141-7:2010
- Performance Testing of a Mechanical Supply & Exhaust Ventilation Units (Including Heat Recovery) for
Mechanical Ventilation Systems Intended for Single Family Dwellings.
2. EN 13141-8:2010
- Performance Testing of Un-Ducted Mechanical Supply & Exhaust Ventilation Units (Including Heat Recovery)
for Mechanical Ventilation Systems intended for a Single Room
3. EN 306
- Heat Exchangers – Methods of measuring the parameters necessary for establishing the performance

8. CAD Models Link:

https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B8JXmhFgyNl6VkpYdHZxYkt6WWM

Folder Includes: Plastic HX Model, HRV Model and Tube Design HX