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# 16.810 (16.

682)
Engineering Design and Rapid Prototyping

Instructor(s)

Plan for Today

##  FEM Lecture (ca. 50 min)

 FEM fundamental concepts, analysis procedure
 Errors, Mistakes, and Accuracy

##  Conduct FEA of your part (ca. 90 min)

 Work in teams of two
 You are free to make modifications to your original model

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Course Concept

today

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Course Flow Diagram
Learning/Review Problem statement Deliverables

due today

## FEM/Solid Mechanics FEM analysis Analysis output v1

Overview today Wednesday
Manufacturing Produce Part 1 Part v1
Training
Structural Test Test Experiment data v1
“Training”
Optimization Design/Analysis
Design Optimization
output v2
Produce Part 2 Part v2

## Test Experiment data v2

Final Review
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Numerical Method

## Finite Volume Method

Meshless Method

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What is the FEM?
FEM: Method for numerical solution of field problems.

Description
- FEM cuts a structure into several elements (pieces of the structure).
- Then reconnects elements at “nodes” as if nodes were pins or drops
of glue that hold elements together.
- This process results in a set of simultaneous algebraic equations.

## Number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF)

Continuum: Infinite

FEM: Finite
(This is the origin of the name,
Finite Element Method)

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Fundamental Concepts (1)
Many engineering phenomena can be expressed by
“governing equations” and “boundary conditions”

Governing Equation
Elastic problems
(Differential equation)
Thermal problems L(I )  f 0

Fluid flow

## Electrostatics Boundary Conditions

etc. B (I )  g 0

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Fundamental Concepts (2)
Example: Vertical machining center
Geometry is
Elastic deformation very complex!
Thermal behavior
etc.

A set of simultaneous
Governing
FEM algebraic equations
Equation: L(I )  f 0
Boundary
Conditions: B(I )  g 0 Approximate!
[K ]{u} {F}
You know all the equations, but
you cannot solve it by hand

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Fundamental Concepts (3)
[K ]{u} {F} {u} [K ]1{F}
Property Action
Behavior
Unknown

## Property [K ] Behavior {u} Action {F}

Elastic stiffness displacement force

## Electrostatic dialectri permittivity electric potential charge

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Fundamental Concepts (4)
It is very difficult to make the algebraic equations for the entire domain
Divide the domain into a number of small, simple elements

## Finite element: Small piece of structure

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Fundamental Concepts (5)
Obtain the algebraic equations for each element (this is easy!)

## [K E ]{u E } {F E } [K E ]{u E } {F E } [K E ]{u E } {F E }

[K ]{u} {F}

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Fundamental Concepts (6)
Solve the equations, obtaining unknown variables at nodes.

## [K ]{u} {F} {u} [K ]1{F}

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Concepts - Summary
- FEM uses the concept of piecewise polynomial interpolation.

## - By connecting elements together, the field quantity becomes interpolated

over the entire structure in piecewise fashion.

## - A set of simultaneous algebraic equations at nodes.

Kx = F
[K ]{u} {F} K: Stiffness matrix
x: Displacement
K
Action
Behavior
x
F

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Brief History
- The term finite element was first coined by clough in 1960. In the early
1960s, engineers used the method for approximate solutions of problems
in stress analysis, fluid flow, heat transfer, and other areas.

- The first book on the FEM by Zienkiewicz and Chung was published in
1967.

- In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the FEM was applied to a wide variety
of engineering problems.

## - Klaus-Jurgen Bathe in ME at MIT

Reference [2]
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Can readily handle very complex geometry:
- The heart and power of the FEM

## Can handle a wide variety of engineering problems

- Solid mechanics - Dynamics - Heat problems
- Fluids - Electrostatic problems

## Can handle complex restraints

- Indeterminate structures can be solved.

- Element load (pressure, thermal, inertial forces)

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## A general closed-form solution, which would permit one

to examine system response to changes in various
parameters, is not produced.

## Mistakes by users can be fatal.

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Typical FEA Procedure by
Commercial Software
User Preprocess Build a FE model

## User Postprocess See results

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Preprocess (1)
[1] Select analysis type - Structural Static Analysis
- Modal Analysis
- Transient Dynamic Analysis
- Buckling Analysis
- Contact
- Transient Thermal Analysis

## [2] Select element type 2-D Linear Truss

3-D
Shell
Plate

Solid
[3] Material properties E, Q , U , D , "

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Preprocess (2)

connectivity

## [6] Apply boundary conditions

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Process and Postprocess

[7] Process
- Solve the boundary value problem

[8] Postprocess
- See the results Displacement
Stress
Strain
Natural frequency
Temperature
Time history

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Responsibility of the user
200 mm Fancy, colorful contours can
be produced by any model,
1 ms pressure pulse

## BC: Hinged supports

Unknown: Lateral mid point
displacement in the time domain

## Results obtained from ten reputable

FEM codes and by users regarded as
expert can differ greatly.*

## * R. D. Cook, Finite Element Modeling for Stress Analysis, John

Wiley & Sons, 1995

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Errors Inherent in FEM Formulation
Approximated
Domain
- Geometry is simplified. domain

FEM

## - Field quantity is assumed to be a polynomial over an element. (which is not true)

True deformation
Linear element Quadratic element Cubic element

FEM

## - Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature)

f(x)
1 § 1 · § 1 ·
Area: ³1 f ( x ) dx | f ¨ ¸  f ¨ ¸
x
-1 1

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Errors Inherent in Computing

## e.g.) 2 1.41421356, S 3.14159265

- Numerical Difficulties
e.g.) Very large stiffness difference
u1 u2

P
1 2
k1 k2

k1  k2 , k2 | 0

P P
[(k1  k2 )  k2 ]u2 P  u2 |
k2 0

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Mistakes by Users

## - Elements are of the wrong type

e.g) Shell elements are used where solid elements are needed

- Distorted elements

## - Too large stiffness differences Æ Numerical difficulties

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Plan for Today

##  FEM Lecture (ca. 50 min)

 FEM fundamental concepts, analysis procedure
 Errors, Mistakes, and Accuracy

##  Conduct FEA of your part (ca. 90 min)

 Work in teams of two
 You are free to make modifications to your original model

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References
Glaucio H. Paulino, Introduction to FEM (History, Advantages and