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RESUM PHYSICS KINETICS/ MOVEMENT

Displacement is the change in an object’s position.


The displacement of an object is defined as its change in position
(final position minus initial position). Displacement has a magnitude
and direction and is therefore a vector. For example, if the initial
position of a car is xi and it moves to a final position of xf, then the
displacement is: xf −xi However, subtracting an initial quantity from a
final quantity happens often in Physics, so we use the shortcut ∆ to
mean final - initial. Therefore, displacement can be written:
∆x = xf −xi
∆ is a letter of the Greek alphabet and is used to indicate a change in
a certain quantity, or a final value minus an initial value. For example,
∆x means change in x while ∆t means change in t.
Displacement does not depend on the path travelled, but only on the
initial and final positions
We use the word distance to describe how far an object travels along
a particular path. Distance is the actual distance that was covered.
Distance (symbol d) does not have a direction, so it is a scalar.
Displacement has direction and is therefore a vector.
Distance travelled is a measure of the actual distance covered during
the motion. For example, if Sophie completes three lengths of the
pool, the distance travelled during her swim will be 50 + 50 + 50 =
150 m.
If Sophie swims two lengths, she will have travelled a distance of 100
m, i.e. 50 m out and 50 m back. However, her displacement during
this swim will be: x = final position − initial position =0−0 =0
Even though she has swum 100 m, her displacement is zero because
the initial and final positions are the same. Displacement only
considers the starting and finishing positions of the motion; it does
not indicate anything about the route taken by the person or object
in getting from the initial to the final position.
The differences between distance and displacement can be
summarised as:
Distance1. depends on the path, always positive, scalar
Displacement 1. independent of path taken 1. depends on the path
2. can be positive or negative 3. is a vector
QUESTIONS
You stand at the front door of your house (displacement, ∆x = 0 m).
The street is 10 m away from the front door. You walk to the street
and back again.
(a) What is the distance you have walked?
(b) What is your final displacement?
(c) Is displacement a vector or a scalar? Give a reason for your
answer
During a training ride, a cyclist rides 50 km north then 30 km south. a
What is the distance travelled by the cyclist during the ride? b What
is the displacement of the cyclist for this ride?

3 A lift in a city building carries a passenger from the ground floor


down to the basement, then up to the top floor. a Determine the
displacement as the passenger travels from the ground floor to the
basement. b What is the displacement of the lift as it travels from
the basement to the top floor? c What is the distance travelled by
the lift during this trip? d What is the displacement of the lift during
this trip?
Speed and velocity are both quantities that give an indication
of how fast an object moves or, more precisely, of how quickly the
position of an object is changing. Both terms are in common use and
are often assumed to have the same meaning. In physics, however,
these terms are defined differently. • Speed is defined in terms of
the distance travelled and so, like distance, speed is a scalar. Thus, a
direction is not required when describing the speed of an object. •
Velocity is defined in terms of displacement and so is a vector
quantity. The SI unit for speed and velocity is metres per second (m
s−1); kilometres per hour (km h−1) is also commonly used.
Velocity is the rate of change of position.
Velocity is the rate of change of position. It tells us how much an
object’s position changes in time. This is the same as the
displacement divided by the time taken. Since displacement is a
vector and time taken is a scalar, velocity is also a vector. We use the
symbol v for velocity. If we have a displacement of ∆x and a time
taken of ∆t, v is then defined as:
velocity (in m·s−1) = change in displacement (in m)
change in time (in s)
v = ∆x / ∆t
Velocity can be positive or negative. Positive values of velocity mean
that the object is moving away from the reference point or origin and
negative values mean that the object is moving towards the
reference point or origin.
Important: An instant in time is different from the time taken or the
time interval. It is therefore useful to use the symbol t for an instant
in time (for example during the 4th second) and the symbol ∆t for
the time taken (for example during the first 5 seconds of the motion)
Instantaneous velocity is the velocity of an accelerating body at a
specific instant in time.
Average velocity is the total displacement of a body over a time
interval.
Instantaneous speed and instantaneous velocity give a measure of
how fast something is moving at a particular moment or instant in
time. If the speedometer on a car shows 60 km h−1, it is indicating
the instantaneous speed of the car.
Average velocity (symbol v) is the displacement for the whole motion
divided by the time taken for the whole motion. Instantaneous
velocity is the velocity at a specific instant in time.
(Average) Speed (symbol s) is the distance travelled (d) divided by
the time taken (∆t) for the journey. Distance and time are scalars and
therefore speed will also be a scalar. Speed is calculated as follows:
speed (in m·s−1) = distance (in m) / time (in s)
s = d / ∆t
Instantaneous speed is the magnitude of instantaneous velocity. It
has the same value, but no direction.
Average Speed = distance travelled / time taken = d / Dt . Speed is
measured in metres per second (m s−1).
Average velocity = displacement / time taken = x / Dt Velocity is
measured in metres per second (m s−1) and requires a direction.
A direction (such as north, south, up, down, left, right, positive,
negative) must be given when describing a velocity. The direction will
always be the same as that of the displacement.
consider Jana, an athlete performing a training routine by running
back and forth along a straight stretch of running track. She jogs 100
m north in a time of 20 s, then turns and walks 50 m south in a
further 25 s before stopping.
a calculate Jana’s average speed as she is jogging.
b What is her average velocity as she is jogging?
c What is the average speed for this 150 m exercise?
d Determine the average velocity for this activity. e What is the
magnitude of Jana’s average velocity in km h−1?
Solution
a her average speed when jogging is: vav = distance travelled /time
taken = d / Dt = 100 m 20 s = 5.0 m s−
her average velocity when jogging is: vav = displacement /time taken
= x / Dt = 100 m north /20 s = 5.0 m s−1 north
Note that speed has been treated as a scalar and velocity as a
vector.
c Jana has covered a distance of 150 m in 45 s. her average speed is:
v av = distance travelled/ time taken = 150 m /45 s = 3.3 m s−
d She has finished 50 m to the north of where she started, i.e. her
displacement is 50 m north. her average velocity is: vav = x /Dt = 50
m north/ 45 s = 1.1 m s−1 north
problem
After a long day, a tired man decides not to use the pedestrian
bridge to cross over a freeway, and decides instead to run across. He
sees a car 100 m away travelling towards him, and is confident that
he can cross in time. If the car is travelling at 120 km·h−1, what is
the car’s speed in m·s−1. (b) How long will it take the car to travel
100 m? (c) If the man is running at 10 km·h−1, what is his speed in
m·s−1? (d) If the freeway has 3 lanes, and each lane is 3 m wide, how
long will it take for the man to cross all three lanes? (e) If the car is
travelling in the furthermost lane from the man, will he be able to
cross all 3 lanes of the freeway safely?

Finding velocity changes


When finding the change in any physical quantity, the initial value is
taken away from the final value. Thus, a change in velocity is the final
velocity minus the initial velocity:
negative of a vector simply points in the opposite direction
Worked example A golf ball is dropped onto a concrete floor and
strikes the floor at 5.0 m s−1. It then rebounds at 5.0 m s−1. a What
is the change in speed for the ball? b calculate the change in velocity
for the ball.
a Both the initial and final speed of the ball are 5.0 m s−1, so the
change in speed for the ball is: Dv = v − u = 5.0 − 5.0 = 0 As speed is a
scalar quantity, the direction of motion of the ball is not a
consideration.
b to determine the change in velocity of the ball: Dv = v − u = 5.0
m s−1 up − 5.0 m s−1 down
Let up be the positive direction, so: Dv = +5.0 − (−5.0) = +5.0 + 5.0
= 10 m s−1 up . Velocity is a vector quantity and the change in
direction of the ball is responsible for its velocity change.
Acceleration
Acceleration is a measure of how quickly velocity changes.
Acceleration (symbol a) is the rate of change of velocity. It is a
measure of how fast the velocity of an object changes in time. If we
have a change in velocity (∆v) over a time interval (∆t), then the
acceleration (a) is defined as: acceleration (in m·s−2) = change in
velocity (in m·s−1) / change in time (in s)
a = ∆v / ∆t
Since velocity is a vector, acceleration is also a vector. Acceleration
does not provide any information about a motion, but only about
how the motion changes. It is not possible to tell how fast an object
is moving or in which direction from the acceleration. Like velocity,
acceleration can be negative or positive. We see that when the sign
of the acceleration and the velocity are the same, the object is
speeding up. If both velocity and acceleration are positive, the object
is speeding up in a positive direction. If both velocity and
acceleration are negative, the object is speeding up in a negative
direction. If velocity is positive and acceleration is negative, then the
object is slowing down. Similarly, if the velocity is negative and the
acceleration is positive the object is slowing down
A car accelerates uniformly from and initial velocity of 2 m·s−1 to a
final velocity of 10 m·s1 in 8 seconds. It then slows down uniformly
to a final velocity of 4 m·s−1 in 6 seconds. Calculate the acceleration
of the car during the first 8 seconds and during the last 6 seconds.
For the first 8 seconds: vi = 2 m·s−1 vf = 10 m·s−1 ti = 0 s tf = 8 s
For the last 6 seconds: vi = 10 m·s−1 vf = 4 m·s−1 ti = 8 s tf = 14 s
For the first 8 seconds: a = ∆v /∆t =10−2 / 8−0 = 1 m·s−2
For the next 6 seconds:a =∆v/ ∆t= 4−10/ 14−8 = −1 m·s−2
During the first 8 seconds the car had a positive acceleration .
This means that its velocity increased. The velocity is positive so the
car is speeding up. During the next 6 seconds the car had a negative
acceleration. This means that its velocity decreased. The velocity is
positive so the car is slowing down.
A cheetah running at 20 m s−1 slows down as it approaches a
average acceleration of the cheetah.
Solution the average acceleration of the cheetah is:
aav = Dv /Dt = v – u/ Dt
= 2 − 20 /3.0 = −6.0 m s−2 that is, each second, the cheetah is
slowing down by 6.0 m s−1.
Questions
An athlete is accelerating uniformly from an initial velocity of 0
m·s−1to a final velocity of 4 m·s−1in 2 seconds. Calculate his
acceleration. Let the direction that the athlete is running in be the
positive direction.
2. A bus accelerates uniformly from an initial velocity of 15 m·s−1to a
final velocity of 7 m·s−1in 4 seconds. Calculate the acceleration of
the bus. Let the direction of motion of the bus be the positive
direction.
3. An aeroplane accelerates uniformly from an initial velocity of 200
m·s−1to a velocity of 100 m·s−1in 10 seconds. It then accelerates
uniformly to a final velocity of 240 m·s−1in 20 seconds. Let the
direction of motion of the aeroplane be the positive direction.
(a) Calculate the acceleration of the aeroplane during the first 10
seconds of the motion. (b) Calculate the acceleration of the
aeroplane during the next 14 seconds of its motion. (c) Calculate the
acceleration of the aeroplane during the whole 24 seconds of its
motion.
A bus travelling north along a straight road at 60 km h−1 slows down
uniformly and takes 5.0 s to stop. a Calculate the magnitude of its
acceleration

Graphing position
A position–time graph indicates the position of an object at any time
for motion that occurs over an extended time interval.
Velocity is given by the gradient of a position–time graph. A positive
velocity indicates that the object is moving in a positive direction,
and a negative velocity indicates motion in a negative direction.

Graphing velocity
A graph of velocity against time shows how the velocity of an object
changes with time. This type of graph is useful for analysing the
motion of an object moving in a complex manner, for example a ball
bouncing up and down.
Displacement is given by the area under a velocity–time graph (or
the area between the line and the time axis). It is important to note
that an area below the time axis indicates a negative displacement,
i.e. motion in a negative direction.
The acceleration of an object can also be found from a velocity–time
graph. Since acceleration is the velocity change divided by time
taken, it is also given by the gradient of the v–t graph.
The area under an acceleration–time graph is the change
in velocity of the object

Area triangle = ½ base x alcada


Area rectangle = base x altura
equations for constant / uniform acceleration
Consider a body moving in a straight line with an initial velocity u and
a uniform acceleration a for a time interval t. After time t, the
body is travelling with a final velocity v.
Its acceleration will be given by: = canvi velocitat respecte temps =
Velocitat final - velocitat inicial = acceleration
Temps
Velocitat final = acceleration x temps + velocitat inicial
vf = vi + at
How to calculate the displacement in a graphic ?

Displacement of the body is given by the area under the velocity–


time graph.
The area under the velocity–time graph in Figure is given by the
combined area of the rectangle and the triangle:
Area△ = 1/ 2 base × alcada = 1 / 2 t × (vf −vi) = 1/ 2 vft −1
/2vit
Area rectangle = ℓ×b = t ×v inicial = vit
Displacement = suma de les dues arees ∆x = vit + 1/ 2 vf t− 1 /2 vi t
∆x = (vi + vf) t
2
vf = vi + at
∆x = vi + (vi + at ) t
2

A racing car is travelling north. It accelerates uniformly covering a


distance of 725 m in 10 s. If it has an initial velocity of 10 m·s−1, find
its acceleration.
Answer Step 1 : Identify what information is given and what is asked
for We are given: vi = 10 m·s−1 ∆x = 725 m t = 10 s a = ?
Step 2 : Find an equation of motion relating the given information to
the acceleration, find the quantity that is not given and then look for
an equation that does not have this quantity in it
∆x = vit + 1/ 2 at2
725 = (10×10) +1/ 2 a×(10)2 725−100 = 50 a a = 12,5 m·s−2

A motorcycle, travelling east, starts from rest, moves in a straight line


with a constant acceleration and covers a distance of 64 m in 4 s.
Calculate • its acceleration • its final velocity • at what time the
motorcycle had covered half the total distance • what distance the
motorcycle had covered in half the total time. Answer Step 1 :
Identify what information is given and what is asked for We are
given: vi = 0 m·s−1(because the object starts from rest.) ∆x = 64 m t =
4 s a = ? vf = ? t = ? at half the distance ∆x = 32 m. ∆x = ? at half the
time t = 2 s.
All quantities are in SI units. Step 2 : Acceleration: Find a suitable
equation to calculate the acceleration
∆x = vit + 1/ 2 at2
64 = (0×4) +1 /2a×(4)2 =64 = 8a a = 8 m·s−2 east
Final velocity: remember we now also know the acceleration of the
object. vf = vi + at
Distance at half the time: Find an equation to relate the distance and
time Half the time is 2 s, thus we have vi, a and t - all in the correct
units. We can use equation 3.3 to get the distance:
∆x = vit + 1/ 2 at2 = (0)(2) +1/2(8)(2)2= 16 m east
VERTICAL MOTION . FREE FALL
if air resistance can be ignored, all free-falling bodies near the
Earth’s surface will move with an equal downwards acceleration. In
other words, the mass of the object does not matter.
At the Earth’s surface, the acceleration due to gravity is g = 9.8 m s−2
down.
Free fall simply implies that the motion of the body is affected only
by gravity, i.e. there is no air resistance and there are no rockets
firing. It is also important to note that the acceleration of a freely
falling body is always 9.8 m s−2 down, and does not depend on
whether the body is falling up or down. For example, a coin that is
dropped from rest will be moving at 9.8 m s−1 after 1 s, 19.6 m s−1
after 2 s, and so on. Each second, its speed increases by 9.8 m s−1.
However, if the coin was launched straight up at 19.6 m s−1, then
after 1 s its speed would be 9.8 m s−1, and after 2 s it would be
stationary (Figure 4.32) . In other words, each second it would slow
down by 9.8 m s−1. Since the acceleration of a freely falling body is
constant, it is appropriate to use the equations for uniform
acceleration. It is often necessary to specify up or down as the
positive or negative direction when doing these problems
A construction worker accidentally knocks a brick from a building so
that it falls vertically a distance of 50 m to the ground. Using g = 9.8
m s−2, calculate: a )the time the brick takes to fall the first 25 m
b) the time the brick takes to reach the ground c) the speed of the
brick as it hits the ground.
Solution Down will be treated as the positive direction for this
problem since this is the direction of the displacement.
a ) initial velocity u = 0, x = 25 m, a = 9.8 m s−2, t = ?
x = ut + 1 /2at2
25 = 0 + 1/ 2 × 9.8 × t2 t2 = 5.1 t = 2.3 s
b) u = 0, a = 9.8 m s−2, x = 50 m, t = ? x = ut + 1/ 2at2
50 = 0 + 1 2 × 9.8 × t2 t2 = 10.2 t = 3.2 s
c )u = 0, a = 9.8 m s−2, x = 50 m, t = 3.2 s, v = ?
v = u + at v = 0 + 9.8 × 3.2 = 31 m s−1
On winning a tennis match the victorious player, Michael, smashed
the ball vertically into the air at 30 m s−1. In this example, air
resistance can be ignored and the acceleration due to gravity will be
taken as 10 m s−2. a Determine the maximum height reached by the
ball. b calculate the time that the ball takes to return to its starting
position. c calculate the velocity of the ball 5.0 s after being hit by
Michael. d Determine the acceleration of the ball at its maximum
height. e Draw an acceleration–time graph of the ball’s motion. f
Draw a velocity–time graph of the ball’s motion.
Solution In this problem, up will be taken as positive since it is the
direction of the initial displacement.
a At the maximum height, the velocity of the ball is momentarily
zero. u = 30 m s−1, v = 0, a = −10 m s−2, x = ?
v2 = u2 + 2ax 0 = (30)2 + 2(−10)x ∴ x = +45 m, i.e. the ball
reaches a height of 45 m.
b to work out the time for which the ball is in the air, it is often
necessary to first calculate the time that it takes to reach its
maximum height. u = 30 m s−1, v = 0, a = −10 m s−2, x = 45 m, t = ?
v = u + at
0 = 30 + (−10 × t) ∴ t = 3.0 s the ball takes 3.0 s to reach its
maximum height. It will therefore take 3.0 s to fall from this height
back to its starting point and so the whole trip will last for 6.0 s.
c u = 30 m s−1, a = −10 m s−2, t = 5.0 s, v = ?
v = u + at v = 30 +(−10 × 5.0) = −20 m s−1 the ball is travelling
downwards at 20 m s−1.

A brick falls from the top of a 5 m high building. Calculate the velocity
with which the brick reaches the ground. How long does it take the
brick to reach the ground?
2. A stone is dropped from a window. It takes the stone 1,5 seconds
to reach the ground. How high above the ground is the window?
3. An apple falls from a tree from a height of 1,8 m. What is the
velocity of the apple when it reaches the ground

PROBLEMES SOBRE ELS TEMES EXPLICATS

Un atleta ha emprat 3 min i 20,23 s per fer els 1500 m llisos. Cerca la
velocitat mitjana en unitats del S.I. i després en km/h.
26,97 km/h

Les naus de l’espai que van cap a altres planetes han de sortir de la Terra a
una velocitat de 11200 m/s. Expressa la velocitat en km/h.
40320 km/h

En un Gran Premi de motos el guanyador va fer les 26 voltes al circuit en


40 min i 21,39 s. Si la llargària del circuit és de 4168 m, quina va
ser la velocitat mitjana del guanyador?
Expressa-la en m/s i km/h.

Des d’una ciutat A surt un cotxe cap a B a 20 m/s; en el mateix instant surt
de B cap a A un cotxe a 30 m/s. Els pobles estan a 10 km un de l’altre.
Cerca el lloc i el moment de l’encontre.
200 s; 4000 m

Un mòbil té un moviment rectilini i uniforme de 90 km/h. Cerca en unitats


del S.I.: a Espai recorregut en 1 min Temps que està per recórrer 1 km
El llum que ens arriba del Sol està 8 min i 20 s per arribar-nos. Sabent que
es propaga amb línia recta i a una velocitat uniforme de 300000 km
/s, cerca la distància de la Terra al Sol.

10 Una moto va a 180 km/h i frena durant 8 s amb una acceleració de 6


m/s
2 . S’aturarà? En cas negatiu, quin temps li faltarà per aturar-se si con
tinuàs amb la mateixa desacceleració?
8,3 s

11 Un mòbil va a 20 m/s i accelera amb 3 m/s2, cosa que manté durant cert
temps. Cerca: a)Velocitat i espai als 2 s b)Velocitat que tendrà quan hagi
recorregut 100 m
a) 26m/s; 46 m
b) 31,1 m/s

12. Un cotxe va a 40 m/s. Frena amb una acceleració negativa de 8 m/s2


Calcula el temps que estarà per aturar-se i la distància que recorrerà fins
que s’aturi.
5 s; 100 m
14.Quina velocitat durà una nau de l’espai després de
4 min i 10 s de ser llançada si durant aquest temps es manté amb una
acceleració constant de 32 m/s2? Expressa el resultat en km/h. Quina
distància haurà recorregut en aquest temps?
14.28800 km/h; 1000 km

15.Un cos parteix del repòs i es mou amb acceleració c


onstant de 8 m/s2. Quin temps estarà per recórrer 100 m? Quina serà la
seva velocitat en l’instant que obtindrà aquesta distància? 15.5 s; 40 m/s

16 Quin temps està per arribar a terra un objecte pesant que es deixa caure
sense velocitat inicial des d’una altura de 10 m? Suposa nul·la la
resistència de l’aire.

17.Amb quina velocitat entra a l’aigua un nedador que es deixa caure des
de 5 m d’altura si es desprecia el fregament amb l’aire? 9,89 m/s.

18.Amb quina velocitat s’ha de llançar una pedra verticalment cap avall,
des de la boca d’un pou de 50 m de profunditat, perquè arribi als fons
en 2 s? Amb quina velocitat arribarà al fons? No hi ha resistència de l’aire.
19. Es llança un cos verticalment cap a dalt amb una velocitat inicial de 90
km/h. Si despreciam el fregament de l’aire, calcula a quina altura arribarà i
quin temps estarà en arribar, un altre cop, al punt de partida. 31,9 m; 5,1 s

20.L’acceleració de la gravetat a la Lluna és de 1,6 m/s2.. Amb quina


velocitat arribaria a la superfície lunar un cos deixat caure sense velocita
t inicial des de 5 m d’altura? Expressa el resultat en km/h.

21.Des de dos punts A i B distants 200 m surten simultàniament dos


mòbils. El que surt d’A va a 5 m/s i va cap a B amb una acceleració
constant d’1 m/s2
El que surt de B va cap a A amb moviment uniforme de 12 m/s. On es
creuaran?

22.Des d’una altura de 10 m llançam verticalment cap a dalt un objecte


amb velocitat inicial de 15 m/s. Calcula: a)L’altura màxima respecte al sol.
b)El temps que està en arribar a terra.

24. A l’entrada de Vilafranca de Bonany passa un motori


sta a 60 km/h. La velocitat està limitada a 50 km/h. En el mateix instant en
que el motorista passa per aquest tram, un policia amagat surt a encalçar-lo
amb una acceleració de 2,5 m/s2. Quin temps estarà el policia per agafar-
lo? A quina distància de l’entrada del poble ho aconseguirà?

25.Un mòbil surt del repòs amb una acceleració de 2 m/s2 fins obtenir una
velocitat de 100 km/h. Manté aquesta velocitat durant 5 s; posterior
ment frena i s’atura després de 8 s. Calcula el temps invertit en el total del
recorregut i l’espai total.

CIRCULAR MOVEMENT
El movimiento circular uniforme es aquel movimiento circular en el que un móvil se desplaza
alrededor de un punto central, siguiendo la trayectoria de una circunferencia, de tal modo que en
tiempos iguales recorra espacios iguales.

La velocidad angular es una medida de la velocidad de rotación. Se define como el


ángulo girado por unidad de tiempo y se designa mediante la letra griega . Su unidad
en el Sistema Internacional es el radian/segundo (rad/s).
La velocidad angular es la variación del desplazamiento angular por unidad de
tiempo:
Problemes
1 Una roda té 20 cm de radi i està un centèsim de segon per fer una volta.
Calcula la velocitat lineal i la freqüència.
2.La roda d’un carro té 75 cm de radi i el carro va a 9 km/h. Cerca les
voltes que fa la roda cada minut.
3.Els punts de la perifèria d’una roda que està girant tenen una velocitat
lineal de 54 km/h. Si la roda té 40 cm de radi, quina és la seva velocitat
angular en rev/min?
5.Una roda gira a 30 ∏rad/s. Calcula quantes voltes fa en 15 min.
6.Si la Terra fa una volta alrededor del seu eix cada24 h, quina és la seva
velocitat angular en rad/h? Quina velocitat lineal en km/h correspon a u
n punt de l’Equador amb aquest moviment de rotació? Radi de la Terra,
6400 km.
7.Una peça del motor d’un cotxe gira a 4000 rpm. Calcula la velocitat
angular, el període i la freqüència.
8.Un satèl·lit artificial descriu una òrbita circular a 644 km sobre la
superfície de la Terra. El seu període és de 98 min. El radi terrestre és de 6
370 km. Calcula la seva velocitat lineal i angular.
SOLUCIONARI
1.a) 125,6 km/s b) 100 s-1
2.31,88 voltes/min 3.358 rev/min 5 13500 voltes.
6 .∏/12 rad/h 1667,7 km/h 7.133,3∏ rad/s 0,015 s 66,65 Hz
8. 3,4.10-4 ∏ rad/s 7491,9 m/s

Movimiento circular uniforme


1. La noria de un parque de atracciones tarda 15 s en dar una vuelta. Si suvelocidad angular
es constante, calcula:a) La velocidad angular en radianes/segundo.b) El periodo y la
frecuencia.c) El ángulo girado en 5 s.d) La velocidad lineal de un viajero situado a 10 m del
eje de giro.Sol:a)
ω =0,13πrad/s.b)T=15 s f= 0,06 Hzc) θ =0,65πradd) v=1,3πrad/s
2. Un tiovivo gira a razón de 10 vueltas cada 3 minutos. Calcula la velocidad angular (en
rad/s) y la velocidad lineal de un niño que está montado en un cochecito a 10 mdel eje de
giro.Sol.: 0,11 π rad/s y 1,1πm/s
3. Una rueda gira a razón de 20 vueltas/minuto.Determina:a) El periodo.b) La velocidad
angular.c) La velocidad lineal en un punto de la periferia sabiendo que el diámetro de la
rueda es100 cm.Sol.: a) 3 s; b) 0,66 π rad/s; c) 0,33πm/s
4. Un satélite tarda dos días en dar una vuelta alrededor de la Tierra. ¿Cuál será suvelocidad
angular? Sol.: c)πrad/día
5. El movimiento circular uniforme, ¿tiene aceleración?
Sol.: Tiene aceleración normal, debida al cambio de dirección de la velocidad
6. La velocidad angular de un tocadiscos de la década de 1970 es de 45 rpm.Calcula:a) La
velocidad angular en rad/s.b) El periodo y la frecuencia.c) El número de vueltas que dará en 5
minutos.Sol.: a) 1,5πrad/s; b) 1,33 s y 0,75 Hz; c) 225 vueltas
7. Una bicicleta se mueve a 10 m/s. Sabiendo que las ruedas tienen un radio de 50 cm,calcula
la velocidad angular de la rueda.Sol.: 20 rad/s
8. Una rueda de 50 cm de radio gira a 180 r.p.m. Calcula:a) El módulo de la velocidad angular en
rad/s Resultado: ω= 6πrad/sb) El módulo de la velocidad lineal de su borde. Resultado: v= 9.42 m/sc) Su
frecuencia. Resultado: f= 3 Hz
9. Un CD-ROM, que tiene un radio de 6 cm, gira a una velocidad de 2500 rpm.Calcula:
) El módulo de la velocidad angular en rad/s Resultado: ω= 83.3πrad/s b) El módulo de la velocidad lineal
de su borde. Resultado: v= 15.7 m/sc) Su frecuencia. Resultado: f= 41.66 Hz

11. Calcular cuánto tiempo pasa entre dos momentos en que Marte y Júpiter estén sobre el mismo
radio de sus órbitas (suponiendo que ambos se mueven con unmovimiento circular uniforme).
Datos: Periodos de sus órbitas alrededor del Sol: Marte: 687.0 días Júpiter: 11.86 año Resultado: t =
816.6 días

12. Un piloto de avión bien entrenado aguanta aceleraciones de hasta 8 veces la de la gravedad,
durante tiempos breves, sin perder el conocimiento.Para un avión que vuela a 2300 km/h, ¿cuál
será el radio de giro mínimo que puede soportar?
Resultado: r = 5200 m
13. Tenemos un cubo con agua atado al final de una cuerda de 0.5 m y lo hacemosgirar
verticalmente. Calcular:a) El módulo de la velocidad lineal que debe adquirir para que la
aceleracióncentrípeta sea igual a 9.8 m/s. Resultado: v = 2.21 m/sb) El módulo de la velocidad
angular que llevará en ese caso.

Resultado: ω= 4.42 rad/s = 0.70 vueltas/s


14. La Estación Espacial Internacional gira con velocidad angular constantealrededor de la Tierra
cada 90 minutos en una órbita a 300 km de altura sobre lasuperficie terrestre (por tanto, el radio
de la órbita es de 6670 km) a) Calcular la velocidad angular
Resultado: ω =π/2700 rad/sb) Calcular la velocidad lineal Resultado: v = 7760 m/sc)

1) Una rueda de 50 cm de radio gira a 180 r.p.m. Calcula:a) El módulo de


la velocidad angular en rad/s
Resultado: ω= 6π rad/s
b) El módulo de la velocidad lineal de su borde.Resultado: v= 9.42 m/s
c) Su frecuencia.Resultado: f= 3 Hz
2) Un CD-ROM, que tiene un radio de 6 cm, gira a una velocidad de 2500
rpm. Calcula:a) El módulo de la velocidad angular en rad/s
Resultado: ω= 83.3π rad/sb) El módulo de la velocidad lineal de su borde.
Resultado: v= 15.7 m/s
c) Su frecuencia.Resultado: f= 41.66 Hz
3) Teniendo en cuenta que la Tierra gira alrededor del Sol en 365.25 días y
que el radio de giro medio es de 1.5 1011m, calcula (suponiendo que se
mueve en un movimiento circular uniforme):
a) El módulo de la velocidad angular en rad/díaResultado: ω= 0.0172
Rad/día
b) El módulo de la velocidad a que viaja alrededor del Sol
Resultado: v= 29861m/s
c) El ángulo que recorrerá en 30 días.Resultado: θ = 0.516 rad = 29° 33'
d) El módulo de la aceleración centrípeta provocada por el Sol. Resultado:
a= 5.9 10-3m/s2
4) Calcular cuánto tiempo pasa entre dos momentos en que Marte y
Júpiter estén sobre el mismo
radio de sus órbitas (suponiendo que ambos se mueven con un
movimiento circular uniforme).
Periodos de sus órbitas alrededor del Sol: Marte: 687.0 días Júpiter: 11.86
año Resultado: t= 816.6 días
5) Un piloto de avión bien entrenado aguanta aceleraciones de hasta 8
veces la de la gravedad, durante tiempos breves, sin perder el
conocimiento. Para un avión que vuela a 2300 km/h, ¿cuál será el radio de
giro mínimo que puede soportar?
Resultado: r= 5200 m
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6) Tenemos un cubo con agua atado al final de una cuerda de 0.5 m y lo
hacemos girar
verticalmente. Calcular:
a) El m
ó
dulo de la
velocidad lineal que debe adquirir para que la aceleración centrípeta
sea igual a 9.8 m/s
2
.
Resultado: v =2.21 m/s
b) El m
ó
dulo de la
velocidad angular que llevará en ese caso.
R
esultado: ω = 4.42 rad/s = 0.70 vueltas/s
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7) La Estación Espacial Internacional gira con velocidad angular constante
alrededor de la Tie
-
rra cada 90 minutos en una órbita a 300 km de altura sobre la superficie
terrestre (por tanto, el
radio de la órbita es de 6670 km).
a)
Calcular la velocidad angular
ω
R
esultado: ω =
π/2700
rad/s
b)
Calcular la velocidad lineal v
Resultado: v =7760 m/s
c)
¿Tiene aceleración? En caso afirmativo, indicar sus características y, en
caso nega
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tivo, explicar las razones de que no exista.
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8)
Una centrifugadora de 15 cm de radio gira a 700 r.p.m. calcula la velocidad
a la que se des
-
prenden de su borde las gotas de agua.
Resultado: v =11,0 m/s
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9) Un aerogenerador cuyas aspas tienen 10 m de radio gira dando una
vuelta cada 3 segun
-
dos. Calcula:
a) Su velocidad angular. b) Su frecuencia
c) La velocidad lineal del borde del aspa. c) La aceleración centrípeta en el
centro del aspa.
R
esultado: ω = 2
π/3
rad/s ; f= Hz ; v = 20,9 m/s ; a

c
= 87,4 m/s
2
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10) Un ventilador de 20 cm de diámetro gira a 120 r.p.m. Calcula:
a) Su velocidad angular en unidades S.I.
b) La aceleración centrípeta en el borde externo del aspa.
R
esultado: ω = 4
π
rad/s ; a
c
= 15,8 m/s
2
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Movimiento circular uniformemente acelerado (m.c.u.a.)
21) Un CD-ROM de 6 cm de radio gira a una velocidad de 2500 rpm. Si tarda en
pararse 15 s, calcula:a El módulo de la aceleración angular.
Resultado:

= -5.55

rad/s
2
b) Las vueltas que da antes de detenerse.
Resultado:

= 625

rad = 312.5 vueltas
c)
El m
ó
dulo de la
velocidad angular para t=10 s
Resultado:

= 27.77

rad/s
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22) Un coche con unas ruedas de 30 cm de radio acelera desde 0 hasta
100 km/h en 5 s. Calcular:
a)
El m
ó
dulo de la
aceleración angular.
Resultado:

= 18.52 rad/s
2
b) Las vueltas que da en ese tiempo.
Resultado:

= 231.48 rad = 36.84 vueltas
c)
El m
ó
dulo de la
velocidad angular para t=3 s
Resultado:

= 55.56 rad/s
d)
El m
ó
dulo de la
aceleración tangencial
Resultado: a
T
= 5.55 m/s
2
e)
El m
ó
dulo de la
aceleración normal para t= 5 s
Resultado: a
N
= 2572 m/s
2
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23) Una centrifugadora pasa de estar detenida a girar a 450 r.p.m. en 15 s.
Si el radio del tambor es de 25
cm, calcular:
a)
El m
ó
dulo de la
aceleración angular.
Resultado:

=

rad/s
2
b) Las vueltas que da en ese tiempo.
Resultado:

= 112.5

rad = 56.25 vueltas
c)
El m
ó
dulo de la
velocidad angular para t=10 s
Resultado:

= 10

rad/s
d)
El m
ó
dulo de la
aceleración tangencial
Resultado: a
T
= 0.78 m/s
2
e)
El m
ó
dulo de la
aceleración normal para t=15 s
Resultado: a
N
= 555.2 m/s
2
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24)
Una centrifugadora esta girando a 1500 r.p.m., se desconecta y se detiene
en 10 s. Calcular
a) Su aceleración angular


Resultado:

=
-15.70
rad/s
2
b) Las vueltas que da hasta detenerse.
Resultado:

=125 vueltas
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25)
Un disco que está girando a 2 vueltas/s, frena y se detiene en 9 s. Calcular:
a) Su aceleración angular. R
esultado
:

=- 4
π/9
rad/s
2
b) Las vu
eltas que da hasta detenerse.
Resultado:

= 9 vueltas
c) La velocidad del borde del disco para t=2 s si el radio del disco es de 15
cm.
Resultado: v =1,46 m/s
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26)
Dejamos
caer
un
yo-yo
y
pasa
de
no
girar
a
hacerlo
a
3
vueltas
por
segundo
en
los
2
segundos
que
tarda
en
bajar.
Calcula:
a)
Su
aceleración
angular.
Resultado:

=3
π
rad/s
2
b)
Las
vueltas
que
dará
en
los
dos
segundos.
Resultado:

=
6
π
rad = 3 vueltas
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27) Un automóvil con ruedas de 30 cm de diámetro acelera de 0 a 30 m/s en
5 s. Calcula:
a) La aceleración angular de sus ruedas.
Resultado:

= 20 rad/s
2
b) La aceleración lineal del coche.
Resultado: a = 6 m/s
2
c) Las vueltas que da la rueda mientras acelera.
Resultado:

= 250 rad = 39,79 vueltas
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28) Un ventilador con aspas de 20 cm de radio arranca desde el reposo y
alcanza 300 rpm en 10 s.
Calcula:
a) Su aceleración angular.
Resultado:

=

rad/s
2
b) Las vueltas que da en esos 10 s.
Resultado:

= 50

rad = 25 vueltas
c) La velocidad del extremo del aspa cuando t= 8 s.
Resultado: v =5,0 m/s
29) Una centrifugadora de 15 cm de radio acelera de 0 a 700 r.p.m. en 12 s.
Calcula:
a) Su aceleración angular.
Resultado:

= 6,11 rad/s
2
b) Su velocidad angular cuando t = 8 s
Resultado:

= 48,9 rad/s
c) Las vueltas que da en los 12 s del arranque.
Resultado:

= 440 rad = 70,0 vueltas
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30) Un ventilador de techo, que tiene aspas de 1 m de radio, está inicialmente
detenido. Al encenderlo,
acelera durante 8 s hasta que gira a 120 r.p.m. Suponiendo que el
movimiento es uniformemente ace
-
lerado, calcula:
a)
Su aceleración angular.
Resultado:

=

/2 rad/s
2
b)
Las vueltas que da durante los 8 s en que gana velocidad de giro.
Resultado:

= 16

rad = 8 vueltas
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31) Un ventilador de 10 cm de radio que estaba detenido, arranca hasta girar
a 100 r.p.m. en 5 s.
Calcula:
a) Su aceleración angular, supuesta constante.
Resultado:

= 10

/3 rad/s
2
b) Su velocidad angular y lineal para t= 3 s
Resultado:

=2

/3 rad/s,
v =0,62 m/s
c) Las vueltas que da en los 5 s del arranque.
Resultado:

= 8,3

rad = 4,15 vueltas
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32) Un ventilador de 20 cm de radio que giraba a 600 r.p.m., se desconecta y
se detiene en 8 s.
Calcula:
a) La aceleración centrípeta en el borde de su aspa antes de empezar a
detenerse.
Resultado:
a
c
= 789 m/s
2
b) Su aceleración angular supuesta constante.
Resultado:

= -20

/8 rad/s
2
c) Su velocidad angular para t= 3s .
Resultado:

= 12,5

rad/s
d) Las vueltas que da hasta detenerse.
Resultado:

= 80

rad = 40 vueltas
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33) Un ventilador de techo, que tiene aspas de 1 m de radio, está inicialmente
girando a 180 r.p.m. Al
apagarlo, pierde velocidad durante 6 s hasta que se detiene. Suponiendo que
el movimiento es unifor
-
memente acelerado, calcula:
a) Su velocidad angular cuando t=2s.
b) Las vueltas que da durante los 2 primeros segundos desde que empieza a
detenerse.