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M. Soleymani

Sharif University of Technology

Fall 2017

Most slides have been adapted from Fei Fei Li lectures, cs231n, Stanford 2017

and some from Hinton lectures, “NN for Machine Learning” course, 2015.

Reasons to study neural computation

• Neuroscience: To understand how the brain actually works.

– Its very big and very complicated and made of stuff that dies when you poke

it around. So we need to use computer simulations.

inspired by the brain

– Learning algorithms can be very useful even if they are not how the brain

actually works.

A typical cortical neuron

• Gross physical structure:

– There is one axon that branches

– There is a dendritic tree that collects input from other neurons.

– A spike of activity in the axon causes charge to be

injected into the post-synaptic neuron.

• Spike generation:

– There is an axon hillock that generates outgoing spikes whenever enough charge

has flowed in at synapses to depolarize the cell membrane.

A mathematical model for biological neurons

𝑥1 𝑤1

𝑤1 𝑥1

𝑤2 𝑥2

𝑤3 𝑥3

How the brain works

• Each neuron receives inputs from other neurons

• The effect of each input line on the neuron is controlled by a synaptic weight

• The synaptic weights adapt so that the whole network learns to perform useful

computations

– Recognizing objects, understanding language, making plans, controlling the body.

• You have about 1011 neurons each with about 104 weights.

– A huge number of weights can affect the computation in a very short time. Much better

bandwidth than a workstation.

Be very careful with your brain analogies!

• Biological Neurons:

– Many different types

– Dendrites can perform complex non-linear computations

– Synapses are not a single weight but a complex non-linear dynamical system

– Rate code may not be adequate

[Dendritic Computation. London and Hausser]

Binary threshold neurons

• McCulloch-Pitts (1943): influenced Von Neumann.

– First compute a weighted sum of the inputs.

– send out a spike of activity if the weighted sum exceeds a threshold.

– McCulloch and Pitts thought that each spike is like the truth value of a

proposition and each neuron combines truth values to compute the truth

value of another proposition!

𝑓: Activation

𝑓 function

𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡1

𝑤1

𝑤2

𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡2

Σ 𝑓 𝑤𝑖 𝑥𝑖

𝑖

…

𝑤𝑑

𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡𝑑

McCulloch-Pitts neuron: binary threshold

• Neuron, unit, or processing element: 𝑦

binary McCulloch-Pitts neuron

𝑥1

𝑤1

𝑥2 𝑤2

𝑦

𝜃: activation threshold

…

𝑤𝑑

1, 𝑧≥𝜃

𝑥𝑑 𝑦=

0, 𝑧<𝜃

Equivalent to

1

𝑥1 𝑏 𝑦

𝑤1

𝑥2 𝑤2

𝑦

…

𝑤𝑑

𝑥𝑑 bias: 𝑏 = −𝜃

9

AND & OR networks

• For -1 and 1 inputs:

10

Sigmoid neurons

• These give a real-valued output that is a smooth and bounded

function of their total input.

– They have nice derivatives.

Rectified Linear Units (ReLU)

• They compute a linear weighted sum of their inputs.

• The output is a non-linear function of the total input.

Adjusting weights

• Types of single layer networks:

– Perceptron (Rosenblatt, 1962)

– ADALINE (Widrow and Hoff, 1960)

The standard Perceptron architecture

• Learn how to weight each of the

feature activations to get desirable

outputs.

decide that the input vector is a

positive example of the target class.

The perceptron convergence procedure

• Perceptron trains binary output neurons as classifiers

• Pick training cases (until convergence):

– If the output unit is correct, leave its weights alone.

– If the output unit incorrectly outputs a zero, add the input vector to it.

– If the output unit incorrectly outputs a 1, subtract the input vector from it.

• This is guaranteed to find a set of weights that gets the right answer

for all the training cases if any such set exists.

Adjusting weights

– Perceptron: If 𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛(𝒘𝑇 𝒙(𝑛) ) ≠ 𝑦 (𝑛) then ∆𝒘 = 𝒙(𝑛) 𝑦 (𝑛) else ∆𝒘 = 𝟎

• Widrow-Hoff, LMS, or delta rule 𝒘𝑡+1 = 𝒘𝑡 − 𝜂𝛻𝐸𝑛 𝒘𝑡

2

𝐸𝑛 𝒘 = 𝑦 (𝑛) − 𝒘𝑇 𝒙(𝑛)

16

How to learn the weights: multi class example

How to learn the weights: multi class example

• If correct: no change

• If wrong:

– lower score of the wrong answer (by removing the input from the weight

vector of the wrong answer)

– raise score of the target (by adding the input to the weight vector of the

target class)

How to learn the weights: multi class example

• If correct: no change

• If wrong:

– lower score of the wrong answer (by removing the input from the weight

vector of the wrong answer)

– raise score of the target (by adding the input to the weight vector of the

target class)

How to learn the weights: multi class example

• If correct: no change

• If wrong:

– lower score of the wrong answer (by removing the input from the weight

vector of the wrong answer)

– raise score of the target (by adding the input to the weight vector of the

target class)

How to learn the weights: multi class example

• If correct: no change

• If wrong:

– lower score of the wrong answer (by removing the input from the weight

vector of the wrong answer)

– raise score of the target (by adding the input to the weight vector of the

target class)

How to learn the weights: multi class example

• If correct: no change

• If wrong:

– lower score of the wrong answer (by removing the input from the weight

vector of the wrong answer)

– raise score of the target (by adding the input to the weight vector of the

target class)

How to learn the weights: multi class example

• If correct: no change

• If wrong:

– lower score of the wrong answer (by removing the input from the weight

vector of the wrong answer)

– raise score of the target (by adding the input to the weight vector of the

target class)

Single layer networks as template matching

• Weights for each class as a template (or sometimes also called a

prototype) for that class.

– The winner is the most similar template.

• The ways in which hand-written digits vary are much too complicated

to be captured by simple template matches of whole shapes.

features that it is composed of.

The history of perceptrons

• They were popularised by Frank Rosenblatt in the early 1960’s.

– They appeared to have a very powerful learning algorithm.

– Lots of grand claims were made for what they could learn to do.

that analyzed what they could do and showed their limitations.

– Many people thought these limitations applied to all neural network models.

What binary threshold neurons cannot do

• A binary threshold output unit cannot even tell if two single bit

features are the same!

• A geometric view of what binary threshold neurons cannot do

• The positive and negative cases cannot be separated by a plane

What binary threshold neurons cannot do

• Positive cases (same): (1,1)->1; (0,0)->1

• Negative cases (different): (1,0)->0; (0,1)->0

• The four input-output pairs give four inequalities that are impossible

to satisfy:

– w1 +w2 ≥θ

– 0 ≥θ

– w1 <θ

– w2 <θ

Discriminating simple patterns

under translation with wrap-around

• Suppose we just use pixels as the

features.

discriminate patterns with the same

number of on pixels

– if the patterns can translate with wrap-

around!

Sketch of a proof

• For pattern A, use training cases in all possible translations.

– Each pixel will be activated by 4 different translations of pattern A.

– So the total input received by the decision unit over all these patterns will be four

times the sum of all the weights.

• For pattern B, use training cases in all possible translations.

– Each pixel will be activated by 4 different translations of pattern B.

– So the total input received by the decision unit over all these patterns will be four

times the sum of all the weights.

• But to discriminate correctly, every single case of pattern A must provide

more input to the decision unit than every single case of pattern B.

• This is impossible if the sums over cases are the same.

Networks with hidden units

• Networks without hidden units are very limited in the input-output

mappings they can learn to model.

– More layers of linear units do not help. Its still linear.

– Fixed output non-linearities are not enough.

how can we train such nets?

Feed-forward neural networks

• Also called Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP)

General approximator

• If the decision boundary is smooth, then a 3-layer network (i.e. 2

hidden layer) can come arbitrarily close to the target classifier

32

MLP with Different Number of Layers

MLP with unit step activation function

Single Layer Half space Region found by a

(no hidden layer) hyper-plane

(one hidden layer) closed) region spaces

(two hidden layers)

33

Beyond linear models

Beyond linear models

MLP with single hidden layer

• Two-layer MLP (Number of layers of adaptive weights is counted)

𝑀 𝑀 𝑑

[2] [2] [1]

𝑜𝑘 𝒙 = 𝜓 𝑤𝑗𝑘 𝑧𝑗 ⇒ 𝑜𝑘 𝒙 = 𝜓 𝑤𝑗𝑘 𝜙 𝑤𝑖𝑗 𝑥𝑖

𝑗=0 𝑗=0 𝑖=0

𝑧0 = 1 𝑧𝑗

[1] [2]

𝑤𝑖𝑗 𝑤𝑗𝑘

𝑧1

𝑥0 = 1 𝜙

𝜓 𝑜1

𝑥1

…

𝜙

…

𝜓 𝑜𝐾

𝑥𝑑

𝜙 𝑧

Input 𝑀 Output

𝑖 = 0, … , 𝑑 𝑗 = 1…𝑀

𝑗 = 1…𝑀 𝑘 = 1, … , 𝐾

36

learns to extract features

• MLP with one hidden layer is a generalized linear model:

𝑀 [2]

– 𝑜𝑘 (𝒙) = 𝜓 𝑗=1 𝑗𝑘 𝑓𝑗 (𝒙)

𝑤

𝑑 [1]

– 𝑓𝑗 𝒙 = 𝜙 𝑖=0 𝑗𝑖 𝑥𝑖

𝑤

– The form of the nonlinearity (basis functions 𝑓𝑗 ) is adapted from the training data

(not fixed in advance)

• 𝑓𝑗 is defined based on parameters which can be also adapted during training

hand-crafted features

37

Deep networks

• Deeper networks (with multiple hidden layers) can work better than a

single-hidden-layer networks is an empirical observation

– despite the fact that their representational power is equal.

nets, but going even deeper may not help much more.

– This is in stark contrast to Convolutional Networks

How to adjust weights for multi layer networks?

how can we train such nets?

– We need an efficient way of adapting all the weights, not just the last layer.

– Learning the weights going into hidden units is equivalent to learning

features.

– This is difficult because nobody is telling us directly what the hidden units

should do.

Gradient descent

• We want 𝛻𝑾 𝐿 𝑾

• Numerical gradient:

– slow :(

– approximate :(

– easy to write :)

• Analytic gradient:

– fast :)

– exact :)

– error-prone :(

• In practice: Derive analytic gradient, check your implementation with

numerical gradient

Training multi-layer networks

• Backpropagation

– Training algorithm that is used to adjust weights in multi-layer networks

(based on the training data)

– The backpropagation algorithm is based on gradient descent

– Use chain rule and dynamic programming to efficiently compute gradients

42

Computational graphs

Backpropagation: a simple example

Backpropagation: a simple example

Backpropagation: a simple example

Backpropagation: a simple example

Backpropagation: a simple example

Backpropagation: a simple example

Backpropagation: a simple example

How to propagate the gradients backward

How to propagate the gradients backward

Another example

Another example

Another example

Another example

Another example

Another example

Another example

Another example

Another example

Another example

Another example

Another example

Another example

Another example

x0: [2] x [0.2] = 0.4

w0: [-1] x [0.2] = -0.2

Derivative of sigmoid function

Derivative of sigmoid function

Patterns in backward flow

• add gate: gradient distributor

• max gate: gradient router

Gradients add at branches

Simple chain rule

•𝑧=𝑓 𝑔 𝑥

• 𝑦 = 𝑔(𝑥)

Multiple paths chain rule

Modularized implementation: forward / backward API

Modularized implementation: forward / backward API

Modularized implementation: forward / backward API

Caffe Layers

Caffe sigmoid layer

Output as a composite function

[𝐿]

𝑎

𝑎[𝐿] = 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡

𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 = 𝑎[𝐿] 𝑓 𝑧

[𝐿]

= 𝑓 𝑧 [𝐿] × 𝑎

[𝐿−1]

= 𝑓 𝑊 [𝐿] 𝑓(𝑊 [𝐿−1] 𝑎[𝐿−2] 𝑓 𝑧

[2]

[1]

𝑊 [2] 𝑓 𝑧

[1]

For convenience, we use the same activation functions for all layers. ×

𝑊 [1] 𝑥

However, output layer neurons most commonly do not need

activation function (they show class scores or real-valued targets.)

Backpropagation: Notation

• 𝒂[0] ← 𝐼𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡

• 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 ← 𝒂[𝐿]

𝑓(. )

𝑓(. )

𝑓(. )

𝑓(. )

79

Backpropagation: Last layer gradient

𝜕𝐸𝑛 𝜕𝐸𝑛 𝜕𝑎[𝐿]

[𝐿]

= [𝐿] [𝑙] [𝑙]

𝜕𝑊𝑖𝑗 𝜕𝑎 𝜕𝑊 [𝐿] 𝑎𝑖 = 𝑓 𝑧𝑖

𝑖𝑗 𝑀

[𝑙] [𝑙] [𝑙−1]

𝑧𝑗 = 𝑤𝑖𝑗 𝑎𝑖

For squared error loss:

2 𝜕𝐸 [𝐿] )

𝑗=0

𝐸𝑛 = 𝑎

[𝐿]

−𝑦

𝑛

= 2(𝑦 − 𝑎

𝜕𝑎[𝐿] 𝑎𝑗

[𝑙]

[𝐿] 𝑓

𝜕𝑎 [𝐿]

[𝐿]

𝜕𝑧𝑗 [𝑙]

′ 𝑧𝑗

[𝐿]

= 𝑓 𝑧𝑗 [𝐿]

𝜕𝑊𝑖𝑗 𝜕𝑊𝑖𝑗

[𝑙]

′ [𝐿] [𝐿−1] 𝑤𝑖𝑗

= 𝑓 𝑧𝑗 𝑎𝑖

[𝑙−1]

𝑎𝑖

Backpropagation:

[𝑙]

𝜕𝐸𝑛 𝜕𝐸𝑛 𝜕𝑎𝑗 [𝑙]

𝑎𝑖 = 𝑓 𝑧𝑖

[𝑙]

[𝑙]

= [𝑙]

× [𝑙] 𝑀

𝜕𝑤𝑖𝑗 𝜕𝑎𝑗 𝜕𝑤𝑖𝑗 [𝑙]

𝑧𝑗 = 𝑤𝑖𝑗 𝑎𝑖

[𝑙] [𝑙−1]

𝑗=0

[𝑙] [𝑙−1] [𝑙]

= 𝛿𝑗 × 𝑎𝑖 × 𝑓′ 𝑧𝑖 𝑎𝑗

[𝑙]

𝑓

[𝑙] 𝜕𝐸𝑛 [𝑙]

𝛿𝑗 = [𝑙] is the sensitivity of the output to 𝑎𝑗 𝑧𝑗

[𝑙]

𝜕𝑎𝑗

𝑤𝑖𝑗

backward process in the network architecture (hence

the name backpropagation.)

[𝑙−1]

𝑎𝑖

81

[𝑙−1] [𝑙] [𝑙]

𝛿𝑖 from 𝛿𝑖 𝑓

𝑎𝑗

[𝑙]

𝑧𝑗

[𝑙−1] [𝑙−1]

[𝑙−1] [𝑙] 𝑎𝑖 = 𝑓 𝑧𝑖

We will compute 𝜹 from 𝜹 : 𝑀

[𝑙−1] 𝜕𝐸𝑛 [𝑙] [𝑙] [𝑙−1] [𝑙]

𝛿𝑖 = [𝑙−1] 𝑧𝑗 = 𝑤𝑖𝑗 𝑎𝑖 𝑤𝑖𝑗

𝜕𝑎𝑖 𝑗=0

𝑑 [𝑙] [𝑙] [𝑙]

𝜕𝐸𝑛 𝜕𝑎𝑗 𝜕𝑧 𝑗

[𝑙−1]

𝑎𝑖

= [𝑙]

× [𝑙]

× [𝑙−1]

𝑗=1 𝜕𝑎𝑗 𝜕𝑧𝑗 𝜕𝑎 𝑖

𝑑 [𝑙]

𝜕𝐸𝑛 ′ 𝑧 [𝑙] [𝑙] [𝑙]

= [𝑙]

× 𝑓 𝑖 × 𝑤𝑖𝑗 𝑎𝑗

𝑗=1 𝜕𝑎𝑗

𝑑 [𝑙] [𝑙]

𝛿𝑗

[𝑙] [𝑙] [𝑙]

= 𝛿𝑗 × 𝑓 ′ 𝑧𝑖 × 𝑤𝑖𝑗 [𝑙]

𝑤𝑖𝑗

𝑗=1

𝑑 [𝑙]

[𝑙−1]

[𝑙] [𝑙] [𝑙] 𝑎𝑖

= 𝑓′ 𝑧𝑖 × 𝛿𝑗 × 𝑤𝑖𝑗 [𝑙−1]

𝑓 ′ 𝑧𝑖

𝑗=1

[𝑙−1]

𝛿𝑗 82

[𝐿]

Find and save 𝜹

[𝐿] 𝜕𝐸𝑛

𝛿𝑗 = [𝐿]

𝜕𝑎𝑗

83

Backpropagation of Errors

[𝐿] 2

𝑛

𝐸𝑛 = 𝑎𝑗 − 𝑦𝑗

𝑗

[2] [2] [2] [2] [2]

𝛿1 𝛿2 𝛿3 𝛿𝑗 𝛿𝐾

[2] [2] (𝑛) [2]

𝛿𝑗 = 2 𝑎𝑗 − 𝑦𝑗 𝑓 ′ 𝑧𝑗

[2]

𝑤𝑖𝑗

[1]

𝛿𝑖 𝑑[2]

[1] [1] [2] [2]

𝛿𝑖 = 𝑓 ′ 𝑧𝑖 × 𝛿𝑗 × 𝑤𝑖𝑗

𝑗=1

84

Gradients for vectorized code

Vectorized operations

Vectorized operations

Vectorized operations

Vectorized operations

Vectorized operations

Always check: The gradient with

respect to a variable should have

the same shape as the Variable

SVM example

Summary

• Neural nets may be very large: impractical to write down gradient formula by

hand for all parameters

graph to compute the gradients of all inputs/parameters/intermediates

forward() / backward() API

– forward: compute result of an operation and save any intermediates needed for gradient

computation in memory

– backward: apply the chain rule to compute the gradient of the loss function with respect to

the inputs

Converting error derivatives into a learning procedure

error derivative dE/dw for every weight on a single training case.

of other decisions about how to use these error derivatives:

– Optimization issues: How do we use the error derivatives on individual cases

to discover a good set of weights?

– Generalization issues: How do we ensure that the learned weights work well

for cases we did not see during training?

Optimization issues in using the weight derivatives

• How often to update the weights

– Batch size

• How much to update

– Use a fixed learning rate?

– Adapt the global learning rate?

– Adapt the learning rate on each connection separately?

– Don’t use steepest descent?

•…

Overfitting: The downside of using powerful models

– It is not surprising that a complicated model can fit a small amount of data

well.

Ways to reduce overfitting

• A large number of different methods have been developed.

– Weight-decay

– Weight-sharing

– Early stopping

– Model averaging

– Dropout

– Generative pre-training

Resources

• Deep Learning Book, Chapter 6.

• Please see the following note:

– http://cs231n.github.io/optimization-2/

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