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A Dual Linear Motor Servo System for Injection Molding

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中華民國九十七年十一月八日 論文編號：A09-37

1 2 1

M. F. Hsieh , W. S. Yao and S. H. Wang

1

Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronic Engineering

2

Department of Mechanical Engineering

National Cheng Kung University

This paper presents a system identification modeling of such a coupled system is critical for good

technique and control scheme for dual parallel linear control performance.

motors applied to the injector of injection molding With the mechanical coupling (Fig. 1), common

machines. The dual motors are mechanically coupled to control schemes for multiple feed drive axes may be

provide a joint thrust that is approximately twice of that inappropriate since they are achieved by decoupling the

of a single motor for injection in order to reduce the commands to each of the feed drives. This relies on an

demand for large thrust linear motors. The proposed assumption that each feed drive will accurately track the

synchronous control scheme is designed to satisfy an command inputs [2]. Also, the effect of the mechanical

injection cycle involving a number of mode switchings coupling is not considered. Master-slave control is a

(e.g., velocity-to-force control for filling-to-packing). In potential solution [3]. Lorenz and Schmidt [4] classify

the control scheme, a synchronous controller is the synchronous control techniques into three categories.

designed to reduce the synchronization error between However, the configurations with mechanical coupling

the dual motors. A disturbance observer is also have not been discussed despite the compensation is

developed to estimate the mold cavity pressure, based considered for errors occurring between the master and

on which, the filling-to-packing switchover control can slave motors to achieve synchronization. FANUC Ltd.

be performed. Experimental studies conducted on an propose the “tandem control” [5] technique for jointly

injection load simulator validate the effectiveness and driving a single axis of motion with two motors.

feasibility of the proposed system. SIEMENS [6] develop a master-slave control technique

based on speed/torque coupling. Hsieh et al. [2] present

Keywords: Linear motor, Synchronous control,

a position/thrust hybrid synchronous control that has

Injection molding, Filling-to-packing, Observer

been successfully applied to electric discharge machine

1. Introduction (EDM) tools with a pair of parallel linear motors.

In recent years, due to the surging environment For modeling of such a coupled system, the effect of

protection sense and development of high-tech industry, the mechanical coupling should be taken into account

low-pollution and high-precision electric injection when performing system identification. Hsieh et al [2]

molding machines have become the main stream of the present a modeling technique for synchronous control

industry. However, most of these machines employ of two mechanically coupled linear motors. Differing

rotary servo motors with ball screws as the injectors. from the method in [2], a new modeling technique is

Their features of low velocity and acceleration are the developed to determine the system model in this paper.

major drawbacks for manufacture of high-precision, For control of electric injection molding, some

micro or thin plastic products, which require high-speed literatures [1,7-8] can be found, where linear motors are

operation to ensure quality. Linear motors, with their applied for injectors. However, only a single motor is

high-speed and high-precision nature, are recognized as used to drive the injectors for low duty operation.

a suitable option for such an application [1]. The synchronous control developed is based on

This paper applies linear motors to the injector of master-slave control for injection, which involves

injection molding machines. Despite the advantages of switching of different control modes (i.e., velocity,

high speed, high accuracy and direct drive, thrust thrust and position). To reduce the synchronization

insufficiency would be the major concern to operation error between the motors, a synchronous controller is

of injection for linear motors. Hence, two linear motors added to the synchronous control system. Moreover, for

are constructed in parallel to provide a joint thrust for filling-to-packing switchover, the mold cavity pressure

injection and to reduce the demand for single large is estimated with a disturbance observer. Since this

thrust linear motors. As shown in Fig. 1, this paper focuses on feasibility evaluation for the proposed

configuration requires a strong mechanical coupling system and control applied to injection molding, a load

that bridges the two motors, via which a joint thrust can simulator is used to act as the load condition in the

be produced. However, this implies that the control of injection cycle so that the system performance can be

synchronization between the two motors becomes the experimentally evaluated. The experiments are

key technique under condition of high speed and high conducted with a digital signal processor.

acceleration. A synchronous control scheme is thus

2008 第六屆全國精密製造研討會論文集 崑山科技大學 台南、永康

中華民國九十七年十一月八日 論文編號：A09-37

It is noted that nonlinear property is not considered From (9)-(12) and Fig. 4, the following relationships

here. For clarification, the term “synchronization error” can be obtained:

is herein defined as the position or velocity differences 1 + G2* G1*

between the dual parallel linear motors. v1 = u1G1 + u G (13)

1 + G1* + G2* 1 + G1* + G2*

2 2

2.1 Modeling v2 = u1G1 + u 2 G2 (14)

As shown in Fig. 1, the mechanical coupling 1 + G1 + G2

* *

1 + G1* + G2*

strongly links the dual motors. For this configuration, To determine the parameters of the model, a unique

the master-slave control can be applied, where the slave identification process is proposed. By in-turn applying

motor is compliant to the master, and the position errors u1=0 and u2=0, a series of equations can be obtained and

between them can be reduced by proper compensation. solved to acquire the transfer functions, as those given

This compliance can also prevent the system from in the following:

potential hazards compared to the case where position 2787.79

G1 = (15)

control is applied to both motors. s + 5.96

It is assumed that the condition of pulling and 3098.04

dragging due to the mechanical coupling is shown in G2 = (16)

Fig. 2. The net thrust for individual motors (motor 1 and s + 4.90

motor 2) can be respectively expressed as: 210.54s + 601852.31

G1∗ = (17)

Fˆ1 = F1 + Fcoupling1 (1) s 2 + 5.96s

211.88s + 681724.68

Fˆ2 = F2 + Fcoupling 2 (2) G2∗ = (18)

s 2 + 4.90s

where F1/F2 are the thrust produced by individual

motors, and Fcoupling1/Fcoupling2 are the force acting on the 2.2 System model verification

motors due to the mechanical coupling. The For verification of the constructed mathematic

synchronization errors of position and velocity can be model, as shown in Fig. 5, a swept-sine force command

respectively defined as: is sequentially fed to motor 1 and motor 2. The same

∆x = x2 − x1 (3) command is then simultaneously given to both motors.

∆v = v2 − v1 (4) The responses for the above tests are all compared with

the simulations with MATLAB program, as the results

where x1/x2 are the positions of individual motors, and presented in Figs. 6 to 8. It can be seen that the

v1/v2 are the velocities. From (3), (4) and Fig. 2, experiments and simulations agree well. This verifies

Fcoupling1/Fcoupling2 can be defined as: the accuracy of the obtained mathematic model and the

Fcoupling1 = k1∆x + c1∆v (5) feasibility of the system identification method.

Fcoupling 2 = −(k 2 ∆x + c2 ∆v) (6) 3. Synchronous control design

where k1/k2 are the equivalent spring constants on the The control scheme for the investigated system is

two sides of the coupling, and c1/c2 are the equivalent shown in Fig. 9, including velocity control for filling,

damping coefficients. Therefore, the net thrust on each filling-to-packing switchover, force control for

motor becomes packing/holding/cooling, and position control for

Fˆ1 = F1 + (k1∆x + c1∆v) (7) returning to the origin. Thus, the master motor (motor 1)

is required to satisfy the above control functions while

Fˆ = F − (k ∆x +c ∆v)

2 2 2 2 (8) the slave motor (motor 2) is to provide equivalent

From the above analysis, the complete model for the accessory thrust. In order to achieve better

coupled dual motor system can be constructed as the synchronization, the output response of the slave motor

block diagram shown in Fig. 3, where u1 and u2 are the can be regulated by tuning the force command regulator

force commands to the individual motors, Kt1 and Kt2 Kc. In addition, a disturbance observer is designed to

are the force constants of the linear motors. The model estimate the reaction force on the injector from the

in Fig. 3 can be further simplified as that shown in Fig. cavity for the injection cycle. This is used as the basis

4 by defining the following parameters: K1=Kt1/m1, for filling-to-packing switchover control from velocity

K2=Kt2/m2, p1=B1/m1, p2=B2/m2, a=c1/m1, b=k1/m1, to force control mode.

c=c2/m2 and d=k2/m2. Thus, the transfer functions for the 3.1 Control loop design

model in Fig. 4 can be given as: For the above-mentioned control loop design, as

K1 shown in Fig. 9, the PDFF control [9] is adopted in the

G1 = (9)

s + p1 velocity loop, where the proportional controller Kpv, the

integration controller Kiv, and the feedforward controller

K2

G2 = (10) Kfv are properly designed to meet the performance

s + p2 requirement. The position proportional controller Kpp

as + b and the velocity feed forward controller Kfp are

G1* = (11) designed for the external position loop. It is noted that

s 2 + p1 s

the detail for the control loop design is not provided

cs + d here due to the paper space limit. The designed results

G2* = (12)

s 2 + p2 s are: Kpv=0.15, Kiv=211.6, Kfv=0.8, Kpp=36 and Kfp=0.93.

2008 第六屆全國精密製造研討會論文集 崑山科技大學 台南、永康

中華民國九十七年十一月八日 論文編號：A09-37

3.2 Design of synchronous controller typical pressure curve in the mold cavity shown in Fig.

To prevent the damage caused by the asynchronous 12. Therefore, this load simulator can be used for

motion of the two motors, a synchronous controller injection control experiments. The spring constants for

containing a velocity controller Kv_syn and a the spring and damper are KSpring=0.8468 N/mm and

synchronous position controller Kx_syn is employed. The KDamper=3.45 N/mm, respectively. The damping

output of the synchronous controller is expressed as: constant of the damper is CDamper=4.46 N/m/s.

usyn = K x _ syn ∆ x + K v _ syn ∆v (19) The specification of the linear motors is given in

The controller enables the force command to be Table 1, and the experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1.

dynamically tuned according to the synchronization The origin is defined as the initial position to each

errors of both velocity and position to reduce the risk on injection process so that the injector operates on the

damage of the system. The designed controller negative side to the origin. During the entire injection

Kx_syn=99.73 and Kv_syn=0.06. process, there are a number of control switchovers

based on position of the injector. Three velocity control

3.3 Force command regulator phases are arranged in the filling stage, and force

As shown in Fig. 9, ideally, the following equation control is employed in the packing/holding/cooling

should be satisfied to achieve an identical output stage. The filling-to-packing switchover is based on the

response of the two motors (in order to improve the estimation of the designed observer. On completion of

synchronization ability): cooling, the motor will be switched to position control

u2G2 = u1G1 (20) for returning to initial position for next injection cycle.

Thus, It is noted that control for melting material and feeding

K2 K1 into the barrel through a hopper is not the target of this

K c u1 = u1 (21) study, and the position control here is only for the

s + p2 s + p1

injector returning to the initial position.

K1 s + p2

Kc = (22) The entire stroke is 120 mm (0 mm to -120 mm).

K 2 s + p1 The velocity is arranged to be -300mm/s for the position

From (22), the controller can be tuned based on the of 0 mm to -20mm, -900mm/s for -20 mm to -80mm,

characteristics of the two motors. and -600mm/s for beyond -80 mm. As shown in Fig. 14,

the red dotted line is the command and the blue solid

3.4 Design of Observer

line is the output response of motor 1. The velocities

The disturbance observer combines the low

required for filling are successfully achieved (before

acceleration estimator (LAE) and the Luenberger

0.23 s). The motor is then switched to force control

observer [10], as shown in Fig. 10. The closed-loop

based on the observed load force that represents the

transfer function for the LAE part is compared to a

prescribed cavity pressure. In this condition, the

standard second order system, thus:

observed load force dramatically rises due to the contact

ωn

2

K o1

= (23) with the damper and the spring, as shown in Fig. 15.

s 2 + K o 2 s + K1o s 2 + 2ζω n s + ω n

2

The durations for packing/holding and cooling are set to

Thus, be 1 s and 0.5 s, respectively. The injectors are then

moved back to the initial position by position control, as

K o1 = ω n

2

K o 2 = 2ζω n complete an injection cycle. The estimated load curve in

The parameters of the LAE can be obtained after Fig. 15 is similar to the typical mold cavity pressure

determining the damping ratio and the close-loop curve (Fig. 12), which again verifies the effectiveness

bandwidth (Ko1=8882.6, Ko2=133.3). A test is conducted of the load simulator and the observer.

to verify the designed observer. As shown in Fig. 11, The synchronization error of position between the

the comparison between the observer and the two linear motors is shown in Fig. 16, where the results

measurement verifies the performance of the observer. with and without the synchronous controller are

Finally, a decision maker is designed for control compared. As can be seen, the maximum

mode switching during the injection process. synchronization error is reduced by 86%, from -10~70

μm to -7.5~10μm with the synchronous controller,

4. Experimental Studies

whose effectiveness is thus verified.

The typical pressure curve in a mold cavity is shown

in Fig. 12. To generate such a load behavior, a load 5. Conclusion

simulator containing a two-phase spring and a damper The application of dual linear motors and their

is adopted, as shown in Fig. 1. The load condition for synchronous control to electric injection molding

filling can be realized when the dual motor unit makes a machine has been successfully implemented in this

contact with the spring solely (i.e., spring constant 1) paper. A system identification method was proposed for

while that for packing through holding/cooling is modeling the two mechanically coupled parallel motors

performed after contacting the damper (i.e., spring and verified to be accurate by experiment. A load

constant 2, combining the spring constants of the spring simulator consisting of a set of springs and a damper

and damper). The damper also provides a resistant force was used to realize the load condition of the injection

with respect to the speed of the injector. By the process. A disturbance observer was designed to

measured spring constants and damping, the load curve estimate the thrust of the injector through an injection

can be presented in Fig.13, which is similar to the

2008 第六屆全國精密製造研討會論文集 崑山科技大學 台南、永康

中華民國九十七年十一月八日 論文編號：A09-37

filling-to-packing switchover control. For precisely

controlling the injector, a synchronous control scheme

with a force command regulator and a synchronous

controller was designed. The experimental results have

demonstrated the performance and presented the

feasibility of the proposed control system applied to

electric injection molding machines. Consequently, the

demand for large thrust linear motors can be reduced

when applying the proposed system to practical F̂1

machines.

6. References Fig. 2 Model of the mechanical coupling

1. Y. B. Bang and S. Ito, “Linear motor drive u2 F2 1 v2

Kt2

ultrahigh-speed injection moulding machine”, +- m2 s + B2

Proceedings of the I MECH E Part B Journal of

Engineering Manufacture, vol. 216, no. 5, pp. 773-781, c2s+k2

2002 1 +

Wu, ”Servo design of a vertical axis drive using dual c1s+k1

linear motors for high speed electric discharge

machining”, International Journal of Machine Tools and u1 F1 + 1 v1

Manufacture, vol. 47, no. 3-4, pp. 546-554, 2007 Kt1

+ m1 s + B1

3. P. Sarachik, J. R. Ragazzini, “A 2-dimensional Fig. 3 Block diagram for the coupled dual motor system

feedback control system,” Transaction of the AIEE vol.

K2

76(2), pp. 55-61, 1957 s + p2

4. R. D. Lorenz and P. B. Schmidt, “Synchronized G2 cs + d

motion control for process automation”, Proceedings of s 2 + p2 s

G2*

the 1989 IEEE Industry Applications Annual

5. FANUC, Parameter manual of a-series AC servo

as + b

motor, FANUC, 1994 G*

s 2 + p1 s 1

6. SIEMENS, 840D/FM-NC Description of functions,

special functions (Part 3), SIEMENS, 1999 K1

s + p1

7. Y. B. Bang and K. M. Lee, “Large thrust linear

G1

motors for low-duty-cycle operation”, Mechatronics,

Fig. 4 Simplified diagram for the coupled system

vol. 14, pp. 891-906, 2004

8. Y. B. Bang and K. M. Lee, “Linear motor for ejector

mechanism,” International Journal of Advanced

Manufacturing Technology, vol. 24, pp. 582-589, 2004

9. G. Ellis, “PDFF: An evaluation of a velocity loop

control method”, PCIM-Europe, 1999.

10. K. S. Wu, Design and realization of differential and

power-assisted control for power chairs, Master Thesis,

National Cheng Kung University, 2005.

7. Chart arrangement Fig. 5 Process for verification of system model

Fig. 1 Investigated system with load simulator Fig. 6 Response for command fed to motor 1

2008 第六屆全國精密製造研討會論文集 崑山科技大學 台南、永康

中華民國九十七年十一月八日 論文編號：A09-37

Fig. 7 Response for command fed to motor 2 Fig. 8 Response for command fed to both motors

1

s

1

s

F̂d

1

s

v̂1

1

s

TMotor

TˆDisturbance

1

Ĵ Ĵ

θ α̂ 1 ω̂ 1 θˆ

Ko1

s s

Ko2

Time (sec)

2008 第六屆全國精密製造研討會論文集 崑山科技大學 台南、永康

中華民國九十七年十一月八日

CAVITY PRESSURE 論文編號：A09-37

Fig. 16 Synchronous error with and without

synchronous controller

Num. Unit

Continuous Stall Force 80 N

Peak Force 240 N

Stall Current Continuous 3.6 Amp.

Peak Current 10.8 Amp

Voltage Constant 25.6 Volts/m/s

Force Constant 22.17 N/Amp Peak

雙線型馬達伺服系統於射出成型機

Fig. 13 The load curve of load simulator

之應用

1 2 3

謝旻甫 、姚武松 、王盛篁

1

國立成功大學系統及船舶機電系副教授

2

國立成功大學機械系博士後研究

3

國立成功大學系統及船舶機電系研究生

摘要

本文主要目的在於應用一雙平行線型馬達系統

於射出成型機之射出單元，針對其發展一系統鑑別方

法以及同動控制技術。該雙平行馬達以一耦合機構使

Fig. 14 Motor 1 output response in an injection cycle 兩者得以共同出力，做為射出所需之力。因此，可比

單線型馬達多出約一倍之射出力，亦可降低對於大推

力馬達之需求。本文所發展之同動控制架構可滿足射

出過程中之多段控制切換，例如從充填到保壓過程須

由速度控制切換為力量控制。在本控制架構使用一同

Load force (N)

動控制器以降低雙馬達之間之同動誤差，另有一外擾

估測器用以估測模穴壓力，作為充填切換為保壓之依

據。在實驗驗證中，本文以一負載模擬器來實現模穴

在射出過程中之壓力變化情形，並經實驗驗證其可行

性。藉由實驗結果可驗證本控制架構以及雙馬達伺服

系統應用於射出成型機之可行性。

Fig. 15 The observed load curve for an injection cycle 關鍵字 : 線型馬達，同動控制，射出成型，保壓切

換，估測器

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