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Journal ofSound and Vibration (1985) 98(2), 157-170

STABILITY AND VIBRATION OF ISOTROPIC, ORTHOTROPIC


AND LAMINATED PLATES ACCORDING TO A
HIGHER-ORDER SHEAR DEFORMATION THEORY

J. N. REDDY AND N. D. PHAN

Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, U.S.A.

(Received 4 October 1983)

A higher-order shear deformation theory is used to determine the natural frequencies


and buckling loads of elastic plates. The theory accounts for parabolic distribution of the
transverse shear strains through the thickness of the plate and rotary inertia. Exact solutions
of simply supported plates are obtained and the results are compared with the exact
solutions of three-dimensional elasticity theory, the first-order shear deformation theory,
and the classical plate theory. The present theory predicts the frequencies and buckling
loads more accurately when compared to the first-order and classical plate theories.

1. INTRODUCTION
It is well-known from experimental observations that the Poisson-Kirchhoff theory of
plates underpredicts deflections and overpredicts natural frequencies and buckling loads.
These results are due to the neglect of transverse shear strains in the classical plate theory.
Refined plate theories, mainly due to Levy [l], Reissner [2,3], Hencky [4], Mindlin
[5], and Kromm [6] are improvements of the classical plate theory in that they include
the effect of transverse shear deformation. The Levy-Hencky-Mindlin theories, in which
the displacements are expanded in powers of the thickness of the plate (see also the
papers by Nelson and Larch [7], and Lo, Christensen and Wu [8]), do not satisfy the
stress-free boundary conditions on the surfaces of the plate and require arbitrary shear
corrections. Kromm [6] (also see the book by Pant [9]) presented a refined theory that
accounts for the stress-free conditions but neglects rotations of middle surface due to
shear. Levinson [lo] presented a theory, which is essentially an extension of Hencky’s
theory, that accounts for the stress-free boundary conditions. However, Levinson [IO]
neglected the higher-order effects in the governing equations by using the equilibrium
equations of the classical plate theory. Whenever a new theory based on assumed
displacements is developed, the governing equilibrium equations should be derived by
using the principle of virtual displacements. Recently, the senior author presented a
variationally consistent higher-order theory [ 11, 121. The theory constitutes an extension
of Hencky’s theory in that a parabolic distribution of transverse shear stresses through
the plate thickness is accounted for and stress-free boundary conditions are satisfied. The
present paper deals with the exact solutions of the theory as applied to the free vibration
and buckling of isotropic, orthotropic and laminated rectangular plates with simply
supported edge conditions.

2. THEORY
Consider a rectangular plate of plan-form dimensions a and b and thickness h. The
co-ordinate system is taken such that the x-y plane coincides with the midplane of the
157
0022-460X/85/020157+ 14 $03.00/O 0 1985 Academic Press Inc. (London) Limited
158 J. N. REDDY AND N. D. PHAN

plate, and the origin of the co-ordinate system is taken at the lower left corner of the
plate. The plate is, in general, composed of uniform thickness layers of orthotropic
material.
Following the developments presented in reference [ 11, 121,the following displacement
field is chosen, which satisfies the stress-free boundary conditions, and gives parabolic
distribution of transverse shear strains through the plate thickness:

+dwlax)l,
n, = n + Z[GX-WN2(,L
uz= v+z[~~--(Z/h)‘(~~++w/c?y)], u3= w. (1)
The strains associated with the small-displacement theory of elasticity, Ed= i( Uij + Uj,i),
become
E, = E,, = &;+Z(K~+z%:), &2’& 22= &;+ z( K;+ Z2KZ),
&I= &33= 07 Ed- 2.523= &:+ Z’K:,

&5’2& ,3 = &;+ Z’K:, E6=2E12= E:+Z(K:+Z’K;), (2)


Ey = &I/ax, K’: = a&/ax, KY = -(4/3h2)(a~~/aX+a2W/aX2),

E(: = av/aY, K(:= aC%/aY, Ki = -(4/3h2)(a~_~/aY+a2W/aY2),

4 = +? + aWhY, K:=-(4/h2)(~,+aW/~Y),

E: = tjx + awlax, K:=-(4/h2)(~~+aW/aX),

Ez = aU/dY +dV/dX, K: = awaY +a+y/ax,


Ki= -(4/3h*)(a&/aY+a&,G;/ax+2 a2w/ax aY). (3)
It is interesting to note that the new strain components (underlined) contain higher-order
derivatives of the transverse deflection.
The constitutive equations of an orthotropic layer, in material-symmetry axes, are given
by

where QC are the plane-stress reduced elastic constants (because E, = 0, and consequently
a, does not enter the theory) in the material axes of the plate:

91, = JW(1 - v,2v2,), Q12 = V,2E2/(1 - h2V2,). Q22 = E,l(l - ~,2~2,),

Qu = G23, QSS= Gnr Qa = G,2. (5)

The equations of motion of the present theory were derived by Reddy [l l] using
Hamilton’s principle (see reference [ 121). They are repeated here for convenience:
- ..
all: aN,lax+aN,/ay=I,ii+12+X-(4/3h2)I,ati3/ax,
- ..
sv: aN,/ax+aN,/ay= I,ii+ I,&-(4/3h2)I,ati/ay,
6w: aQ,/ax+aQ2/ay+(a/ax)b, aw/ax)+(a/ay)(n,aw/ay)
+q-(4/h2)(~R,/ax+aR2/ay)+(4/3h2)(a2P,/ax2+2a2P,/axay+a2P2/ay2)
= I,ti-(4/3h2)21,(a2ti/a~2+a2ti/aY2)
+(4/3h2)I,(a;i/ax+ai;/aY)+(4/3hz)~~(a~~/ax+a~~/aY),
STABILITY AND VIBRATION OF PLATES 159

WX: dM,/dx+dM,/ay- Q, +(4/h2)R, -(4/3h*)(aP,/ax+aP,/ay)

= i2ti+i&(4/3h2)i, al;;/ax,

V?: dM,/dx+aM,/dy-Q,+(4/hL)R2-(4/3h*)(dP,/ax+aP,/dy)

= I;i;+i&-(4/3h')i5
ati/ay, (6)
I,= Z2-(4/3h*)L,, I,= Z,-(4/3h*)I,, i,= Z,-(8/3h2)1,+(16/9h4)1,, (7)

the underlined terms being terms additional to those of the Hencky-Mindlin theory. The
stress resultants N,, M,, Pi, Qi and R, are defined by
h/2

(NY Mt, P,) = u,( 1, z, z3) dz (i= 1,2,6),


I -h/2

h/2 h/2

(Qz, R2) = ~4( 1, z’) dz, (91, RI) = ~4 1,~‘) ds (8)


I -h/Z --hi2

and the inertias Z, (i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7) by


h/2
(II, 12, 13, 14, 15317) =
I
-h/2
p( 1, z, z-?, z3, z4, z”) dz. (9)

In equation (6), n, and n2 denote the in-plane loads perpendicular to the edges x = 0 and
y = 0, respectively. For free vibration, one sets n, = n, = 0, and for buckling analysis one
sets all inertias to zero.
The resultants defined in equation (8) can be related to the total strains in equation
(2) by t1
he following equations:

-[ sy;;.
2 2][sy;m,
QI
= ; (104
[ symm.

symmetric

(lob)

where Ai,, B,, etc., are the plate stiffnesses, defined by


l-h/*
(A,, B,vD,, E,, &I;,,ffLj)=
J a,u,z, z*,z3,z4,z6)dz (hj=
-h/2
1,2,6),
I- h/2

(A,, 4, 6,) =
J o,( 1, z’, z4) dz (Ci=4,5),
-h/2
(11)

where 0, are the transformed elastic constants.


160 J. N. REDDY AND N. D. PHAN

Figure 1. Geometry and the co-ordinate system of a rectangular plate of thickness h.

3. EXACT SOLUTIONS FOR SIMPLY SUPPORTED RECTANGULAR PLATES

The exact analytical solution of the partial differential equations in equation (6) for a
genera1 laminate plate under arbitrary boundary conditions is an impossible task. Here
the exact solutions of equations (6)-( 11) for simply supported rectangular plates are to
be considered. The following “simply supported” boundary conditions are assumed (see
Figure 1):

u(x, 0) = u(x, b) = ~(0,y) = ~(a, y) = 0


(cross-ply), (12a)
wx, 0) = Mx, b) = N,(O,Y) = N,(a, Y) =o
U(0, y) = u(a, y) = v(x, 0) = v(x, b) =o
(angle-ply), (12b)
N,(O, y) = &(a, y) = Ndx, 0) = N5(x, b) = 0

w(x, 0) = w(x, b) = ~(0, y) = ~(a, y) = 0,

6(x, 0) = 5(x, b) = P,(O,Y) = P,(a, y) =o,


MAX, 0) = MAX, b) = M,(O,Y) = M,(a, Y) = 0,
$x(x,0) = kJx> b) = +y,cO,
Y) = cG;(a,
Y) = 0. (12c)
For these boundary conditions, the exact solutions exist for cross-ply and antisymmetric
angle-ply rectangular plates (see reference [ 131).
Following the Navier solution procedure, one assumes the following form of spatial
variation of (w, I,& I,$) that satisfies the boundary conditions in equation ( 12):

w= f W,, sin c~xsinpy, I+&= g X,, cos (YXsin By,


m,n=l m.n=l

I& = f Y,, sin (YXcos py, (13)


m.n=l

where (Y= mr/a and /3 = nrR/ b. The variation of u and v is different for cross-ply and
antisymmetric angle-ply laminates. For cross-ply laminates,

u= f U,, cos ffx sin By, v= F V,,sinaxcospy; (14)


m,n=, m,n=l

for antisymmetric angle-ply laminates,

u = f U,, sin cuxcospy, v= f V,, cos ax sinpy. (15)


m,n=l m,n=l
STABILITY AND VIBRATION OF PLATES 161

Substituting equations (13)-( 15) into equation (6), and collecting the coefficients, one
obtains
u Wl”
V

([Cl-h[Gl){AI = {W, {A}= Wyn (16)


X Inn
11YInn
for any fixed values of m and n. The elements of the coefficient matrices [C] and [G]
are given in the Appendix. Matrix [G] refers to the mass matrix in the case of free
vibration and to the stiffness matrix due the in-plane forces in the case of buckling, and
the parameter A refers to the corresponding frequency or buckling parameter.

4. NUMERICAL RESULTS

4.1. NATURAL VIBRATION

The numerical results for the natural vibration of isotropic (V = 0.3) and orthotropic
square plates are presented in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. The following orthotropic

TABLE 1

Comparison of naturalfrequencies, (3 = wh/(Jp/G), of isotropic (v = 0.3) plates (a/h = 10)

b/a=1 b/a=&
r ,-
Exact Exact
m n [ 151 HSDPT FSDPT CPT m n [16] HSDPT FSDPT CPT

I I 0.0932 0.093 1 0.0930 0.0955 I I 0.704 0.7038 0.7036 0.7180


(0.0963)t (0.7224)
2 2 0.226 0.2222 0.2219 0.2360 1 3 I.376 I.3738 1.3729 1.4273
(0.2408) ( I .4448)
2 2 0.3421 0.3411 0.3406 0.3732 2 I 2.018 2.0141 2.0123 2.1281
(0.3853) (2.1671)
I 3 0.4171 0.4158 0.4149 0.4629 I 3 2.43 1 2.4263 2.4235 2.5908
(0.4816) (2.6487)
2 3 0.5239 0.522 1 0.5206 0.595 1 2 2 2.634 2.6283 2.6250 2.8207
(0.6261) (2.8895)
1 4 - 0.6545 0.6520 0.7668 2 3 3.612 3.6013 3.5948 3.9575
(0.8187) (4.0935)
3 3 0.6889 0.6862 0.6834 0.8090 I 4 3.800 3.7891 3.7818 4.1822
(0.8669) (4.3343)
2 4 0.7511 0.748 1 0.7446 0.8926 3 I 3.987 3.9748 3.9666 4.4062
(0.9632) (4.5751)
3 4 - 0.8949 0.8896 2.0965 3 2 4.535 4.5198 4.5089 5.0729
( 2.2040) (5.2974)
1 5 0.9268 0.9230 0.9174 1.1365 2 4 4.890 4.8737 4.8608 5.5133
(1.2521) (5.7790)
2 5 2.0053 0.9984 1.2549 3 3 5.411 5.3915 5.3754 6.1680
( 1.3966) (6.5014)
4 4 I.0889 I .0847 1.0764 1.3716 1 5 5.411 5.3915 5.3754 6.1680
(1.5411) (6.5014)
3 5 - I.1361 1.1268 14475 2 5 6.409 6.3846 6.3609 7.4563
(1.6374) (7.9462)

Numbers in parentheses denote natural frequencies obtained by omitting the rotary inertia.
162 J. N. REDDY AND N. D. PHAN

TABLE 2
Comparison of natural frequencies, W = wh(Jp/ c, ,), qf’an orthotropic square plate (al h =
10)

Exact [ 141 HSDPT FSDPT


CPT
m n I 11-l III I III III I II? III 1

1 1 0.0474 1.3077 I.6530 0.0474 1.3086 1.6550 0.0474 1.3159 1.6646 0.0493
(0.0497)i
1 2 0.1033 1.3331 I.7160 0.1033 I.3339 1.7209 0.1032 I.3410 I.7305 0.1095
(0.1120)
2 1 0.1188 I.4205 1.6805 0.1189 I.4216 1.6827 0.1187 1.4285 1.6921 0.1327
(0.1354)
2 2 0.1694 1.4316 I.7509 0.1695 I.4323 I.7562 0.1692 1.4393 1.7655 0.1924
(0.1987)
1 3 0.1888 1.3765 1.8115 0.1888 I.3772 I.8210 0.1884 I.3841 I.8305 0.2070
(0.2154)
3 1 0.2180 1.5777 .7334 0.2184 .5789 1.7361 0.2178 1.5857 I.7450 0.267 1
(0.2779)
2 3 O-2475 1.4596 .8523 0.2477 .4603 1.8622 0.2469 1.4670 1.8714 0.2879
(0.3029)
3 2 0.2624 1.565 1 .8 195 0.2629 .5658 1.8255 0.2619 1.5725 1.8341 0.3248
(0.3418)
I 4 0.2969 1.4372 .9306 0.2969 1.4379 1.9466 0.2959 .4445 1.9560 0.337 I
(0.3599)
4 1 0.3319 1.7179 1.8458 0.3330 I.7186 1.8588 0.3311 .7265 1.8657 0.447 1
(0.4773)
3 3 0.3320 1.5737 1.9289 0.3326 I.5744 I.9395 0.3310 .5812 1.9479 0.4172
(0.4470)
2 4 0.3476 1.5068 1.9749 0.3479 I.5076 I.9912 0.3463 .5141 2.0002 0.4152
(0.4480)
4 2 0.3070 1.6940 1.9447 0.3720 1.6947 I .9514 0.3696 1.7022 I .9586 0.5018
(0.5415)

t Pure thick-twist modes.


.$ Numbers in parentheses indicate frequencies obtained by omitting the rotary inertia.

material properties, typical of aragonite crystals have been used: E, = 20.83 x lo6 Ibf/in*,
Ez = lo-94 x lo6 lbf/in’, Cl2 = 6.10 x lo6 Ibf/in2, G13 = 3.71 x lo6 lbf/in*, G23 =
6.19 x lo6 lbf/in’, v,~ = 0.44, v2, = 0.23. The value of p is arbitrary because of the non-
dimensionalization used (set to unity here). The elastic constant c,, used in Table 2 has
the value of 23.2 x lo6 lbf/in*. The results are compared with the exact solutions of the
three-dimensional elasticity theory [ 14-161. In Table 2 the first three eigenvalues obtained
by the present theory are compared with the exact values, and the values obtained by
the first-order shear deformation plate theory (FSDF’T) and classical plate theory (CPT).
From the results presented in Tables 1 and 2 the following observations can be made:
the classical plate theory overestimates the frequencies; the error between the results of
the present theory and those of the classical theory increase with increasing mode numbers;
the effect of transverse shear deformation also increases with increasing mode number.
Next, the results for laminated composite plates are discussed. Results are presented
for the following cases: (1) four-layer, equal thickness, symmetric cross-ply (O”/900/90”/Oo)
square plates-this is equivalent to a three-layer, h, = h3 = h/4, h2 = h/2, symmetric
cross-ply (O”/900/Oo) square plate; (2) two-layer, equal thickness, antisymmetric cross-ply
STABILITY AND VIBRATION OF PLATES 163

TABLE 3

Non-dimensionalized fundamental frequencies, W = (wa’/ h)Jp/ E2, of cross-ply square


plates

[o”/900/900/oo] [0°/900]
r h 7 r
a/h CPT FSDI’T HSDPT CFT FSDFT HSDFT

15.830 5.492 5.576 8.499 5.191 5.699


: 17.907 9.369 9.497 IO.292 7.975 8.294
5 18.215 10.820 10.989 IO.584 8.757 9.010
IO 18.652 15.083 15.270 II.011 IO.355 10449
12.5 18.707 16.120 16.276 I I .066 IO.622 10.686
20 18.767 17.583 17.668 II.125 IO.941 IO.968
25 IS.780 17.991 18.050 II.139 Il.020 I I.037
50 18.799 18.590 17.606 I I.158 1 I.127 11.132
100 18.804 18.751 18.755 1 I.163 Il.155 11.156

(O”/900) square plate; (3) two-layer, equal thickness, antisymmetric angle-ply (45”/-45”)
square plate; (4) eight-layer, equal thickness, antisymmetric angle-ply
(45”/-45”/45”/-/i- * . . ) square plate. Orthotropic layers with the following engineering
constants are used: E,/ E, = 40, G23 = 0*5E2, G12 = G13 = 0*6E,, v,~ = 0.25. The smallest
natural frequencies as a function of plate side to thickness ratio are tabulated in Tables
3 and 4 for the four cases. The classical plate theory (CPT) solution is obtained with the
rotary inertia terms included. The classical plate theory overestimates the frequencies.
The first-order shear deformation plate theory (FSDPT) underestimates the frequencies
when compared to the HSDPT.

TABLE 4

Non-dimensionalized fundamental frequencies of antisymmetric angle-ply square plates

[45”/ -45”] [45”/-45”/ . ] 8-layer


r \ r \
alh CPT FSDF’T HSDFT CPT FSDPT HSDFT

2 6.283 5.520 6.283 6.283 5.848 6.283


4 12.566 9.168 9.759 12.566 IO.842 IO.991
5 13.885 IO.335 10.840 15.708 12.892 12.972
IO 14.439 13.044 13.263 25.052 19.289 19.266
12.5 14,510 13.550 13.704 25.129 20.916 20.888
20 14,587 14.179 14.246 25.212 23.259 23.239
25 14.605 14.338 14.383 25.232 23.924 23.909
50 14.630 14.561 14.572 25.258 24.909 24.905
100 14.636 14.618 14.621 25.264 25,176 25.174

4.2. STABILITY (OR BUCKLING)

The non-dimensionalized critical buckling loads for isotropic, orthotropic, and cross-ply
laminated plates are presented in Tables 5, 6 and 7, respectively. From the results one
can observe that the effect of shear deformation is quite significant on the buckling
parameter. For example, for a/h = 10, and a/b = 0.2 the classical plate theory differs
TABLE 5

Critical buckling loads, A,, = n, b2/ ~‘0, for isotropic rectangular plates under uniaxial compression

a/b= 0.2(27.040)+ 0.4(8.410) 0.8(4.202) 1~0(4~000) I .2(4.134) 1.4(4.470) 3~0(4~000)~


I ,---r I
a/h FSDPT HSDPT FSDPT HSDPT FSDPT HSDFT FSDPT HSDPT FSDPT HSDPT FSDPT HSDPT FSDPT HSDPT

2 1.3988 1.6851 1.3761 I .4455 1.4973 1.5179 I .6597 1.6759 I .8839 1.8984 2.1650 2.1791 I .4024 I .4896
5 6.8753 7.0529 4.6264 4.6466 3.2601 3.2626 3.2636 3.2653 3.4710 3.4722 3.8195 3.8206 3.2636 3.2653
IO 15.601 15.658 6.9824 6.9853 3.9192 3.9195 3.7864 3.7865 3.9458 3.9459 4.2875 4.2876 3.7864 3.7865
20 22.851 22.859 8.0010 8.0012 4.1279 49 1279 3.9443 3.9443 4.0856 4.0856 4.423 1 4.423 1 3.9443 3.9443
50 26.269 26.270 8.3417 8.3417 4.1903 4.1903 3.9909 3.9909 4.1265 4.1265 4.4625 4.4625 3.9909 3.9909
100 26.843 26.843 8.3928 8.3928 4.1994 4. I994 3.9977 3.9977 4.1324 4.1324 4.4682 4.4682 3.9977 3.9977

t CPT solution.
$ Minimum occurs at m = 3, n = 1.
STABILITY AND VIBRATION OF PLATES 165

TABLE 6

Critical buckling coeflcients for square orthotropic plates

Material 1 (A,)t Material 2 (h2)


I r
alh CFT FSDPT HSDPT CFT FSDPT HSDF’T

2 3.7287 I.3719 I .3898 13.00 2.1209 2.2303


5 3.7287 2.9068 2.9090 13.00 6.6594 6.698 1
10 3.7287 3.4810 3.4812 13.00 IO.41 1 10.417
20 3.7287 3.6634 3.6634 13.00 12.230 12.230
50 3.7287 3.7181 3.7181 13.00 12.870 12.870
100 3.7287 3.7261 3.72261 13.00 12.967 12.967

i h, = n,b2:rr2JD2,D,,, A, = n,b2/rr’D22.
Material 1: D,,/D,,=3, (D,,+2D,,)/D2,=3~25.
Material 2: D,,/D2z= 10, (D,,+2D,,)/Dzz= I.

from FSDPT by -73.32% for isotropic plates. The difference increases with increasing
degree of orthotropy. For all aspect ratios and plate side to thickness ratios, the first-order
theory is fairly in agreement with the higher-order theory. The difference between the
results predicted by FSDFT and HSDPT is maximum for the two-layer cross-ply laminate.
Figures 2-4 contain plots of non-dimensionalized buckling loads versus moduli and
aspect ratios of both cross-ply and angle-ply laminates, and Figure 5 contains plots of
non-dimensionalized buckling load versus the lamination angle. The following observa-
tions can be made from the plots: (1) the effect of bending-stretching coupling on the
buckling load is the greatest for two-layer plates (see Figures 2-5) ; (2) the effect of the
coupling on buckling load decreases with the decreasing modulus ratio (see Figures 2
and 4); (3) the effect of the transverse shear on the buckling load increases with the
increasing modulus ratio (see Figures 2 and 4); (4) the effect of coupling in angle-ply
plates is to reduce the buckling load for two-layered laminates from that of the many
layered laminates (see Figure 5); (5) the effect of the shear deformation is to reduce the
buckling loads-this is clear from Figure 5, where the solutions obtained by FSDPT and
HSDPT for a/h = 10 and a/h = 20 are compared with those of CPT.

TABLE 7

Buckling coejicients, hb = n, b2/ E,h’, for cross-ply square plates

[o”/90y [0°/900/00] [o”/900/900/00]


\ r \
(12.628)t (35.831) (35.831)
alh FSDPT HSDPT FSDF’T HSDPT FSDFT HSDPT

5 8.142 8.628 10.525 II.008 11.533 12444


10 I 1.099 11.305 2 l-643 22.160 23.270 23.849
12.5 1 I .605 11 .I41 25.144 25.590 26.518 27.033
20 12.208 12.268 30.664 30.922 31.432 31.737
25 12.356 12.395 32.332 32.515 32.872 33.089
50 12.559 12.569 34.883 34.936 35.037 35.100
100 12.611 12.614 35.589 35.602 35.629 35.645

t CPT solutions.
166 J. N. REDDY AND N. D. PHAN

0.2 -

040 ’ ’
10
’ ’
20
’ I
30

40

50
m&&s mtia. El/E*

Figure 2. Buckling load versus modulus ratio for cross-ply laminates (0”/90”/ . . .), a/h = 10, a/b= 1
subjected to in-plane compressive load along the edges x = 0, a. no is the buckling load of the orthotropic plate.

5. CONCLUSIONS

A refined shear deformation theory of flat plates has been used to determine natural
frequencies and buckling loads of rectangular plates. No shear correction factors are
required because a parabolic distribution of the transverse shear stresses is accounted in
the theory. The solutions of the higher-order theory are found to be in excellent agreement
with the exact solutions of the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The many numerical

HSDPT (n=6)
0.8

0.6

P
c’

04

O-2

0.0 c I 1 I I 1 I

t1.c) 10.0 20.0 30.0 40-O 50~0


Modulus rotlo, El / E2

Figure 3. Buckling load versus modulus ratio for antisymmetric angle-ply laminates (45’/-45”/+/- . . . 1,
a/h = 10 subjected to in-plane compressive load along the edges x = 0, ~1.n, is the buckling load of the orthotropic
plate.
STABILITY AND VIBRATION OF PLATES 167
I , 1
-

/CPT (n=6)

L
)Ct 05 20 25
,
10 15 30
Aspect mtio , a/b
Figure 4. Buckling load versus the aspect ratio for cross-ply laminates (0”/90”/ . . . ), a/h = 10 subjected to
in-plane compressive load along the edges x = 0, a.

70

,,CPT (n=6)

z
s
HSDPT (n=2, o/h=101
10 FSDPT (n=2,o/h=lO)

OOI 75 90
Lominotlon angk. 0 (dcprccsl
Figure 5. Buckling load versus the lamination angle for antisymmetric angle-ply laminates (8/-e/ 0/ - 8/ )
subjected to in-plane compressive load along the edges x = 0, a.
168 J. N. REDDY AND N. D. PHAN

results presented here should serve as references for those who wish to develop a
finite-element model of the higher-order theory described herein.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The support of the research reported here by NASA-Langley Research Center through
Grant NAG-l-459 and U.S. Army Research Office through Grant DAAG-29-85-K-0007
is gratefully acknowledged. The senior author is thankful to Dr Norman Knight, Jr
(NASA) and Dr Jagadish Chandra (ARO) for the encouragement and support of the work.

REFERENCES

I. M. LEVY 1877 Journal de Mathemafiques pures et appliquees 3,219-320. M&moire sur la theorie
des plaques elastiques planes.
2. E. REISSNER 1944 Journal of
Mathematics and Physics 23, 184-191. On the theory of bending
of elastic plates.
3. E. REISSNER 1945 Journal of Applied Mechanics 12, A69-A77. The effect of transverse shear
deformation on the bending of elastic plates.
4. H. HENCKY 1947 Zngenieur-Archiu 16, 72-76. ijber die berucksichtigung der schubverzerrung
in ebenen platten.
5. R. D. MINDLIN 1951 Journal ofApplied Mechanics 18, A31-A38. Influence of rotatory inertia
and shear on flexural motions of isotropic, elastic plates.
6. A. KROMM 1953 Zngenieur-Archiu 21, 266-286. Verallgemeinerte theorie der plattenstatik.
7. R. B. NELSON and D. R. LORCH 1974 Journal of Applied Mechanics 41, 177-183. A refined
theory for laminated orthotropic plates.
8. K. H. Lo, R. M. CHRISTENSEN and E. M. WV 1977 Journal of Applied Mechanics 44,663-668.
A higher-order theory of plate deformation, Part 1: Homogeneous plates.
9. V. PANC 1975 Theories of Elastic Plates. Leyden: Noordhoff.
10. M. LEVINSON 1980 Mechanics Research Communications 7,343-350. An accurate simple theory
of the statics and dynamics of elastic plates.
11. J. N. REDDY 1984 Journal of Applied Mechanics 45, 745-752. A simple higher-order theory for
laminated composite plates.
Time delay instabilities in large order system with controlled follower force.
12. J. N. REDDY 1984 Energy and Variational Methods in Applied Mechanics. New York: John Wiley.
13. J. N. REDDY and W. C. CHAO 1981 Nuclear Engineering and Design 64,153- 167. A comparison
of closed-form and finite-element solutions of thick laminated anisotropic rectangular plates.
14. S. SRINIVAS and A. K. RAO 1970 International Journal of Solids and Structures 6, 1463- 1481.
Bending, vibration and buckling of simply supported thick orthotropic rectangular plates and
laminates.
15. S. SRINIVAS, C. V. JOGA RAO and A. K. RAO 1970 Journal of Sound and Vibration 12, 187-199.
An exact analysis for vibration of simply-supported homogeneous and laminated thick rec-
tangular plates.
16. H. REISMANN and Yu-CHUNG LEE 1969 in Developments in Theoreticaland Applied Mechanics,
Volume 4 (D. Frederick, editor). New York: Pergamon Press. Forced motion of rectangular
plates.

APPENDIX: COEFFICIENTS OF MATRIX IN EQUATION (16)

Matrix coefficients of [C] are different for cross-ply and antisymmetric angle-ply
laminates, whereas those of [G] are different for stability and vibration.

Cross-ply Laminates:

CII = 02A,,+P2&, C,z= @(A,,+&,),


C,,= -(4/3hZ)a3E,, -(4/3h2)op2[E,,+2&],

C,4=a21?,~-a2(4/3h2)E,,+~2[BM-(4/3h2)E6d
STABILITY AND VIBRATION OF PLATES 169

c15 = @[(B,,+ &) -(4/3h2)(&+ &Jl,

C22 = P2A22 + a’&,, c,, = -P3(4/3h2)E,,-(4/3h2)(y2P[E,*+2E661,

C,, = @[c&2+ be) - (4/3h2)(h2+ &)l,

c2, = P*B22 - P2(4/3h2)&2+ a2[&6- (4/3h2)&1,


C33= (Y~A~~+P~A~~-(~/~*)((~*D~~+P~D~~)+(~/~~)~((~~F~~+P~F~~)
+(4/3h2)2[(u4H1,+2(H,2+2H66)(Y2~2+~4H22],

C34=~A55-(8/h2)(yD55+(4/h2)2~F55-(4/3hZ)[(y3F,,+(F,2+2F66)~P2]

+(4/3h2)‘[(y3H,,+(H,*+2H66)(YP21r

C,,=~A44-(8/h2)~~,+(4/~2)2~~44-(4/3~2)[~2P~~,2+2~~~)+P3~221

+(4/3~2)2[(~,2+2~,,)~2P+P3~221,

C44= A55+~2D,,+P2D66-(8/h2)D55+(4/h2)2F55

-(8/3h2)[a2F,,+/32F,,]+(4/3h2)2[a2H,,+/32H~J,

c4, = MQ2+ &) - (8/3h2NF,2+ Fd@ +(4/3h*)*@(ff,2+ f&c),

C,,=A,,+(Y*D~~+~~D~~-(~/~~)D~~+(~/~*)*F~

-(8/3h*)[c~*F,,+/?~F~~]+(4/3h*)~[a~H~~+/3*H~~].
Angle-ply laminates:
C,, = CX’A,,+P*A~~, CIZ= M(A,2+&),

c,, = -(4/3h2)[3a2PE,,+P3E2,1, C,4 = W3B,,- (g/3h2)aP&,

C,5=~2B,6+P2B~6-(4/3h2)[~2E,~+P2E~~], Czz = ,B2A22+ a*A,,,

C23 = -(4/3h2)[a3E,,S3P2aE2~], C24 = CM, Cz,=2aPB2,-(8/3h2)~PE26,

C33=a2A,,+/32A,-(8/h2)[a2D55+~2D44]

+(4/3h2)2[a4H,,+2a2P2(H,z+2H66)+P4H22]

+(4/h2)2[(y2F,,+P2F441,

C34= aA,,-(8/h2)crD,,+(4/h2)2aF,,-(4/3h2)[a3F,,+cyp2(F,,+2F66)]

+(4/3h2)2[a3HII +@2w,2+=&6)1,

~3,=PA,-(8/~2)~~44+(4/~2)2P~,-(4/3~2)[~3~22+~~2(~,2+2~~~)1

+(4/3h2)2[P3H22+PCy2(H,2+2~~6)l,

C44=A,,+~2D,,+~2D66-(8/h2)D55+(4/h2)2F55-(8/3h2)(~2F,,+~2F66)

+(4/3h2)2(cY2H,, +p2&),

c45= (~P(D,~+D66)-(8/3h’)(~P(F12+F66)+(4/3h~)~~p(H,2+H66),

C55= A44+~2Ds6+~2D~~-(8/h2)D44+(4/h2)2F44-(8/3h2)(~2F~6+~2F~~)
+(4/3h2)2((y2H66+P2H22).
170 J. N. REDDY AND N. D. PHAN

Free vibration:

G,, = Z,, G,, = 0, G,3 = -(4/3h’)aZ,, G,, = Zz- (4/3h’)Z4, G,5=0,


G,, = Z,, Gm = -(4/3h’MZd, G,, = 0, Gzs = I,- (4/3h’)Z,,
G33=Z,+(4/3h2)2(a2+~2)Z,, G34= -(4/3h2)aZ,+(4/3h2)‘aZ,,

G35 = -(4/3h2)pZs+ (4/3h2)2/?Z,,

G44=Z3-(8/3h2)Z5+(4/3h2)2Z,r G,, = 0, G5,= Z3-(8/3h2)Z5+(4/3h2)*Z,.

Buckling:

Gu= ~2+(~2/~,M2, G,=O, forall i,j= 1,2,. ..,5 (iZjf3).