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5th National Conference on Role of Engineers in Nation Building, 3rd and 4th March, 2017

Experimental Evaluation of Single Cylinder Two Stroke

Spark Ignition Engine Using Methanol and Ethanol
Blends in Different Proportions with Gasoline
TEJAN PATIL Bhavesh Tamboli Rohit Thakare Suneet Mehta
BE. Mech, student, BE. Mech, student BE. Mech student, Assi. Prof., Guide
VIVA Inst. Of Tech. VIVA Inst. Of Tech. VIVA Inst. of Tech. VIVA Inst. of Tech.
tjn.ptl1995@ suneetmehta@viva

This experimental study investigates the effect of using composition of gasoline-ethanol blends on parameters of
gasoline and bio-fuel blends on Spark ignition engine (SI internal combustion engines showed that when ethanol is
engine) performance. Two stroke, single cylinder SI engine added, the heating value of the blended fuel decreases, while
was used for conducting this study. Performance tests were the octane number of the blended fuel increases.
conducted for fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency,
brake power, indicated thermal efficiency and brake specific Also the results of the engine test indicated that when
fuel consumption using gasoline and additive blends with ethanol–gasoline blended fuel is used, the engine power and
different percentages of alcohol at varying engine load specific fuel consumption of the engine slightly increase.
condition and at constant engine speed. The result showed that
blending gasoline with bio-fuels increases the brake power, 1.1 Statement of the problem:
indicated and brake thermal efficiencies, fuel consumption As the two stroke engines are using different types of fuels
and mechanical efficiency. The addition of 10% methanol and like petrol, diesel, gas etc. In current days the use of two
5% ethanol to gasoline gave the best results for all measured stroke petrol engines is reduced because of emission of
parameters. harmful gasses, maximum fuel consumption, less efficient. To
overcome these difficulties the methanol and ethanol are used
KEYWORDS as an additive with gasoline to increase the performance of
Bio-fuel; Gasoline-bio-fuel blend; Methanol; Ethanol. engine and minimize the fuel consumption.

1. INTRODUCTION 1.2 Objective of the study:

Depletion of fossil fuels and environmental pollution has led The objective of the study is to analyze the performance of the
researchers to anticipate the need to develop bio-fuels. Also two stroke petrol engine using methanol and ethanol as an
rapidly increase in fuel prices and oil consumption along with additive with the gasoline so as to overcome the above stated
scarcity of petroleum based fuels have accelerated an interest difficulties.
for search of alternative, renewable sources of fuel like
biodiesel and alcohol based fuels. Alcohols are an important
1.3 Scope of the study:
category of bio-fuels. Methanol can be produced from coal,
To increase the performance of the two stroke petrol engine
biomass or even natural gas with acceptable energy cost.
the methanol and ethanol been used as an additive with
Ethanol is produced from sugars (particularly sugar cane) and
gasoline. The readings obtained from the conducted tests have
starch by fermentation. The biomass industry can produce
been evaluated and the results and graphs are compared.
additional ethanol by fermenting some agricultural by-
products. Alcohols have been suggested as an engine fuel 2. EXPERIMENTAL SET UP AND
almost since automobile was invented. The alcohol used to
change/modify the attitude toward the present fuel, i.e., PROCEDURE
gasoline and search for new alternatives. In this study, the first The engine is 80 cc 2 strokes, single cylinder SI engine loaded
approach was selected with the aim of improving the by a rope toll dynamometer. Table 1lists some of the
combustion characteristics of gasoline, which will be reflected important specification of the engine under test. The
in improving the engine performance and that is done by schematic layout of the experimental set up is shown in figure
mixing methanol and ethanol. It is the dream of engineers and 1. Fuel consumption was measured by using a calibrated
scientists to increase the performance of the engine a very burette and a stopwatch with an accuracy of 0.2sec.
limited techniques are available with safety. Together with
carefully formulated base fuel composition bio-fuels Table.1 Engine specification
contribute to efficiency and long life. Sr. Description Data
The use of alcohol blended with gasoline was a subject of No.
research in the 1980s and it was shown that ethanol and 1. Type of engine Two stroke cycle, single
methanol gasoline blends were technically acceptable for
acting air cooled petrol
existing spark ignition engines. There is a considerable engine
amount of literature relative to various blends of ethanol,
2. No. of cylinder Single cylinder
methanol and gasoline.
3. Max B.P 4.7 bhp @ 6000 rpm
In recent years several researches have been carried out to the
influence of methanol and ethanol on the performance of 4 Max Torque 0.55 kgm @ 4500 rpm
spark ignition engines. The study of the influence of 5. Direction of rotation Clock wise
5th National Conference on Role of Engineers in Nation Building, 3rd and 4th March, 2017

6. Bore diameter 44 mm
7. Stroke length 48.9 mm
8. Cubic capacity 74.08 cc
2.1 Specifications of other device and fluid used in The following parameters were obtained while
conducting the experiment:-
1. Co-efficient of discharge of orifice = 0.6 3.1 For Gasoline
2. Orifice diameter = 10 mm Weight in Kg Manometer Time to
3. Density of petrol = 719.7 Kg / m3 Reading in cm consume
4. Density of water = 1000 Kg / m3 5ml of
RPM W1 W2 W1- H1 H2 Hw=H1- fuel
Table.2.Properties of fluid used W2 H2 (min)
500 1.2 0.2 1 9.5 9.8 0.3 1.31
Sr. Element Density C.V
480 2.1 0.1 2 9.5 9.8 0.3 1.29
No. Kg/m3 MJ/Kg
470 4.1 1.1 3 9.5 9.8 0.3 1.19
1. M5(5% methanol) 746.4 44.624
2. M10(10% methanol) 773.7 42.248
3. E5(5% ethanol) 738.59 44.25
3.2 For M5 (i.e. 5% Methanol and 95%
4. E10(10% ethanol) 741.30 43.5
Weight in Kg Manometer Time to
5. M5E5(5% methanol 757.5 42.847 Reading in cm consume
+ 5% ethanol) Hw=H1- 5ml of
RPM W1 W2 W1- H1 H2 H2 fuel
The engine was started and allowed to warm up for a period W2 (min)
of 5-10 min. The fuel consumption was constant at 10 cc for 500 1.5 0.5 1 9.3 9.9 0.6 1.17
each performance. Firstly engine testing was performed by 492 2.7 0.7 2 9.3 9.9 0.6 1.32
constant speed and varying the loading condition for 481 4.5 1.5 3 9.3 9.9 0.6 1.43
conventional fuel i.e., gasoline .Maintaining a constant rpm
and applying a specific load corresponding manometric
readings as well as time taken for consumption of 5ml of fuel
was noted. After this a specific proportion of gasoline was 3.3 For M10 (i.e. 10% Methanol and 90%
replaced by some amount of biofuel and again the tests were Gasoline)
carried out. Before running the engine to a new fuel blend, it
Weight in Kg Manometer Reading Time to
was allowed to run for sufficient time to consume the
in cm consum
remaining fuel from the previous experiment. For each
e 5ml of
experiment, three runs were performed to obtain an average
RPM W1 W2 W1- H1 H2 Hw=H1- fuel
value of the experimental data.
W2 H2 (min)
500 1.5 0.5 1 9. 9.9 0.4 1.62
494 2.3 0.3 2 9. 10. 0.8 1.51
4 2
486 4 1 3 9. 10. 0.8 1.28
4 2

3.4 For E5 (i.e. 5% Ethanol and 95%

Weight in Kg Manometer Reading Time to
in cm consume
RPM W1 W2 W1- H1 H2 Hw=H1- 5ml of
W2 H2 fuel
500 1.5 0.5 1 9.3 10.2 0.9 1.65
490 2.5 0.5 2 9.3 10.2 0.9 1.58
475 3.5 0.5 3 9.3 10.2 0.9 1.24

3.5 For E10 (i.e. 10% Ethanol and 90%


Fig 1: Experimental setup for the effect of methanol –

gasoline and ethanol-gasoline blends
5th National Conference on Role of Engineers in Nation Building, 3rd and 4th March, 2017

Weight in Kg Manometer Reading Time to

in cm consume
RPM W1 W2 W1- H1 H2 Hw=H1- 5ml of
W2 H2 fuel
500 1.2 0.2 1 9.4 10.2 0.8 1.29
491 2.4 0.4 2 9.4 10.2 0.8 1.35
485 4 1 3 9.4 10.2 0.8 1.47

3.6 For M5-E5 (i.e. 5% Methanol, 5%

Ethanol and 90% Gasoline)
Weight in Kg Manometer Reading Time to Figure 3 Brake Thermal Efficiency vs. Brake Power at
in cm consume various loads
RPM W1 W2 W1- H1 H2 Hw=H1- 5ml of
W2 H2 fuel
(min) 5.3 Total Fuel consumption:
500 1.2 0.2 1 9.4 10.1 0.7 1.33 The effect of methanol and ethanol gasoline blends on the fuel
495 3.2 1.2 2 9.4 10.1 0.7 1.31 consumption is shown in Figure 4. The fuel consumption
483 4 1 3 9.4 10.1 0.7 1.42 increases on the engine power increases at engine speed. This
behavior is attributed to the Lower Heating Value (LHV) per
unit mass of the alcohol fuel, which is distinctly lower than
that of the pure gasoline fuel. Therefore the amount of fuel
4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION introduced in to the engine cylinder for a given desired fuel
The effect of methanol and ethanol blend with gasoline on SI energy input has to be greater with the alcohol fuel.
engine performance at various engine powers was

5.1 Brake Specific Fuel Consumption:

The effect of using methanol and ethanol gasoline blends with
different proportion on brake specific fuel consumption
(BSFC) is shown in Figure 2. As shown in the figure BSFC
decreases as the engine torque increases. This is normal
consequence of the behavior of the engine brake thermal

Figure 4 Fuel Consumption vs. Brake Power at various


5.4 Volumetric Efficiency:

The effect of using methanol and ethanol gasoline blends with
different proportion on Volumetric Efficiency is shown in
Figure 5.

Figure 2 Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) Vs. Brake

Power at various loads

5.2 Brake thermal efficiency:

Figure 3 presents the effect of methanol and ethanol gasoline
blends on brake thermal efficiency. As shown in the figure
break thermal efficiency increases as the engine torque
Figure Volumetric Efficiency vs. Brake Power at various
increases. The maximum brake thermal efficiency is recorded
loads 5
with 5% ethanol in the fuel blend at constant engine speed.
5th National Conference on Role of Engineers in Nation Building, 3rd and 4th March, 2017

From the results of the experiment, the following conclusions
can be deduced:
1. Using methanol and ethanol blends with gasoline causes
an improvement in engine performance.
2. Methanol and ethanol blends with gasoline results in an
increase in brake power, brake thermal efficiency,
volumetric efficiency, and fuel consumption

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