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Engineering Optimization

• Pengajar : Angga Akbar Fanani, ST., MT.


Engineering Optimization

• Second Edition
• Authors: A. Ravindran, K. M. Ragsdell, and
G. V. Reklaitis
• Chapter-1 (Introduction)
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Life is about Optimization


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Introduction to Optimization
Body of mathematical and numerical methods for :
Finding and identifying the best candidate from
a set of alternatives without explicitly enumerate
and evaluate all possible alternatives
Root of Engineering - design new, better, more
efficient, and less expensive systems as well as to
devise plans and procedure for the improved
operation of existing systems
The power of optimization methods
• Determine the best case without actually testing
all possible cases come through the use of a
modes level of mathematics and at the cost
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Requirements to Apply
Optimization
Clearly delineate the boundary of the
engineering system
Define quantitative criterion - objective
Select system variables
Define a model for expressing relation of
variables

Problem
Formulation
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Defining System Boundaries


(1)
System - A restricted portion of the
Universe
System boundary - separate the system
from the universe
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Defining System Boundaries (2)


Initial choice may be too restrictive
Expand system boundary - increase in size and
complexity
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Defining System Boundaries


(2)
Example: A manufacturing operation has a paint
shop in which finished parts are mounted on an
assembly line and painted in different colors.
Optimize batch size or color sequence.

Considering paint shop in isolation or not?


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Performance Criterion
Criteria on the basis of which the performance
or design of the system can be evaluated
Examples: Total capital cost, annual cost, return
on investment, cost-benefit ratio, production
time, maximum production rate, etc.
Maximum/mimimum
Only one criterion
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Performance Criterion
Shop foreman - design with minimum color
and part changes

Sales department - design with maximized


inventory of parts

Financial Officer - design that minimizes


inventories
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Independent Variables
Variables adequate to characterize possible
candidate designs or operating conditions of the
system
Distinguishing Variables
Including all variables
To what detail?
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System Model
Describes the relations among problem
variables
Simplified mathematical representation of real
system
Collection of equations
Real system too expensive
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Optimization Problem
Performance Measure - Objective
A set of independent variables
A model relating the variables
Defined boundary - Constraints
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Engineering Design Process


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Application of Optimization
Design of components or entire systems
Design of a welded beam, Design of an oxygen supply system

Planning and analysis of existing


operations
Refinery production planning

Engineering analysis and data reduction


Nonlinear curve fitting

Control of dynamic systems


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What are Heuristics?

• “Algorithms that construct


feasible solutions, and thus upper
bounds for the optimal value.”,
Hoffman and Padberg
Insertion Heuristics
Insertion Heuristics start with a tour on
a small set of nodes, and then increase the
tour by inserting the remaining nodes one at a
time until there are n nodes in the tour
• Cheapest
• Farthest
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Structure of Optimization
Problems
Minimize Objective

Subject to
Constraints

Constrained Optimization Problem


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Structure of Optimization
Problems

Problem with no constraints, that is,


Unconstrained Optimization Problem. Here,

and
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Classification of Optimization
Problems
Unconstrained problems in which is a one-component vector are
called single-variable problems

Constrain
Objective Variables Program
ts

Linear Linear Continuous Linear Program

Integer Linear
Linear Linear Integer
Program
Quadratic Program
Linearly
nonlinear linear N/A Constrained
Fractional Linear
Nonlinear Program
Program
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Refinery Production Planning:


Description
A refinery processes crude oils to produce a number of raw
gasoline intermediates that must subsequently be blended to
make two grades of motor fuel, regular and premium. Each raw
gasoline has a known perform- ance rating, a maximum
availability, and a fixed unit cost. The two motor fuels have a
specified minimum performance rating and selling price, and their
blending is achieved at a known unit cost. Contractual obligations
im- pose minimum production requirements of both fuels.
However, all excess fuel production or unused raw gasoline
amounts can be sold in the open market at known prices. The
optimal refinery production plan is to be deter- mined over the
next specified planning period.
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Refinery Production Planning:


Schematic
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Refinery Production Planning:


Formulation

System: Raw gasoline intermediates, blending


operation, fluid motor fuels
Performance Index: Net profit over planning perio
Motor fuel and intermediate sales - blending costs - cost
intermediates
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Refinery Production Planning:


Variables
Flows depicted as directed arcs in the
figure

Each intermediate - one variable


for each intermediate
= amount used for regular
= amount used for premium
= amount sold directly
for each product
= amount allocated to contracts
= amount sold in open market
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Refinery Production Planning: Model


Material balance equations
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Refinery Production Planning:


Objective
Performance Criterion - Net profit
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Questions?
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