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PERMIT SYSTEM

Soehatman Ramli

PERMIT SISTEM
Latar Belakang
• Lingkungan industri khususnya yang
mengelola bahan berbahayasangat
rawan terhadap bahaya kecelakaan.
• Pada umumnya kecelakaan terjadi
pada pekerjaan pemeliharaan.
• Perlu pengawasan dan pencegahan
yang baik melalui sistem ijin kerja
Philosophy Ijin Kerja
Tujuan sistem Ijin Kerja
• Mencegah kecelakaan
• Mencegah kebakaran dan peledakan
• Mencegah gangguan terhadap proses
produksi dan lingkungan sekitarnya.
• Melindungi manusia dan peralatan akibat
kondisi berbahaya
Manfaat Ijin Kerja
• Perlindungan Tenaga Kerja
• Mencegah kerugian akibat kecelakaan
• Meningkatkan sikap tanggungjawab dan
disiplin kerja
• Perlindungan hukum (claim) jika terjadi
kecelakaan
• Sebagai dasar penyelidikan kecelakaan
• Sebagai alat kontrol – pengawasan K3
• Meningkatkan kinerja K3 perusahaan
Safe Work Permits

Safe Work Permit Permit#

Type: (hot work, confined space, line break, etc.... location:

Valid / / / / Issued to:


From: M D Y time to M D Y time

Work Description:
Supervisor’s Signature Print name

Work Order No.

Atm Combustible vapors or gases (<10%) Oxygen Concentration (>19.5% & <21%) Toxic Material Concentration
Tests

Precautions Always Required:

Tujuan sistem ijin kerja adalah untuk mengidentifikasi


semua bahaya yang berkaitan dengan pekerjaan non
rutin, dan memberikan pengamanan untuk mencegah
potensi bahaya yang timbul
Sasaran Permit System
• Melindungi peralatan dari kerusakan
• Mencegah bahaya kebakaran
• Memastikan pekerjaan dilakukan dengan
cara yang aman
• Memberikan arahan mengenai cara yang
aman dalam melaksanakan pekerjaan
WORK PERMIT REQUIREMENT
Permit diperlukan untuk pekerjaan berikut ini:
• Major & Minor Maint. work.
• Inspection.
• Construction.
• Alteration.
• Process Equip. cleaning
• Entry into confined space.
• Excavation
• Vehicle entry into hazardous areas etc.
Jenis Ijin Kerja
1. Ijin Kerja Panas – Hot Work Permit
2. Ijin Kerja Dingin – Cold work Permit
3. Ijin kerja penggalian _ Digging Permit
4. Ijin Kerja Masuk Ruang Tertutup – Entry
Permit
5. Ijin Kerja Radioaktif
6. Ijin Kerja Listrik
7. Ijin Kerja di ketinggian
8. Dsb.
Prinsip Permit System
THE FIRE TETRAHEDRON

FUEL

TEMPERATURE
Prinsip Ijin Kerja
Bahan
bakar

Oksigen Panas

1. Mengendalikan Bahan
Bakar
2. Mengendalikan Panas
3. Mengendalikan Oksigen
Prinsip Ijin Kerja
Mengendalikan Bahan Bakar
Bahan
bakar
• Mencegah atau
mengendalikan adanya
sumber bahan bakar
• Boleh menggunakan api
Oksigen Panas
• Menggunakan Ijin Kerja
Panas

Ijin Kerja Panas, menggunakan atau menimbulkan


sumber panas, atau nyala seperti pekerjaan
pengelasan, api dapur, sant blasting dll.
Unsur yang dihindarkan adalah adanya sumber bahan
bakar dengan melakukan gas test.
Prinsip Ijin Kerja
Mengendalikan Panas
Bahan
bakar • Sumber bahan bakar tidak
bisa dikendalikan dan
dapat timbul sewaktu-
waktu
• Kendalikan atau cegah
Oksigen Panas
adanya/timbulnya sumber
panas atau energi
• Jenis Ijin Kerja Dingin
Ijin Kerja Dingin, adalah pekerjaan yang tidak atau
tidak boleh menimbulkan adanya sumber panas atau
percikan api.
Sumber bahan bakar diperkirakan timbul setiap saat
Contoh pekerjaan menggunakan palu di tanki minyak
Prinsip Ijin Kerja
Mengendalikan Oksigen
Bahan
bakar • Kadar Oksigen
diperkirakan tidak aman
bagi manusia atau untuk
kelangsungan proses
pembakaran (segi tiga api)
Oksigen Panas
• Ijin Masuk ruang tertutup

Ijin Kerja Ruang tertutup dimana kadar oksigen harus


diperhitungkan untuk keselamatan pekerja
Sistem Ijin Kerja
Pihak yang terlibat dalam sistem ijin kerja

Issuing
Authority

Ijin Kerja

Safety Perrforming
Advisor Authority
Sistem Ijin Kerja
Issuing Authority – Pemberi Ijin

– Yaitu pihak operasi atau pengawas


daerah/peralatan yang bertindak sebagai pihak
yang memberikan ijin melaksanakan suatu
pekerjaan yang menyangkut tempat, alat atau
lingkungan
– Issuing Authority adalah :
• Pengawas Operasi
• Shift superintendent
• Kepala pabrik
• Pengawas instalasi dll
Sistem Ijin Kerja
Issuing Authority – Pemberi Ijin
– Tugas dan tanggungjawab
• Memebebaskan semua perlatan dan proses
yang berkaitan dengan pekerjaan dari
semua sumber bahaya dan energi sehingga
aman untuk dikerjakan.
• Mengamankan peralatan, tempat kerja dan
proses untuk keamanan pekerjaan,
termasuk memasang sorokan,
membersihkan alat, menyetop kegiatan
sementara waktu, melakukan isolasi sumber
energi dsb.
Sistem Ijin Kerja
Performing Authority – Penerima ijin
– Yaitu pihak yang melaksanakan
pekerjaan yang menyangkut suatu alat,
tempat kerja atau fasilitas
– Pelaksanaa Pekerjaan :
• Bagian pemeliharaan
• Bagian teknik sipil, listrik atau mekanik
• Pekerja telekomunikasi
• Pekerja pembersihan dll
Sistem Ijin Kerja
Performing Authority – Penerima ijin
Tugas dan tanggung jawab :
• Melaksanakan pekerjaan dilakukan
dengan cara yang aman menyangkut
pekerja, peralatan dan metoda
pelaksanaan.
• Mematuhi semua rekomendasi yang
dikeliuarkan oleh pemberi ijin dan bagian
K3
• Mengawasoi secara langsung selama
kegiatan kerja berlangsung dan segera
mengambil tindakan jika ditemukan
kondisi berbahaya
Sistem Ijin Kerja
Unsur Pengawas Keselamatan
– Yaitu pihak yang bertanggungjawab
memberikan saran dan petunjuk serta
pengawasan keselamatan selama
pekerjaan berlangsung
– Unsur pengawasan terdiri atas :
• Fungsi K3 perusahaan
• Fungsi Listrik
• Fungsi Inspeksi
• Fungsi Telekomunikasi
• Dll yang diperlukan
Sistem Ijin Kerja
Unsur Pengawas Keselamatan
– Tugas dan tanggungjawab
• Melaksanakan monitoring selama
pekerjaan berlangsung
• Meneliti dan meyakinkan bahwa semua
syarat keselamatan telah dipenuhi
• Memberikan rekomendasi cara kerja yang
aman
• Melaksanakan pengetesan gas
berbahaya
• Menghentikan pekerjaan jika dinilai
kondisi keselamatan tidak terjamin atau
terjadi pelanggaran prosedur
Ijin Kerja Panas
• Semua pekerjaan yang menggunakan atau
menimbulkan energi panas atau bunga api yang
memiliki cukup energi untuk proses pembakaran.
• Jenis pekerjaan panas :
– Pengelasan
– merokok, menyalakan api dapur,, korek api
– Menghidupkan kendaraan dengan internal
combustion engine di daerah berbahaya gas
– sand blasting
– Penggunaan alat pneumatik
– Peralatan listrik
– dll
Hot Work Permits
Internal combustion engines produce poisonous gases
such as carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen.

Permits ensure that procedures are followed that will prevent


equipment emissions from contaminating air inside buildings
and confined spaces.
Ijin Kerja Panas
Persyaratan Utama
• Harus bebas gas (gas free)
• Bebas dari sumber bahaya dari
lingkungan, minimal dalam radius 25
meter
• Dilaksanakan pemeriksaan gas secara
berkala
Ijin Kerja Panas
Tindakan pengamanan (safety precaution)
• Memeriksa kondisi gas berbahaya setiap
saat
• Mengisolir dan mengamankan semua
sumber bahan bakar seperti perpipaan,
parit terbuka, venting dsb
• Memasang tirai air untuk pengamanan
sumber panas
Diagram Alir Ijin Kerja Panas

Pen.Jawab Pws.Operasi Pws.Teknik Pelaksana Pws K3 Gas Tester

Diisi data
pekerjaan
Dperiksa
Amankan Disetujui
Disetujui Gas test
disyahkan Saran

Gas test
sertifikat

Pekerjaan
dilaksanakan

File File File


Ijin Kerja Dingin
• Semua pekerjaan yang tidak menggunakan
sumber panas atau tidak diperkenankan
menimbulkan sumber panas.
• Jenis pekerjaan Dingin :
– Menggunakan martil besi didaerah gas (tindakan anti
bunga api)
– Mengecat di daerah berbahaya
– Perbaikan pompa atau peralatan proses yang sedang
beroperasi
– Menggali di daerah unit proses
– dll
Ijin Kerja Dingin
• Persyaratan
– Tidak boleh timbul sumber api (percikan, bunga api
dsb)
– Harus dilakukan tindakan anti bunga api, misalnya
dengan membasahkan peralatan dengan air,
penggunaan martil tembaga atau kuningan dsb
– Diperlukan tindakan waspada karena adanya sumber
gas berbahaya tidak dapat dikendalikan misalnya
bekerja di lingkungan unit proses yang sedang
beroperasi
– Semua peralatan kerja harus diamankan dari
kemungkinan terjadinya percikan bunga api.
Ijin Kerja Ruang Tertutup
• Bekerja di lingkungan dengan kadar oksigen tidak
memadai
• Contoh :
– Masuk dan bekerja dalam tangki bekas berisi bahan
cair mudah terbakar
– Bekerja dalam ruangan dengan ventiliasi terbatas
Safe Work Permits

Excavations can result in:


head Injuries from materials
falling from overhead surfaces,

rupture of high pressure hydraulic


lines used on backhoes, shovels,
and drills.

excessive noise from concrete


breaking and cutting equipment,

and collapse of excavation walls and piles due to poorly secured soil, sudden
weather changes, or other factors.

Permits are written to ensure that necessary equipment is present and in


good working order.
Safe Work Permits

Confined Space Entry Permit

Location and description of confined space:


Reason forentry:
Permit issued to:
Supervisor’s Name:
Attendant’s name:
Permit issuer’s name:
% oxygen: % lower explosivelimit: ppm CO: H2S:

Requirements

Emergency Rescuer yes no


CAUTION Continuous Gas Monitor yes no
Barrier for ground openings yes no
Opening in Ground WarningSigns yes no
Safety Harness with life line yes no
Keep Out ! Tripod / Hoist / Pulley yes no

The “Confined Space Entry


Permit” is another form of
safe work permit regulating
entry into pits, tanks, and vessels.
Safe Work Permits

The safety representative must verify


that all underground utilities have
been located and staked out.

Provisions must be made to


barricade the open trench, prevent
collapse of trench walls, provide
employees with a means of exit,
Safe Work Permit
reroute ground water, and all other
----------------------------------------------------------------------
EXCAVATION PRECAUTIONS REQUIRED: requirements of excavating.
oUnderground / Underfloor Utility Hazard Review
o Soil Excavation Reviewed If soil is contaminated, the safety
o Underground Utility Stakeout Performed
oExcavation cut back 1/1, or walls reinforced o representative will ask for a written
Means of exiting within 25 feet.
safety and health plan.
Diagram Alir Ijin Kerja Ruang Tertutup

Pen.Jawab Pws.Operasi Pws.Teknik Pelaksana Pws K3 Gas Tester

Diisi data
pekerjaan
Dperiksa Disetujui
Amankan dilaksanakan
Gas test
Saran

Gas test
sertifikat

Pekerjaan
dilaksanakan

File File File


Ijin Kerja Penggalian
• Diperlukan untuk pekerjaan yang
melakukan galian tanah :
– Penggalian jalur pipa
– Penggalian tanah untuk konstruksi
– dll
Safe Work Permits

Excavations :

Penggalian dapat menimbulkan bahaya


dan kerusakan terhadap sarana yang ada
di bawah tanah, seperti pipa, saluran gas,
kabel listrik, telpon dsb
Galian juga dapat mengakibatkan bahaya
jatuh atau tertimbun tanah galian
Safe Work Permits

Excavations may expose hazardous materials, which have leaked and are
contaminating the soil.

Permits ensure that procedures to protect workers from exposure to toxic


substances have been identified.
Ijin Kerja Listrik
• Untuk melindungi pekerjaan yang
menggunakan peralatan listrik atau
bekerja pada lingkungan peralatan atau
sarana pembangkit dan penyalur listrik
Safe Work Permits

Permits diperlukan sebelum


bekerja pada saluran
bertegangan listrik, untuk
memastikan keamanan bagi
pekerja yang menanganinya
Safe Work Permits

Unauthorized use of company


equipment can result in lost
production and injury to untrained
operators.

Permits prevent company equipment


from being taken by contractors
without the permission of area
management, and require
verification of equipment operator
training.
Safe Work Permits

Work which ordinarily does not require safe work


permits may be included at the discretion of the
Safety Representative, the Contractor, or the Contract
Administrator.
Safe Work Permits

Following are examples of situations which may require


discretionary safe work permits.

There could be many others:


Safe Work Permits
Movement of large pieces of
equipment, especially while
other personnel are working
nearby, can result in employee
injury.

Permits may be issued to ensure


the use of procedures that will
prevent employee injury from
falling material, or being struck
by rigging equipment.
Safe Work Permits

Abandoned tanks, pipe lines,


drums, and vessels may contain
hazardous vapors and gases.

Permits may be issued to prevent


toxic or corrosive exposures to workers
when working on abandoned
equipment, complementing hot work
and confined space permits.

?
PREPARATION OF THE EQUIPMENT

• Equipment electrically isolated


• Inspection tested(for cold & hot job)
• Isolated from steam,air & gas
• Depressurized
• Drained
• Positively isolated/blinded
• Steamed & water flushed
PREPARATION OF EQUIP. CONTD.
• Ventilated & gas freed
• Continuous inert gas flow / continuous
adequate ventilation arranged.
• Vehicle/equipment in good condition with
spark arrested
• Radiation source removed(Confined space
entry)
PREPARATION OF EQUIP. CONTD.
• Ventilated & gas freed
• Continuous inert gas flow / continuous
adequate ventilation arranged.
• Vehicle/equipment in good condition with
spark arrested
• Radiation source removed(Confined space
entry)
RESIDUAL HAZARDS
• Lack of oxygen
• H2S and/or any other toxic gases
• Combustible gases
• Corrosive chemicals
• Steam / Condensate
• Pyrophoric iron
• High humidity
RESIDUAL HAZARDS
• Lack of oxygen
• H2S and/or any other toxic gases
• Combustible gases
• Corrosive chemicals
• Steam / Condensate
• Pyrophoric iron
• High humidity
PROTECTION MEASURES
• Protective clothing
• Hearing protection
• Safety Harness
• Eye protection
• Face protection
• Respiratory protection
• Keep fire equipment stand-by
PROTECTIVE MEASURES CONTD.
• Barricade the area
• Remove flammable and combustible
• Cover with fire retardant tarpaulin
• Crane with basket stand-by
• Attendance with Airline set
• keep man ways open
• Allow minimum possible no. of persons inside
confined space
PROTECTIVE MEASURES
CONTD.

• To ensure positive isolation & maintain it


all through
• Ensure adequate ventilation all through
• Display copy of entry permit near entry
manhole
GAS TEST FOR WORK PERMIT
Why gas test is required ?
• Most of the gases are unwanted
Hazards involved -
• Flammability(Fire & Explosion)
• Toxicity(health hazard)
• Oxygen Deficiency
GAS TEST FOR WORK PERMIT

Common flammable gases/liquids in


refinery are -
• All petroleum products,Crude and
intermediates
• Hydrogen
• LPG
• Common toxic gases in refinery -
• H2S, CO,NH3,CL2, etc.
GAS TEST FOR WORK PERMIT
COMMON TERMINOLOGIES :
For flammable substances:
• Flash Point :
Minimum temp. at which a liquid gives off
sufficient vapor to form an ignitable mix. It
will give a flash, flame will not continue.
Auto Ignition Temp.:
The lowest temp. to which a substance will
ignite without a spark or flame.
GAS TEST FOR WORK PERMIT
• Explosive limit :
The concentration range of vapor in
air when propagation of
flame(ignition) occurs in presence of
an ignition source.
• LEL (Lower Explosive Limit) :
The minimum concentration of vapor
to air required to propagate(ignite)
flame.
GAS TEST FOR WORK PERMIT
• UEL(Upper Explosive Limit) :
The maximum vapor to air conc.above
which propagation of a flame will not
occur(will not ignite).
GAS TEST FOR WORK PERMIT

Material LEL UEL F Pt.(C) AIT(C)


Hydrogen 4 75 Gas 585
Methane 5 15 Gas 538
Propane 2 9.5 - 104 466
Naphtha 1.1 5.9 - 18 288
ATK/ATF 0.7 5.0 35-50 210
Diesel 0.7 5.0 32-96 256
Fuel Oil 1 5.0 66 262-407
GAS TEST CONTD.
Toxic substances :
TLV (Threshold Limit Value / PEL(Permissible
Exposure Limit) :
The maximum permissible conc. of a toxic
substance to which exposure of a person will
have no adverse effect on health for working 8
hrs per day.
STEL(Short Term Exposure Limit) :
Maximum conc. to which worker can be exposed
for a period of 15 mins. without any adverse
effect to health.
GAS TEST CONTD.
IDLH(Immediate Danger to Life & Health)
• A maximum conc. from which one can
escape within 30 mins. without irreversible
health effect.

•HYDROGEN SULPHIDE (H2S)


Highly toxic, combustible, colorless.
Smells like rotten egg.
GAS TEST - H2S
EFFECTS ON HUMAN BODY
PHYSICAL EFFECT CONC.(PPM)
Can be smelled as rotten egg 0.13
TLV 10
STEL 15
Smelling sense will dry within 150 - 200
2 mins, burning sensation in
eye & throat
GAS TEST - H2S CONTD.
PHYSICAL EFFECT CONC(PPM)
IDLH(Loss of smelling sense, 300
heavy breathing, dizziness,
headache,and total collapse
within 1 to 4 Hrs)
Dizziness,headache,lungs 450
problem and total collapse within 30 to
60 mins.
GAS TEST-H2S CONTD.
PHYSICAL EFFECT CONC(PPM)
Slow down of heart beats, 700
heavy breathing with coughing,
then death, if not rescued

Fatal emergency over 700

Explosive limits : 4.6 to 46%, it gives blue flame


when ignited.
GAS TEST-H2S CONTD.
FIRST AID :
IF INHALED -
Remove exposed person to fresh air and
administer oxygen immediately.
PROTECTION:
Use fresh air mask in case conc. exceeds
10 PPM
TOXIC GAS - CO
TOXIC AS WELL AS FLAMMABLE
TLV - 50 PPM
STEL - 400 PPM
IDLH - 1500 PPM
LEL - 12.5%
UEL - 74 %
GAS TEST - CO
HEALTH HAZARDS:
CO combines with hemoglobin of blood and
make it unable to carry oxygen.
Symptoms : Headache, dizziness to
unconscious and ultimately death.
First Aid :
Remove to fresh air and apply oxygen at the
earliest.
OTHER TOXIC GASES
TOXIC GAS TLV STEL IDLH

NH3 25 35 -
SO2 2 5 -
CL2 0.5 1 30
GAS TEST CONTD.

For hot work the gas test results shall be :


• Combustible - Below 1 % LEL
( Preferably NIL)
For confined space entry :
• Oxygen - 19.5% minimum
• Combustible - 10 % LEL Max.
• Toxic gases - below TLV
GAS TEST CONTD.
Confined space With BA protection :
• Combustible - 20% of LEL maximum
• H2S - Less than 100 PPM
• CO - Less than 500 PPM
However, no hot job can be carried out
inside the confined space at this
condition.
WORKS NEED GAS TEST
• Gas tests are required for all hot
work/vehicle entry and confined space
entry permits & some cold permits also.
• Issuing authority shall determine the
requirement of gas test & frequency of
re-checking.
• Trained Gas tester only shall carry out
the test.
RESPONSIBILIES OF GAS
TESTING AUTHORITY
• To check & confirm that the gas
testing instrument is working in
perfect condition before proceeding
for the area/equipment
• To carry out gas test at all critical
locations/positions
• To advise on safe method to work
inside/at the location i.e., further
gas freeing , use of PPE etc.
ELECTRICAL ISOLATION
• Before issuing a Work Permit, it is
essential to ensure that the equipment /
facility to be worked on is electrically
safe and electrical power is isolated to
the extent necessary for the safe
conduct of the authorized work.
• Issuing, Executing authorities and
Electrical Maintenance shall jointly
decide the extent of isolation required.
SPECIAL REQUIREMENT FOR -
WORKING WITH RADIOGRAPHY

• Risk assessment through checklist


• Barricade the area and provide adequate warning
signs.
• Film badges and Dosimeters shall be worn by
personnel handling radiography equip.
• job preferably during night time or with least or no
person around.
• Continuous monitoring of cordoned off area
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR HOT WORK

• The person who authorizes the Hot Work


Permit is responsible for ensuring that the site
and the equipment are properly prepared to
prevent the danger of fire & explosion involving
flammable material.
• The equipment shall be emptied and cleaned
of flammable materials and isolated from
sources of hydrocarbons by means of
disconnection, blanking or insertion of blinds.
• Equipment and surrounding areas shall be checked
to ensure that they are free from any combustible
gas.Carry out gas test.
• Any heavy oil deposit, dried vegetation or other
flammable / combustible materials within 8 m of a hot
work site shall be cleared away.
• No hot work shall be allowed within a radius of 15 m
of any sample point, drain or relief valve outlet unless
precautions have been taken to prevent the escape
of flammable liquids and vapors.
• The outlet of all units drain seals within 15 m of the
hot work shall be plugged.
• If welding or grinding is to be done at height, then
precautions shall be taken to prevent the spread of
sparks and molten metal to the surrounding of the
work area with fire-resisting or flame-retarding
tarpaulin.
• A hose capable of reaching up to the hot work point
and connected to fire water main.
• Fire Station (333/5989) shall be informed of hot
work.
VEHICLE ENTRY
• A Hot Work / Vehicle Entry Permit is required for
entry of all vehicles in hazardous areas. Such
areas shall be clearly demarcated with signs
indicating “No Entry without Vehicle Entry Permit”
and/or with removable chain.
• The signatory authorities shall ensure that all
vehicles / equipment exhaust are equipped with
spark arrestors of approved type.
• Entry shall only be allowed for loading and
unloading of materials and not for passenger
transport.
REQUIREMENTS FOR CONFINED
SPACE ENTRY
• The process vessel / equipment is to be
positively isolated by blinding.
• Shall be made safe for entry by
depressurizing, venting, draining, steaming,
washing and ventilating. Radiation sources ,if
any, shall be removed.
• The atmosphere within the confined space
shall be checked initially and periodically(gas
test).
EXCAVATION AUTHORIZATION

• An excavation authorization is required for all


excavations. Detail drawings of the
underground facilities shall remain attached
with the authorization if available.
• In addition to an Excavation Authorization a
Cold / Hot work Permit is required to work.
• For excavations more than 1.2 meter deep
confined space entry permit is required. Gas
tests shall be done as per entry permit
requirements.
SUSPENSION OF WORK PERMIT
• All work shall immediately stop when a fire
or emergency alarm is sounded or
accident of any kind occurs. Approval
from the F&S shall be obtained after
necessary preliminary investigations, to
resume such work.
• The Work Permit shall be revalidated to
resume the work.
• Any responsible member operation or
F&S is authorized to suspend work and
withdraw the Work Permit if, safety
regulations are violated.
• If work is not started or is stopped for
over two hours, the permit shall be
revalidated by the issuing authority.
VALIDITY OF PERMIT

• Work permit shall be initially issued for a


period of 8 hrs. and shall be renewed for
one more shift .
• On need basis , permit can be given for
max. 7 days period.
• Clearance to be obtained every shift.
• Clearance to be given after physically
checking the site.