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 Dionee Liefman 2008

Iodine Clock Reaction Kinetics


Introduction
The aim of this experiment is to determine the effect of the reactant concentration
and temperature on the rate of a chemical reaction.

This reaction is the oxidation of the iodide ion (I-) to molecular iodine (I2) using
sodium persulphate (Na2S2O8):

2I-(aq) + S2O82-(aq)  I2(aq) + 2SO42-(aq) (1)

Ordinarily upon the completion of this reaction, the solution would become a brown
colour, denoting the presence of I2 molecules. However, thiosulphate ions were also
added to this mixture (S2O32-) causing the reaction below to occur instantaneously
as I2 is produced:

I2 + 2S2O32-  2I- + S4O62- (2)

This second reaction is so fast that the brown colour of I2 is unable to develop, as the
thiosulphate ions reduce the iodine back to iodide ions instantaneously.

As the I2 is in excess and the thiosulphate ions are a limited reagent, the fixed
amount of thiosulphate added will soon be used up. Thus, the excess I2 molecules
that were not reduced by the thiosulphate will react with the I- ions produced and the
starch indicator added will react with the subsequent I3- in the solution, displaying a
blue colour.

The initial concentration of thiosulphate is known and the duration of time for the
thiosulphate to be consumed was measured, so the rate of reaction 1 can be
determined. Reaction 2 is known as the ‘iodine clock’ reaction.

By repeating this experiment with different concentrations of S2O82- and I-, the effect
of these changing persulphate and iodide ion concentrations on the initial rate of
reaction 1 can be determined.

Procedure

150 mL beakers, stirrer bead, 2 measuring cylinders


Solution A: 0.20M potassium iodide solution
Solution B: 0.005M sodium thiosulphate solution
Solution C: 0.10M sodium persulphate

(1) The two graduated measuring cylinders were labelled – one cylinder labelled
I- and the other labelled S2O82-. A beaker was filled with 120mL of iodide
solution and another was filled with 120mL of persulphate solution.
(2) 10mL of thiosulphate (same for all mixtures) was measured into a 150mL
beaker, 3 drops of starch was added and a stirring bead was placed inside.
(3) As one person poured in the correct volumes of iodine and persulphate
(volume specific to trial), the other person started the timer. The exact time
the solution turned blue was measured.
 Dionee Liefman 2008

Results
Data Table 1: Proportions of mixing

Mixture Solution A (I-) Water (mL) Solution B (S2O3-) Solution C


(mL) (mL) (S2O82-) (mL)
1 20.0 0.0 10.0 20.0
2 15.0 5.0 10.0 20.0
3 10.0 10.0 10.0 20.0
4 5.0 15.0 10.0 20.0
5 20.0 5.0 10.0 15.0
6 20.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
7 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0

Data Table 2: Observed results

Mixture Temperature (°C) Time for colour to appear Average class time of
(s) reaction (s)
1 20 88 89 ± 3
2 19 136 131 ± 4
3 19 227 220 ± 3
4 20 506 493 ± 5
5 20 124 125 ± 5
6 20 193 198 ± 5
7 20 427 421 ±

Data Table 3: Calculating approx. initial rate

Trial [I-] [S2O82-] Approx. initial rate


1 8x10-2 4x10-2 5.6x10-6
2 6x10-2 4x10-2 3.8x10-6
3 4x10-2 4x10-2 2.3x10-6
4 2x10-2 4x10-2 1.0x10-6
5 8x10-2 3x10-2 4.0x10-6
6 8x10-2 2x10-2 2.5x10-6
7 8x10-2 1x10-2 1.2x10-6

n(I2) used/consumed = 5x10-5 mol/2 = 2.5x10-5 mol

If this I2 hadn’t been removed from the solution by the 2S2O32- the concentration of I2
would have gotten up to:

[I2] = n/v = 2.5x10-5/50x10-3 = 5x10-4M

Approx. initial rate of reaction = [I2]/∆t = 5x10-4/89 = 5.6x10-6 M-1s-1

Calculations
Calculating the rate law equation for this reaction:

R1/R3 = k [I-]a [S2O82-]b / k [I-]a [S2O82-]b

5.6/2.3 = [I-]a / [I-]a

2.43 = 2a
 Dionee Liefman 2008

a = 1.22

R1/R2 = k [I-]a [S2O82-]b / k [I-]a [S2O82-]b

5.6/3.8 = [I-]a / [I-]a

1.47 = (4/3)a

1.47 = 1.33a

a = 1.35

R1/R4 = k [I-]a [S2O82-]b / k [I-]a [S2O82-]b

5.6/1.0 = (8/2)a

5.6 = 4a

a = 1.24

R1/R5 = [S2O82-]b / [S2O82-]b

5.6/4.0 = (4/3)b

b = 1.17

R1/R6 = [S2O82-]b / [S2O82-]b

5.6/2.5 = 2b

b = 1.16

R1/R7 = [S2O82-]b / [S2O82-]b

5.6/1.2 = 4b

b = 1.14

The average calculated value for b = 1.14

Thus, rate = k [I-]1.25 [S2O82-]1.14