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# Standard scores

Unit IV

## Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Dept of Education, RGU

Measures of relative
position
★Measures of relative position indicate where a score falls
in relation to all other scores in the distribution.
★Researchers often want to assess an individual’s relative
position in a group or to compare the relative position of
one individual on two or more measures or of two or more
individuals on the same measure.
★The most widely used statistics for these purposes are z
scores, stanines, other standard scores, and percentile rank.

Z score

## The most widely used measure of relative position is the z

score, which indicates the positive or negative difference
between an individual score and the mean as measured in
standard deviation units. The z score is defined as the
distance of a score from the mean as measured by standard
deviation units.

Mean

## Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Dept of Education, RGU

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Dept of Education, RGU
Stanine scores

## Stanines avoid negative numbers and decimals. The formula for

stanines is 2z+5. You convert a z score to a stanine by multiplying
by 2 and adding 5. Stanines are always rounded to the nearest
whole number. Whenever this formula yields a result greater
than 9, the value 9 is assigned. Whenever the result is less than 1,
the value 1 is assigned. Stanine scores are not useful for
comparing extreme scores. Stanines are easy to comprehend.
Like all transformations of the z score, they have universal
meaning. A stanine score of 4 always means below average but
not too far below average. Stanines are often used in school
systems for reporting students’ standardized test scores.

T score

## T Score is another standardized score that has the mean

set at 50 and a standard deviation set at 10. In the T-score
method, the mean is set at 50, unlike in z score where the
value of mean is zero. To obtain a T-score, the z score is
multiplied by 10 and then added to or subtracted from the
mean T-score of 50. The scale used in the computation of
T scores is called a “fifty plus or minus ten” scale.

## Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Dept of Education, RGU

T score
T=10z+ 50
Thus, a standard score of +1.00 becomes a T-score of 60, while
that of -1.00 becomes a T-score of 40. T – score can never have a
negative value gives it an advantage over z-score. Further, T-
score, found for an individual, is relevant only to the distribution
of scores of the group from which the values have been derived
and with which his score is being compared. A widely used
personality test, Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory
(MMPI) uses T –scores as standardized measure.

## Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Dept of Education, RGU

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Dept of Education, RGU
✴Z score, indicates in terms of standard deviation
as to how far a particular score is below or above
the mean of the distribution. The mean and
standard deviation of a set of z scores are 0 and 1,
respectively. With the help of z-score, a raw score
on a distribution can be transformed to an
equivalent score on the other distribution.
✴T score is another standardized score that has the
mean set at 50 and a standard deviation set at 10.
✴In stanine scores, the standard population is
divided into nine groups; that is ’standard nine’
termed as ‘stanine’.
Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Dept of Education, RGU