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Job Number Sheet

Job Title
Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd Client
Internet: http://www.prokon.com
E-Mail : mail@prokon.com Calcs by Checked by Date

Design code : BS8110 - 1997 b=150

d'y=37 Y
General design parameters:
150
Given:
d'x=37

h = 150 mm
b = 150 mm 100
d'x = 37 mm
h=150

d'y = 37 mm X X
Lo = 3.200 m 50
fcu = 25 MPa
fy = 460 MPa
0
Design chart for bending about the X-X axis:
Y
100

150
50

Column design chart (X-X)
0

Moment max = 27.04kNm @ 101 kN
800
700
600
500
400
300

200  0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6%

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.0

12.0

14.0

16.0

18.0

20.0

22.0

24.0

26.0

28.0

100

-100
-200
-300
-400
-500

Bending moment (kNm)
Job Number Sheet
Job Title
Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd Client
Internet: http://www.prokon.com
E-Mail : mail@prokon.com Calcs by Checked by Date

Design chart for bending about the Y-Y axis:

Column design chart (Y-Y)

Moment max = 27.01kNm @ 101 kN
800
700
600
500
400
300

200  0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6%

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.0

12.0

14.0

16.0

18.0

20.0

22.0

24.0

26.0

28.0
100

-100
-200
-300
-400
-500

Bending moment (kNm)

Therefore:

Ac = b . h
= .15 ×.1501
= 0.0225 m²

h' = h - d'x
= .1501 - .037
= 0.1131 m

b' = b - d'y
= .15 - .037
= 0.1130 m

Assumptions:
(1) The general conditions of clause 3.8.1 are applicable.
(2) The section is symmetrically reinforced.
(3) The specified design axial loads include the self-weight of the column.
(4) The design axial loads are taken constant over the height of the column.
Job Number Sheet
Job Title
Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd Client
Internet: http://www.prokon.com
E-Mail : mail@prokon.com Calcs by Checked by Date

Design approach:
The column is designed using an iterative procedure:
(1) The column design charts are constructed.
(2) An area steel is chosen.
(3) The corresponding slenderness moments are calculated.
(4) The design axis/axes and design ultimate moment(s) is/are determined .
(5) The steel required for the design axial force and moments is read from
the relevant design charts.
(6) The procedure is repeated until the convergence of the area steel
about the design axis/axes.
(7) The area steel for the secondary design axis is read from the relevant
design chart.

Check column slenderness:

End fixity and bracing for bending about the X-X axis:
The column is braced.
\ ßx = 0.90 Table 3.21

End fixity and bracing for bending about the Y-Y axis:
The column is braced.
\ ßy = 0.90 Table 3.21

lex = ßx. Lo
= .9 ×3.2
= 2.880 m

ley = ßy. Lo
= .9 ×3.2
= 2.880 m

Column slenderness about both axes:

lex
lx =
h
2.88
=
.1501
= 19.187

ley
ly =
b
2.88
=
.15
= 19.200
Job Number Sheet
Job Title
Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd Client
Internet: http://www.prokon.com
E-Mail : mail@prokon.com Calcs by Checked by Date

Minimum Moments for Design:

Check for mininum eccentricity: 3.8.2.4
For bi-axial bending, it is only necessary to ensure that the eccentricity
exceeds the minimum about one axis at a time.

For the worst effect, apply the minimum eccentricity about the minor axis:

eminx = 0.05 . h
= 0.05 ×.1501
= 0.0075 m

eminy = 0.05 . b
= 0.05 ×.15
= 0.0075 m

Mmin = emin. N
= .0075 ×210
= 1.575 kNm

lx = 19.2 > 15

ly = 19.2 > 15

\ Slenderness limit not exceeded.

Initial moments:
The initial end moments about the X-X axis:
M1 = Smaller initial end moment = 0.0 kNm
M2 = Larger initial end moment = 0.0 kNm

The initial moment near mid-height of the column : 3.8.3.2

Mi = - 0.4 . M1 + 0.6 . M2
= - 0.4 ×0 + 0.6 ×0
= 0.0000×100 kNm
Job Number Sheet
Job Title
Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd Client
Internet: http://www.prokon.com
E-Mail : mail@prokon.com Calcs by Checked by Date

Mi2 = 0.4 . M2
= 0.4 ×0
= 0.0000×100 kNm

The initial end moments about the Y-Y axis:

M1 = Smaller initial end moment = 0.0 kNm
M2 = Larger initial end moment = 0.0 kNm

The initial moment near mid-height of the column : 3.8.3.2

Mi = - 0.4 . M1 + 0.6 . M2
= - 0.4 ×0 + 0.6 ×0
= 0.0000×100 kNm

Mi2 = 0.4 . M2
= 0.4 ×0
= 0.0000×100 kNm

Deflection induced moments: 3.8.3.1

Design ultimate capacity of section under axial load only:

Nuz = 0.4444 . f cu. Ac + 0.95 . f y. Asc

= 0.4444 ×25000 ×.02251 + 0.95 ×460000 ×.00009
= 289.416 kN

Allowable compression stress in steel

f sc = 0.95 . f y
= 0.95 ×460
= 437.000 MPa

Allowable tensile stress in steel

f st = 0.95 . f y
= 0.95 ×460
= 437.000 MPa
Job Number Sheet
Job Title
Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd Client
Internet: http://www.prokon.com
E-Mail : mail@prokon.com Calcs by Checked by Date

f st
ey =
Es
438.1
=
200000
= 0.0022

ec = 0.0035

For bending about the X-X axis:

Balanced neutral axis depth

h - dcx
xbal =
ey
1 +
cstrain
.1501 - .037
=
.00219
1 +
.0035
= 0.0696 m

At
Nbal = 0.4444 . ß . b . f cu. xbal + . (f sd - f s)
2
.00009
= 0.4444 ×.9 ×.15 ×25000 ×.06956 + ×(438095 - 438095 )
2
= 104.330 kN

Nuz - N
K=
Nuz - Nbal
289.66 - 210
=
289.66 - 104.35
= 0.4299

1 . lex 2
ßa =
2000 h
1 2.88 2
= ×
2000 .1501
= 0.1841
Job Number Sheet
Job Title
Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd Client
Internet: http://www.prokon.com
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Therefore:

Madd = N . ßa. K . h
= 210 ×.18407 ×.42985 ×.1501
= 2.494

For bending about the Y-Y axis:

Balanced neutral axis depth

b - dcy
xbal =
ey
1+
cstrain
.15 - .037
=
.00219
1+
.0035
= 0.0695 m

At
Nbal = 0.4444 . ß . h . f cu. xbal + . (f sd - f s)
2
.00009
= 0.4444 ×.9 ×.1501 ×25000 ×.0695 + ×(438095 - 438095 )
2
= 104.309 kN

Nuz - N
K=
Nuz - Nbal
289.66 - 210
=
289.66 - 104.32
= 0.4298

1 . ley 2
ßa =
2000 b
1 2.88 2
= ×
2000 .15
= 0.1843

Therefore:

Madd = N . ßa. K . b
= 210 ×.18432 ×.4298 ×.15
= 2.495
Job Number Sheet
Job Title
Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd Client
Internet: http://www.prokon.com
E-Mail : mail@prokon.com Calcs by Checked by Date

Design ultimate load and moment:

Pu = 210.0 kN

For bending about the X-X axis, the maximum design moment is the greatest of: 3.8.3.2
(a) 3.8.3.2

M2 = 0.0 kNm

(b) 3.8.3.2

M = Mi + Madd
= 0 + 2.4941
= 2.494 kNm

(c) 3.8.3.2

M = M1 +
2
2.4941
=0 +
2
= 1.247 kNm

(d) 3.8.3.2

M = emin. N
= .0075 ×210
= 1.575 kNm

Thus 3.8.3.2

M = 2.5 kNm

Moment distribution along the height of the column for bending about the X-X:
At the top, Mx = 1.6 kNm
Near mid-height, Mx = 2.5 kNm
At the bottom, Mx = 0.0 kNm
Job Number Sheet
Job Title
Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd Client
Internet: http://www.prokon.com
E-Mail : mail@prokon.com Calcs by Checked by Date

Moments about X-X axis( kNm)
Mx=2.5 kNm
Mxtop=0.0 kNm Madd/2=1.2 kNm Mxmin=1.6 kNm

+ =

For bending about the Y-Y axis, the maximum design moment is the greatest of: 3.8.3.2
(a) 3.8.3.2

M2 = 0.0 kNm

(b) 3.8.3.2

M = Mi + Madd
= 0 + 2.4955
= 2.495 kNm

(c) 3.8.3.2

M = M1 +
2
2.4955
=0 +
2
= 1.248 kNm

(d) 3.8.3.2

M = emin. N
= .0075 ×210
= 1.575 kNm

Thus 3.8.3.2

M = 2.5 kNm
Job Number Sheet
Job Title
Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd Client
Internet: http://www.prokon.com
E-Mail : mail@prokon.com Calcs by Checked by Date

Moment distribution along the height of the column for bending about the Y-Y:
At the top, My = 1.6 kNm
Near mid-height, My = 2.5 kNm
At the bottom, My = 1.6 kNm

Moments about Y-Y axis( kNm)
My=2.5 kNm
Mytop=0.0 kNm Madd/2=1.2 kNm Mymin=1.6 kNm

+ =

Design of column section for ULS:

Through inspection:
The critical section lies near mid-height of the column.

The effective uniaxial design moment about the Y-Y axis:

Table 3.24

7.
N
6
ß=1 - . .
b h f cu
7
×210000
6
=1 -
.15 ×.1501 ×2500×104
= 0.5647

ß . (b - dcy).
M'y = My + Mx
h - dcx
.56473 ×(.15 - .037 )
= 2.4955 + ×2.4941
.1501 - .037
= 3.903 kNm
Job Number Sheet
Job Title
Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd Client
Internet: http://www.prokon.com
E-Mail : mail@prokon.com Calcs by Checked by Date

For bending about the design axis:

Column design chart (Y-Y)

Moment max = 27.01kNm @ 101 kN
800
700
600
500
400
300

200  0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6%

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.0

12.0

14.0

16.0

18.0

20.0

22.0

24.0

26.0

28.0
100

-100
-200
-300
-400
-500

Bending moment (kNm)

Minimum reinforcement required for bending about the X-X axis only:
From the design chart, Asc = 90 mm² = 0.40%

For bending about the design axis - use the Y-axis:

Column design chart (Y-Y)
Moment max = 27.01kNm @ 101 kN

800
700
600
500
400
300

200  0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6%

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.0

12.0

14.0

16.0

18.0

20.0

22.0

24.0

26.0

28.0

100

-100
-200
-300
-400
-500

Bending moment (kNm)
Job Number Sheet
Job Title
Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd Client
Internet: http://www.prokon.com
E-Mail : mail@prokon.com Calcs by Checked by Date

Summary of design calculations:

Design results for all load cases:

Load case Axis N (kN) M1 (kNm) M2 (kNm) Mi (kNm) Madd (kNm) Design M (kNm) M' (kNm) Asc (mm²)

X-X 0.0   0.0      0.0   2.5   Y-Y 2.5      90  (0.40%)

Y-Y 210.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   2.5   Middle 2.5   3.9 90  (0.40%)