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2 CLEANSING ACTIVITY

CHEMICAL FOR CONSUMER

The cleansing action of soap and detergent


The cleansing action for soaps and detergent results from their
ability;
i. to lower the surface tension of water,
ii. to emulsify oil or grease / dirt, and
iii. to hold them in suspension in water.

This ability is due to the structure of soaps and detergent

Structure of soaps
Soap consists of sodium/potassium cations and soap anions.
When a sodium/potassium soap is dissolve in water, it will form
soap anions and sodium ion, Na+ or potassium ion, K+

Sodium soap  soap anions + sodium cations [Na+]


Potassium soap  soap anions + potassium cations [K+]

What is soap anions?

CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 O

CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 C


O−

Hydrophobic Hydrophilic
[hydrocarbon chains] [carboxilate group]

COO−
Soap anions

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From the diagram above shows that the structure of soap anions
consists of,
hydrocarbon chains known as hydrophobic part
carboxylate/ionic group known as hydrophilic part

Structure of detergent
Detergent of sodium cations and detergent anions.
When a detergent is dissolve in water, it will form detergent anions
and sodium ion, Na+.

What is detergent anions?

i) Sodium alkyl sulphate detergent


O
CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 ║
‫׀‬
O─S─O−
Na +
CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 ║
O

Hydrophobic Hydrophilic
[hydrocarbon/alkyl chains] [sulphate ions]

OSO3−

Alkyl sulphate ion

From the diagram above shows that the structure of alkyl sulphate
anions consists of,
i. hydrocarbon/alkyl chains known as hydrophobic part
ii. sulphate/ionic group known as hydrophilic part

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i) Sodium alkyl benzene sulphonate detergent
O
CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 ║
CH2 ‫׀‬
─S─O−
Na +
CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 ║
O

Hydrophobic Hydrophilic
[hydrocarbon/alkyl benzene chains] [sulphonate ions]

SO3−

Alkylbenzene sulphonate anios

From the diagram above shows that the structure of alkyl benzene
sulphonate anions consists of,
i. hydrocarbon/alkyl benzene chains known as hydrophobic
part
ii. sulphonate/ionic group known as hydrophilic part

Remember this;
In water, soap and detergent dissolves to form soap anions and
detergent anions. The anions will carry out the cleansing action,
because these anions consists of hydrophobic and hydrophilic part.
Why?
• Hydrophobic is water-hating part, is soluble in oil/grease/dirt,
but insoluble in water.
• Hydrophilic is water-loving part, is soluble in water but
insoluble in oil/grease/dirt.
• Both of the properties of anions, makes soap and detergent act
as an effective cleansing agent.

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How soap and detergent carry out the cleansing action?

+ + ─ + ─
Sodium ion
─ +
─ ─ +
Soap/detergent ion
─ ─ +
Grease/dirt +
+
+
─ ─

Dirt cloth

- The cloth is dipped in a soap or detergent solutions.


- Soap and detergent reduces the surface tension of water.
- This increase the wetting ability of water, therefore the surface of
the cloth is wetted thoroughly.

+ +
+ + +

+
+ Hydrophilic part +
─ ─ ─ ─ ─
─ ─ ─
+

Hydrophobic
part

- Hydrophilic part dissolves in water.


- Hydrophobic part dissolves in dirt/grease.

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+
+ +
+
+
─ ─ ─
+

─ ─ ─ ─ ─
+
─ ─
+ ─ ─
─ ─ ─
+ +

- Mechanical agitation during scrubbing helps pull the dirt/grease


free, and break the grease into small part.

+ +
+
+
─ ─ ─
─ ─ ─
─ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─ +
─ + ─ ─
─ ─ ─
─ ─ ─ ─ ─ +
─ ─ ─ ─
─ ─ ─

+ +

- The droplets do not coagulate and redeposit on the surface of the


cloth because the repulsion between the negative charges on their
surface.
- The droplets is suspended in the water forming an emulsion.
- Rinsing washes away these droplets and leaves the surface clean.
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2 CLEANSING ACTIVITY
The effectiveness action of soap and detergent

Advantages of soap
1. Soap are effective cleaning agent in soft water.
- Soft water did not contains Mg2+ ions and Ca2+ ions.
- Example: rain water, tap water

2. Soap does not polluted the environment.


- Soap is biodegradable (can be decomposed by bacteria)
because it was made from substance that found in animal
and plant.

3. Soap will not harmed the aquatic life.


- Soap will not change pH value of river and pool because
soap is salt and weak alkali.

Disadvantage of soap
1. Soap is not suitable for use in hard water.
2+ 2+
- Hard water contains Mg ions and Ca ions.
- Example: Sea water, river water

Why not suitable?


2+ 2+
- Mg and Ca ions react with the soap ions to form an
insoluble precipitate known as soap scum.
- Soap scum reduces the amount of soap available for
cleaning, thus wasting soap.
- Soap scum does not rinse away easily.
- Soap scum can form deposits on clothes causing them to
be grey or yellow in colour.

2. Soap did not effective in acidic water.


- Soap ion react with ion H+ to produce carboxylic acid
molecule.
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Advantage of detergent
1. Detergent is effective in hard and soft water.
- Detergent do not form scum with hard water.
- Detergent form soluble substances with calcium or
magnesium ions.

2. Detergent effective in acidic water


- Detergent ion did not combine with H+ .

3. Detergent is synthetic cleansing agent.


- Structure of the hydrocarbon chain can be modified to
produce detergents with specific properties.

Disadvantage of detergent
1. Detergent can cause pollution to environment
- Detergents not biodegradable, so that it cannot be
decomposed by bacteria

2. Detergent harmed to aquatic life


- Detergent contains phosphate fertilizer will increases the
growth of seaweed and algae in pond or river. Lots of
soluble oxygen in water will be use up by bacteria to
decompose seaweed and algae when the plant died.
The content of oxygen in water decreases, thus can kill
aquatic life.

3. Detergent produce a lot of foam.


- Foam can cover the water surface and prevent the
oxygen dissolves into water, thus will kill aquatic life.

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Additives in detergent
The main substance in detergent is sodium alkyl benzene
sulphonate and sodium alkyl sulphate. Example of detergent is
shampoo, clothes washing powder and dishes washing liquid.

Various type of additive is also added to detergent to enhance the


cleaning efficiency and to meet the needs of consumers.

additives Function
React as bleach agent to vanished the colour
Whitening agent
stain but did not fade the colour of the
(sodium perborate)
clothes.
React to substance that in organic properties
Biological enzymes
like blood, food and water. Enzymes
(amilase, lipase,
dissolve and change it to substance that can
protease, selulase)
dissolve in water.
Fluorescent agent Make the clothes more white, shiny and
(Blancophor) bright.
Buildup agent
Soften hard water, expel ion Mg2+ dan Ca2+ .
(sodium
increase the pH value
tripoliphosphate)
Drying agent
Ensured that the detergent is always in a dry
(sodium sulphate,
condition.
Sodium silicate)
Stabilizers To prevent the formation of foam
Perfumes To make clothes smell fresh and clean.

To kill all microorganism that cause disease


Antiseptic substance
and smell.

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