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Dr. Faheem Qaisar Jamal


Course Name Advanced Research Methodology
Course Code EM-843
Credit Hours 3
Instructor Dr Faheem Qaisar Jamal
Visiting Hours Monday (1200 – 1600 Hours)


Understanding Science
and Research
Dr.Faheem Qaisar Jamal

Week 1: Lecture 1
Neumann: Chapter 1: pp 1-12.
O’leary: Chapter 1: pps 1-4
Neumann, selected portions of Ch 2.
What is Science
• Science is both the system of producing knowledge and the knowledge
produced from that system.
• The Scientific method is used in research. Science grew from a major shift
in thinking in Europe from the Age of Darkness 1000 A.D to 1500s A.D to
the Age of Reason and Enlightenment from 1600-1800s.
• Science includes a faith in logical reasoning, emphasis on experiences in the
material world, a belief in human progress, questioning of religious belief.
• Separation of religion from science.
• Before this time created new knowledge by using prescientific methods or
nonscientific methods.
• Oracles, mysticism, magic, astrology or spirits.
• These methods still exist but are secondary to science.
• For certain subjects such as Religion, Art or Philosophy these are still
the primary methods of learning.
What is Science ?
⚫ Neumann initially presents us some common ideas on what
science is?
⚫ The system of producing knowledge and the knowledge
produced from that system (Science) has evolved slowly over
many years and is slowly and constantly changing.
⚫ Thus the process for producing new knowledge about the
social world has to use a scientific approach in order to be
recognized as new knowledge.
⚫ It combines assumptions about the nature of the world and
knowledge; an orientation toward knowledge; and sets of
procedures, techniques and instruments for gaining
⚫ Science is even visible in a social institution called the scientific
What is Science ?
⚫ Science is a social institution and a way to produce
knowledge. It is a human invention.
⚫ The subject matter of a science determines the techniques
or instruments used by it.
⚫ Science consists of:
⚫ Natural sciences,
⚫ Soft sciences, psychology, political science, sociology etc,
involving the study of people, their beliefs, behavior,
interactions, institutions etc
⚫ In the natural sciences, experiments under controlled
conditions form the major scientific method.
⚫ However, in the social sciences human social life is fluid,
difficult to observe, and hard to measure precisely.
Conditions cannot be “controlled strictly”.
Natural and soft Sciences, Social theory
• The knowledge of science is organized in terms of theories.
• Social theory is a system of interconnected abstractions or ideas
that summarize and organize knowledge about the social world.
• It helps people see the complexity in the world and explain why
things happen.
• Scientists carefully gather data (information or observational
evidence) according to rules or procedures, to test the social
theory pertinent to their study.
• The rules and procedures for gathering data, together with their
specialized instruments and techniques constitute what is known
as scientific methods.
• Scientists gather data using specialized techniques and use the
data to support or reject theories.
Data, Empirical and non-Empirical
• The data can be quantitative (expressed in numbers) or
qualitative (expressed as words, pictures or objects).
• Observational or empirical evidence refers to observations
which people experience through the 5 senses:
• touch, sight, hearing, smell and taste.
• Such empirical evidence are known as facts.
• However, many aspects of the social world in which we are
interested in, cannot be directly observed.
• Examples are intelligence, attitudes, opinions, feelings,
emotions, power, authority etc
• Researchers have specialized techniques to observe and
indirectly measure such aspects of the social world.
Pseudo Science and Junk Science
• What is pseudo science ?
• What is junk science ?
• What do these terms mean?
• For what purpose are they often used for ?
• Be prepared to be questioned in class.
The Scientific Community
• The scientific community is a collection of people and a
set of norms, behaviors and attitudes that bind them
• It is a professional community as it is a group of
interacting people who share ethical principles, beliefs
and values, techniques and training, and career paths.
• They have been obtained training in their own
• Neumann contends the professional community is not
a geographic community. Do you agree with him?
The Basic Qualification of a Researcher
• Scientific research techniques have been developed
and refined by the scientific community.
• These techniques may be used by a range of
practitioners and technicians who do not possess a
deep knowledge of research.
• They are also not inventing new methods, making up
new theory or advancing science itself.
• A PH D qualifies a professional to do independent
research …so a PH D is an informal “entry ticket” to the
scientific community.
• But 50% of Ph.Ds follow careers in teaching,
administrations, consulting, clinical practice, advising
etc, not in research.
The Scientific Community ..
• Only 50% of scientific PH Ds follow are active
researchers, who do research 50% of the time, with
the help of research assistants.
• About 200 research universities and institutes are
located in half a dozen advanced industrial world.
• Thus although scientists are scattered geographically,
they tend to work together in small clusters.
• What is the size of this community ?
• We have to count all of the scientists and engineers to
derive the size of the scientific community: 15% of the
labor force in advanced industrial countries .
• Discipline-wise each year
• Dividing scientists and the following number of
engineers by individual new PH.Ds join the work
disciplines we get the force in the U.S:
following figures: • 500 sociologists
• In the U.S there are: • 16,000 doctors or medical
• 17,000 professional practitioners
sociologists (500 PH.D • 38,000 lawyers
• 132,000 architects • Compare this to figures in
• 650,000 lawyers and Pakistan
• 1257,000 accountants
Norms of the Scientific
• Behavior in this community is governed and
regulated by a set of professional norms and
values that researchers learn and internalize during
their years of schooling.
• Ideally researchers should act this way and their
settings and jobs should reinforce this ideal code of
proper conduct.
• This code of proper conduct is listed overleaf.
Norms of the Scientific
1. Universalism: the research should only be judged
on the basis of scientific merit.
2. Organized skepticism: Scientists should challenge
and subject each study to intense scrutiny to
ensure the research question, methods etc can
stand up to close, careful scrutiny.
3. Disinterestedness. Scientists have to be neutral,
impartial, receptive and open to unexpected
observations or new ideas. They should accept
all findings based on high quality research.
Norms of the Scientific
• Communalism. Research has to be made publicly
available in a special form and style so that other
researchers are able to review it.
• Honesty. This is a good cultural norm, which is
especially strong in scientific research. Cheating in
scientific research is a major taboo.
• Acceptance of these norms and their training in
conducting research makes up the scientific
Discussion Topic for Class 2 in RM
• What is a Journal Article in Science
• How does it reinforce the norms of the Scientific
• What is a Conference Paper?
• How is it different from a Journal Article ?
• Homework: Browse the net and look at some
abstracts of the Journal Articles in an area of
Engineering Management of interest to you..
• Bring 3 abstracts to class. Be prepared to talk
about them if you can.
When we do not know something what do we do?
Neumann Ch 1, pp 1-6
• We generally consult an authority or an authority figure to find
out about it.
• We can also rely on tradition, some of which is simply wrong,
common sense which can also be mis-leading.
• Another source, the media sometimes mis-reports incidences.
• Even personal experiences can be misleading due to
overgeneralization, selective observation, premature closure,
or the halo effect.
• The terms may be difficult to remember, but learn what they
mean. It is good to remember that we are all susceptible to
these mistakes.
Definition and Purpose of Research –
⚫ Research is a process of systematic targeted, enquiry and
investigation. We need to do systematic study of materials
and sources in order to establish facts and read new
⚫ It is systematic and methodical – exact and organized.
⚫ We follow Scientific methods. So scientific research is the
process we follow.
⚫ We follow this process and generate new knowledge.
⚫ Then this new knowledge is added to the existing body of
⚫ A number of techniques and methods are used to collect and
analyze data.
⚫ The subject matter of a science determines the techniques,
instruments used by it to measure and collect data and
analyze it.
Research is… Ref: O’leary pps 1-4
• Research is a creative and strategic process which involves
obtaining trustworthy information, carrying out
appropriate analysis, and drawing credible conclusions.
• The problem is that you have to be constantly evaluating
and assessing whether you are using the correct
• You have to choose the methods which will answer your
particular research question.
• Obviously you will need to have empirical data which will
need to be evaluated through these methods, in order to
derive the answers to the different sub-parts of your
research question.
Research is a whole brain
• Left Hemisphere • Right Hemisphere
Analytic Formal Intuitive Informal
Logical Linear Spontaneous holistic
Temporal Verbal A Temporal Non-verbal
Sequential Factual Random Imaginative
Orderly Concrete Diffuse Metaphoric
Systematic Causal Systematic
Working Creatively
• The right brain thrives on creativity and explores
the possibilities of situations.
• Functions consist of synthesis, seeing relationships
and providing an overview.
• Inspiration is a space between the rational and
irrational spheres of your brain.
Good thinking is often done
outside what is considered normal:
• To think outside the box you need:
• Fluency and flexibility – to abandon old ways of thinking and adopt
new ones.
• Originality – to come up with ideas outside the common logic
• Make remote associations – associate elements that are not
obviously linked together.
• Make redefinitions – use familiar objects in new ways
• Have sensitivity to problems – perceive difficulties or problems in
physical, social or environmental situations
• Be ready to accept ambiguity – learn to accept uncertainty in some
of your conclusions
• Learn divergence or open-ended thinking when there is no single
Qualities Required of a Good Researcher
(Collis and Hussey. Ch 1: see which part)

⚫ To generate new knowledge is not an easy process.

⚫ In doing research and writing (the research report), the
researcher is required to have various qualities:
Communication skills to:
⚫Design a questionnaire, conduct interviews, talk to the
concerned people to get access to required
⚫Talking to knowledgeable people.
⚫Writing the different parts of the research report and
then synthesize these parts (or put them together) in a
logical manner.
Qualities Required of a Good Researcher
(Collis and Hussey. Ch 1: see which part ?)
• Intellectual Skills needed consist of the following:
• Knowledge of the subject e.g Management Science.
• Knowledge of what research is, research methodologies etc.
• Being able to apply your knowledge or skill to a new situation.
• Analytical skills to interpret or deduce significance of data, translate
data from one form to another.
• Ability to critically analyze a situation and draw conclusions.
• Organizational skills
• This is independent study and you will need to strategize how to do your work.
• Time management is particularly important I.e realistically assessing
and managing your work load is essential to success
• Investigating where your sources of information are and negotiating
access to them.
IT Skills Required
⚫ Word processing skills
Fairly obvious requirement
Good typing/software skills are very useful
⚫ Quantitative processing skills
Spreadsheets, statistical packages, etc for
⚫Mathematical functions, statistical functions, financial
functions, and graphics
⚫SPSS etc
⚫Data bases.

This in fact is why, it is always easier to work in a group as

no single person is perfect.
And why it is important to discuss with one another, and
draw from each other’s learning.
Deductive and Inductive Research
⚫ Deductive research is when a conceptual or theoretical
structure is developed and then tested by empirical
⚫ Move from the general to the particular.
⚫ Inductive research is a study in which theory is developed
from the observation of empirical reality. Inferences are
made from particular cases to general cases.
⚫ In Business research, inductive logic has been used to evolve
theory, from practical observations.
⚫ However, deductive research is the norm in the sciences,
engineering and traditionally in business research.
⚫ For practical, or new phenomena studying from the ground up
may be very useful, i.e inductive research.
⚫ The class should give examples.
Applied and Basic/Pure Research:
Neumann, selected pp of Ch 2. Kumar, Ch 1 pp 8-12
⚫ Applied or basic/pure research
⚫ Classified by the application of the research study.
⚫ Applied research often involves examining a problem and
finding its solution.
E.g draw upon behavioral theories of management
regarding the best ways to retain your employees and
reduce employee turnover.
Then the researcher will obtain empirical evidence and
test the theory.
⚫ Intelligent “Copy cat” research was used by Korea, Taiwan etc
to transfer technology to their countries.
⚫ There have been many examples of TOT from advanced
industrial countries to these “Asian tigers” in various
Applied and Basic/Pure Research:
Neumann, selected pp of Ch 2. Kumar, Ch 1 pp 8-12

• Most research is applied.

• Research techniques, procedures and methods forming
research methodology are applied to collect information about
various aspects of a situation, issue, problem or phenomenon,
• So that the research analysis done can be used for policy
formulation, administration and enhancement of the
understanding of the situation etc.
• Bailey’s Definition of Pure research.
• It involves developing and testing theories and hypotheses which
are intellectually challenging to the researcher but may or may
not have practical application either now or in the future.
• Such work involves the testing of hypotheses containing very
abstract and specialized concepts.
Applied and Basic/Pure Research:
Neumann, selected pp of Ch 2. Kumar, Ch 1 pp 8-12
• Concerned with the development, examination,
verification and refinement of research methods,
procedures, techniques, and tools which form the
body of research methodology.

• Basic research consists of new theories, measures,

instruments, techniques in engineering, physics,
chemistry, and in social sciences etc.
• In Pakistan it is rarely conducted, although we do have Dr
Abdus Salam.
⚫The Nobel Prize winners in physics, chemistry, economics, etc
have often done basic research
Classification of the Main Types of
Types of Research Basis of Examples Usage in Economics/Pakistan
No Classification
1 Exploratory, Purpose or Given in detail in For Economists explanatory
descriptive, objectives of the tables on the next research is most important. But
correlational and research, why it page do note that most research reports
explanatory is done often do contain exploratory and
research. descriptive research also.
2 Qualitative or Process which is Relying on words or Nearly always quantitative,
quantitative research followed in the symbols (qualitative), although complex phenomena
research,or what or numbers such as poverty, corruption etc
methodology is (quantitative) require qualitative research
3 Deductive or Logic of the Deductive research For complex or new phenomena
inductive research research, how it is generally used. studying from the ground up may
is done be very useful, i.e inductive
4 Applied or basic Application of Applied research is “Copy cat” research is conducted
research the research, why used for economic in Pakistan. Pure research is
it is done applications rarely conducted, even by the top
most economists.
Types of Research
• Examples of Exploratory Research
• Goals of Exploratory Research
• Common to all types of research
• Become familiar with the basic facts,
people and concerns involved. • In Pakistan, exploratory research has
been conducted on telecom and other
• Develop a well-grounded mental “new” industries, as well as on various
picture of what is occurring issues about which little was known
• Generate ideas and develop tentative about (e.g environmental issues,
theories and conjectures wildlife)
• Determine whether additional
research should be done or not • NGOs find out key facts of new target
• Refine issues for more systematic groups of people they are interested in
inquiry • And then make a needs assessment of
what their target group want or need
• Formulate well-defined research
questions Identify techniques and
direction of (or possibilities for) future
Goals of Descriptive Research
• Describes what is prevalent with respect to the issue /problem being studied.
• Provides key features (profile or description) of an economy, a conglomerate, firm,
household, micro-enterprise, the living conditions in Tharparkar etc.
• Describes a process, mechanism or relationship.
• E.g The mechanism of how the personal computer evolved from being a homogeneous product
to a differentiated product
• How a child feels in a house with domestic violence.
• The attitudes of employees towards management.
• Gives a verbal or numerical picture (percentages, summary statistics)
• Summary statistics of a firm, farm-household, enterprise or economy information to stimulate
new explanations
• Find information to stimulate new explanations
• Present background information or the context of a problem.
• Historical information on setting up a firm or industry, e.g PIA, sugar industry etc
• Create a set of categories or classify types
• E.g Which firms or industries are subject to increasing returns to scale, decreasing or
constant returns to scale.
• Analyze and verify documented information that contradicts prior beliefs about a
subject. You thought it was like this but actually it is like this.
Correlational Studies
• They discover or establish the existence of a
relationship/association/interdependence between
two or more aspects of a situation or a
• What is the relationship between technology and
unemployment ?
• What is the impact of an advertising campaign on
the sale of a product ?
Explanatory Research
• Determines the accuracy of a principle or theory
• Finds out which competing explanation is better
• Advances knowledge about an underlying process
• May link different issues or topics under a common general
• Builds and elaborate a theory so it becomes more complete
• Extends a theory or principle into new areas or issues.
• Provides evidence to support or refute an explanation or
• Examples: how the home environment affects children’s level
of academic achievement ?
Inquiry Mode of Research: Structured vs
• Classified by the process followed in the research in order to
find answers to your research questions.
• 2 approaches to inquiry.
• The structured and the unstructured approach
• The structured approach is known as quantitative research and the
unstructured approach is known as the qualitative approach.
meanings and experiences related to the phenomena.
• In the structured approach, objectives, design, sample and the
questions that you plan to ask of respondents is predetermined.
• more appropriate to determine the extent of a problem, issue or
• The unstructured approach allows flexibility in all of these
aspects of the research process.
• The unstructured approach is more appropriate to determine the
nature of a problem, issue or phenomenon.
Inquiry Mode of Research:
Structured vs Unstructured
• Choice between a structured and unstructured approach or between the
quantitative or qualitative approach should depend upon:
• The aim of the enquiry – exploration, confirmation or quantification
• The use of the findings – policy formulation or understanding of process.

• When is Qualitative Research undertaken:

• If the purpose of the study is primarily to describe a situation,
phenomenon, problem or event,
• the information is gathered through the use of variables measured on
nominal or ordinal scales (qualitative measurement scales) and
• if analysis is done to establish the variation in the situation, phenomena or
problem without quantifying it.

• Examples of Qualitative Research

• The description of an observed situation,
• the historical enumeration of events,
• an account of the different opinions people have about an issue and
• a description of the living conditions of a community
Quantitative studies
• When is it used:
• If you want to quantify the variation in a phenomenon, situation,
problem or issue.
• If information is gathered using predominantly quantitative variables
and if the analysis is geared to ascertain the magnitude of the

• Examples of quantitative aspects are:

• How many people have a particular problem
• How many people hold a particular attitude

• Statistics among other things help you to quantify the magnitude of

an association or relationship
• Provide an indication of the confidence you can place in your
findings and help you to isolate the effect of different variables.
Qualitative and Quantitative approaches

• Both qualitative and quantitative approaches have

• Strengths and weaknesses and
• Advantages and disadvantages.
Neither is markedly superior to the other in all respects.
In many studies you need to combine both qualitative and
quantitative approaches.

• The measurement and analysis of the variables about which

information is obtained in a research study are dependent
upon the purpose of the study.