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Kailise Cranson

A.P. Biology
Period. 5

Free Response #2

Other than the nucleus’s bound membrane there are also other
organelles that have membranes which function with its proper organelle.
The first one is the plasma membrane and this allows and blocks sufficient
passages of Oxygen and other nutrients. The plasma membrane is
important because cells need this kind of structure to help support their
stability and growth size. Another type of membrane is an internal
membrane and this makes the cells into compartments to fit the specific
functions, from this enzymes are built right into the membranes. These
cause different environments’ which cause the different organelles to work
together. The third membrane is the biological membrane this is consisted of
a double layer of phospholipids and other different lipids and this allows the
proteins to attach to the membrane for special codes and this expresses the
indicators on which blood type you are.
The prokaryotic cell’s DNA is not enclosed by a membrane while in the
eukaryotic cells the nucleus is enclosed with a membrane. The cell wall in
the prokaryotic cell is a rigid structure outside the plasma membrane is
simpler. In the Eukaryotic cell the cell wall is the in the same area but is
more complex. These to cell types have ribosomes the cause protein
synthesis and this is the creation of proteins for each of the cells specific
function. The ribosomes are located in different areas like in the eukaryotic
cells they are located in the nuclear envelope and there is not a nuclear
envelope in the prokaryotic cell. In the eukaryotic cell the ribosomes are also
located on the rough ER and the prokaryotic cell does not have a rough ER
let alone any ER.
The mitochondria of eukaryotes evolved from aerobic bacteria living
within their host cell. The chloroplasts of eukaryotes evolved from
endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. The evidence of the mitochondria and
chloroplasts evolved only from preexisting mitochondria and chloroplasts.
They cannot be formed in a cell that lacks them because nuclear genes
encode only some of the proteins of which they are made. Both mitochondria
and chloroplasts have their own genome and it resembles that of bacteria
not that of the nuclear genome and genomes consists of a single circular
molecule of DNA. They both have their own protein-synthesizing machinery,
and it more closely resembles that of bacteria than that found in the
cytoplasm of eukaryotes. All these gene products are used within the
chloroplast, but all the chloroplast structures also depend on proteins
encoded by nuclear genes, translated in the, cytosol, and imported into the
chloroplast.
Water potential is important for the movement of water in plants
because it depends on how much water is received and the amount of
pressure. The plant is standing tall when the plant is well nourished because
the pressure of the water against the wall makes it stand up but if less
pressure was present and water was lost the plant will be less sturdy and be
folding over.
The animal cell placed in 0.0 M of sucrose will stay the same size and
will not increase or decrease because it is 0 M. If the animal cell was placed
in 1.0 M of sucrose the animal cell will increase in size because it soaks up
the energy from the sucrose.
As I look at the results I obtained and the graph I have plotted, I found that
as I increased the molarity of the sucrose solution there was a decrease in %
weight gain of the potato slices.

The three macromolecules are microtubules which are tubulin


polymers, microfilaments which are actin filaments, and intermediate
filaments. The microtubules are hollow tubes that have a wall that consists of
13 columns. Its main function is to stabilize the cells shape, the cell
movement such as the flagella and cilia, chromosome movement in cell
division and the movement of organelles. A microfilament is two intertwined
strands of actin, each of a polymer of actin subunits. This job for this part is
also the maintenance of the cell shape, changes in the cell shape, muscle
contraction, cytoplasmic streaming, cell movement, and also cell division.
The intermediate filaments are fibrous proteins supercoiled into thick cables.
Its function is still the maintenance of the cells shape, anchorage of nucleus
and certain other organelles and the formation of nuclear lamina. These
membranes participate in muscle contraction by sending neurons through
the membrane such as Na and K this causes it to react put together and then
released and that is how the contraction works. The reproduction of this is
the release of sperms acrosomes release hydrolytic enzymes. A sperm binds
with the egg and penetrates it causing the reaction between the two DNA. It
also has a change in the charge to prevent further fertilizations. Then the
fusion of the two membranes of the egg and sperm. The production of ATP
occurs when the mitochondria store Hydrogen and when it receives the
excess Hydrogen from the sugars, it is time to release the Hydrogen stored
to create H20 and ATP.