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www.sciencedirect.com

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/sandf

K.S. Nga,n, S.A. Tanb,1

a

Faculty of Civil Engineering, University Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Malaysia

b

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Singapore, Singapore 119260, Singapore

Received 28 December 2013; received in revised form 29 September 2014; accepted 21 October 2014

Available online 2 January 2015

Abstract

The homogenization technique has been developed to model stone column improved grounds by establishing the equivalent material properties

for the composite ground. However, homogenization techniques based on the elasto-plastic behavior of the constituent materials found in

literature require modiﬁcation in terms of the ﬁnite element constitutive models which are difﬁcult for practical engineers to apply. Therefore, a

simple yet effective way of predicting the consolidation performance of stone column improved grounds has been invoked in this study. The

method is called the equivalent column method (ECM). The new method provides not only equivalent stiffness for the composite material, but

also equivalent permeability. The method is derived from an analysis using the unit cell model in a 2D ﬁnite element axisymmetrical model. The

settlement is calculated and a correction factor is obtained via a comparison with the results calculated using a single averaging composite

stiffness for the improved ground. Correlations are summarized in the form of design charts for the key parameters, such as the area replacement

ratio, the loading intensity, and the friction angle of the column material. Through a series of tests for different area replacement ratios, the

equivalent permeability is established and presented in a design chart for different permeability ratios. ECM shows a good agreement with the

current design methods and ﬁeld results. The advantage of the proposed method over other homogenization techniques is the simplicity of its use

which renders easy model set-up in the ﬁnite element program, especially for embankments and large tank problems, besides its extra ability to

predict the consolidation time.

& 2014 The Japanese Geotechnical Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Stone column; Equivalent stiffness; Equivalent permeability; Homogenization method; Finite element; Consolidation

Ng and Tan, 2014a; Killeen and McCabe, 2014) and many of

Stone column improved grounds are composite grounds them have adopted the unit cell concept in their analysis. The

made up of granular material and soft soil. The behavior of unit cell concept is a clever simpliﬁcation for composite

these composite grounds is not well understood because of grounds used to model inﬁnite column grid conditions, but

their non-homogenous structural matrix. A lot of research has the assumptions may break down in some situations. For

been carried out to study the performance of composite instance, Schweiger and Pande (1986) noted that assumptions

made in the unit cell concept are valid only for rigid rafts and

that the assumptions have severe weaknesses in regard to the

n

Corresponding author. Tel.: þ60 127537936. boundary conditions. On the other hand, the homogenization

E-mail addresses: ngkokshien@ppinang.uitm.edu.my (K.S. Ng),

ceetansa@nus.edu.sg (S.A. Tan).

methods were invoked in an era when computational capacity

1

Tel.: þ 65 65162278. was limited in terms of modeling complicated numerical

Peer review under responsibility of The Japanese Geotechnical Society. models (Lee and Pande, 1998; Wang et al., 2002; Vogler

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sandf.2014.12.012

0038-0806/& 2014 The Japanese Geotechnical Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

K.S. Ng, S.A. Tan / Soils and Foundations 55 (2015) 154–165 155

Bp equivalent plain strain width

bc plain strain column width Dc constraint modulus of column

bs homogenized stress ratio Ds constraint modulus of soil

bt stress distribution tensor Dcomp constraint modulus of composite soil

cv coefﬁcient of consolidation in vertical direction E Young's modulus

d soft soil thickness Ec Young's modulus of column

dc diameter of column Es Young's modulus of soil

de equivalent inﬂuence of diameter Eq equivalent stiffness

ds diameter of smear zone Ecomp composite stiffness

fs volume fraction of inclusion in matrix E50 secant modulus

fy correction factor Ko initial horizontal to vertical stress

k coefﬁcient of permeability k coefﬁcient of permeability

m modular ratio kcomposite composite permeability

mv coefﬁcient of volume compressibility keq equivalent permeability

n settlement improvement factor L length of stone column

ns stress concentration ratio Ncorr correction factor

quh homogenized strength N diameter ratio

qult ultimate bearing capacity S diameter ratio of smeared zone to drain well

q0u macro stress failure Tv time factor in vertical ﬂow

rc radius of column T 0v modiﬁed time factor in vertical ﬂow

re radius of inﬂuence area U degree of consolidation

s spacing of columns Uv degree of consolidation for vertical ﬂow

t time δ settlement

A total inﬂuence area α area replacement ratio

Ac area of stone column β depth ratio

and Karstunen, 2008). The homogenization method assumes Poorooshasb and Meyerhof (1997) examined the efﬁciency

that the columns are distributed homogenously within the of end-bearing columns by developing an analytical model

in situ soil. It allows for adopting non-linear constitutive with assumptions of geometric linearity and the use of the

models for both the columns and the soil. The equilibrium small strain theory. The following governing equation is used

and the compatibility conditions have to be satisﬁed through a for columns with linear elastic material:

stress–strain redistribution. The theoretical development of a UDL r2 r2

new stress–strain behavior for composite grounds is complex ¼ Af1 þ Bvc g e 2 c

δ=L re

and tedious.

Despite being an intuitive idea for solving the complex 3D r2

þ Ec þ 2vc ½ACð1þ Bvc Þþ Dvc c2 ð1Þ

problems of stone column improved grounds, the practical re

implementation of the homogenized constitutive law in the where UDL ¼ uniform distributed load carried by the stone

ﬁnite element code for composite grounds is still hardly column system; δ¼ settlement of the foundation system;

compatible among design engineers albeit the ﬁnite element L¼ length of the column; Ec ¼ Young's modulus of the column

model set-up is simple, since the soil and the columns do not material; νc ¼ Poisson's ratio of the column material;

need to be discretized separately. Therefore, a simple homo- Es ¼ Young's modulus of the in situ soil; ν ¼ Poisson's ratio

genization method is developed in this study to obtain the of the in situ soil; rc ¼ radius of the column; re ¼ radius of the

equivalent stiffness and the equivalent permeability for the inﬂuence zone; and constants A, B, C, and D are given by

composite material that can be easily applied in a numerical

ð1 vÞ

model, while still considering the yielding characteristic of the A¼ Es

composite material. This method is called the equivalent 1 2v2 v

column method (ECM). 2v r 2c

B¼

1 v re rc 2

2

v

C¼

1v

2. Review of related works

ð1 þ vÞr 2c þ ð1 vÞr 2e

D¼ Es

ð1 v2 Þðr 2e rc2 Þ

A few researchers have proposed some simple formulations

for the equivalent stiffness of the composite soil. Their Omine et al. (1998) proposed a homogenization method to

methods are discussed brieﬂy in this section. evaluate the stress–strain relationship of the two-phase mixture

156 K.S. Ng, S.A. Tan / Soils and Foundations 55 (2015) 154–165

model. In this model, the material consists of two phases: a material (i.e., stone columns and the surrounding soil). Similar

matrix and an inclusion. In stone column improved grounds, to the equivalent pier method (Poulos, 1993), used in predict-

the soil is the matrix, while the columns are the inclusion. Two ing the settlement of pile groups, the average composite

assumptions are made in the model, namely, the inclusion is stiffness, Ecomposite, of stone column-reinforced grounds can

randomly distributed in the mixture and the strain energy per be obtained as

unit volume of the mixture is constant. For vertical inclusion Ecomposite ¼ αEc þ ð1 αÞE s ð9Þ

with stress applied only in the vertical direction, the equivalent

Young's modulus of the mixture based on this model can be where α ¼ area replacement ratio (α ¼ Ac/A; Ac ¼ area of the

estimated as follows: column, A ¼ total inﬂuence area), Ec ¼ stiffness of the column,

ðbt 1Þf s þ 1 and Es ¼ stiffness of the surrounding soil. However, the

E eq ¼ Es ð2Þ composite stiffness used in stone column designs seems to

bt f s =E s þ ð1 f s Þ=E c

underestimate the amount of settlement whose results may err

Es on the unsafe side. This is because the stone columns are not

bt ¼ ð3Þ fully elastic material, but signiﬁcant yielding happens along

Ec

the column0 s length. As the loading increases, subsequent

where fs is the volume fraction of the inclusion in the mixture plastic straining will also occur in the surrounding soil (Ng and

and bt is the stress distribution tensor. Tan, 2014b). Moreover, the formulation of this composite

Wang et al. (2002) developed a simpliﬁed homogenization stiffness neglects the horizontal interaction between the

method based on the assumption that the micro-stress/micro- columns and the soil. Therefore, the following section presents

strain is homogeneous in the matrix and the inclusion of a a correction factor for this so that the new composite stiffness

composite soil. This assumption leads to a closed-form value will correspond to the actual induced settlement obtained

solution of the stress/strain localization tensor. The composite from the ﬁnite element results. Once again, the inclusion of

soil system is considered as a unit composite cell consisting of this correction factor involves actually taking into account the

the matrix material (termed m-phase) and the reinforcement yield of the column material, and to some extent a certain

material (termed f-phase). The homogenized stress ratio, bs, amount of yielding of the surrounding soil.

between the two materials is deﬁned as The analysis was ﬁrst conducted to obtain the amount of

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Ec settlement s for different area replacement ratios α, under

bs ¼ ð4Þ various loading magnitude q and stone column friction angle

Es

ϕc0 , using the reference model adopted from Tan et al. (2008),

Since the micro-stress is assumed to be homogeneous in both as shown in Fig. 1. In this ﬁnite element model, a unit cell was

the improved and the unimproved materials, and distributed modeled as axisymmetric with instantaneous vertical loading

according to the stress localization tensor, the micro-stress at of 100 kPa applied through a rigid plate. The stone column is

failure should be of the end-bearing type with a length of 10 m. The unit cell

bs

q0uf ¼ q ð5Þ

ðbs 1Þf s þ 1 uf

1

q0um ¼ q ð6Þ

ðbs 1Þf s þ 1 um

where fs is the volume fraction of the inclusion, and q0uf and

q0um are the macro-stress at failure for the reinforcement phase

and the matrix phase, respectively. Finally, the homogenized

strength, q0uh , is established as follows:

bs f s quf þ ð1 f s Þqum

q0uh ¼ f s q0uf þ ð1 f s Þq0um ¼ ð7Þ

ðbs 1Þf s þ 1

In view of the fact that the micro-strain in the vertical direction

should be the same for each phase (equal to the macro-strain),

the homogenized deformation modulus, E h50 , can be obtained

by dividing Eq. (7) by the macro-strain as follows:

bs f s E 50f þ ð1 f s ÞE50m

E h50 ¼ : ð8Þ

ðbs 1Þf s þ 1

formulation of the equivalent stiffness for the composite Fig. 1. Baseline case, Tan et al. (2008) model.

K.S. Ng, S.A. Tan / Soils and Foundations 55 (2015) 154–165 157

Table 1

Material properties in reference case.

ID Name Type γsat (kN/m3) kx (m/day) ky (m/day) v E0 (kN/m2) c0 (kN/m2) ϕc0 (deg)

2 Stone column Drained 15 3 1 0.3 30,000 1 40

1.4 1.8

1.7 25 kPa

m = 40 50 kPa

1.6

1.3 m = 30 1.5 100 kPa

m = 20

Ncorr

1.4 150 kPa

m = 10 1.3 200 kPa

1.2

n

1.2

m = 6.67 1.1

250 kPa

400 kPa

1.0

1.1 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45

α

1.0

Fig. 3. Ncorr for stone column friction angle, ϕ0 c ¼ 401.

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

α

Fig. 2. Inﬂuence of modular ratio and column length on settlement improve- 1.8

25 kPa

ment factors (Ng and Tan, 2011). 1.7

1.6 50 kPa

1.5 100 kPa

model utilized an area replacement ratio α of 0.11 with a

Ncorr

column radius rc of 0.425 m and an inﬂuence radius re of 1.3 200 kPa

1.275 m. The material properties are shown in Table 1. An 1.2 250 kPa

1.1

elastic perfectly plastic model, i.e., Mohr Coulomb (MC), was 400 kPa

1.0

used as the constitutive model for both the stone column and 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45

the soft soil. The stiffness ratio of the stone column over the α

surrounding soil was ﬁxed at 10. The standard boundary Fig. 4. Ncorr for stone column friction angle, ϕ0 c ¼ 451.

conditions in the model were assumed such that the vertical

boundaries were free vertically and constrained horizontally 1.5

25 kPa

(ux ¼ 0; uy ¼ free), while the bottom horizontal boundary was 1.4 50 kPa

fully ﬁxed (ux&y ¼ 0). The phreatic level was set at the top 1.3

100 kPa

Ncorr

surface (representing the worst case scenario) and it also 150 kPa

1.2 200 kPa

served as the solely pervious drainage boundary for the

1.1 250 kPa

system. In this study, a coupled consolidation analysis was 400 kPa

performed. Next, a series of parametric studies for the 1.0

0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45

inﬂuencing parameters, that is, the area replacement ratio, the α

column0 s friction angle, and the loading intensity, were carried

Fig. 5. Ncorr for stone column friction angle, ϕ0 c ¼ 501.

out (Ng and Tan, 2011). These are the most important

parameters in stone column designs. In addition, the previous

By adopting the elastic theory, constraint modulus Deq was

study has also shown the negligible inﬂuence of the modular

back-calculated assuming a single type of soil (i.e., composite

ratio (with different depth ratio, β¼ L/d, where L ¼ column

soil). Then, the Young0 s modulus of the obtained settlement

length and d ¼ soft soil thickness) to the settlement perfor-

was calculated through the following relationship:

mance when the stiffness of the column is 20 times larger than

the surrounding soil, as shown in Fig. 2. This is because the Deq ð1 2vÞð1 þ vÞ

E¼ ð10Þ

actual stiffness of the column is very dependent on the ð1 vÞ

conﬁning stress provided by the surrounding soil. The load

In this study, the values for Poisson0 s ratio v for the soil, the

level applied during the investigation of the modular ratio

column, and the composite material are all taken to be 0.3. The

effect is actually high, i.e., 100 kPa, and the results have

correction factor, Ncorr, was then taken as the ratio of the

shown that a lot of yielding occurred in the column and the

composite stiffness over the calculated stiffness, E:

surrounding soil. Poorooshasb and Meyerhof (1997) and

Kamrat-Pietraszewska and Karstunen (2010) also gave similar Ecomposite

N corr ¼ ð11Þ

conclusions. The numerical analysis in this study was con- E

ducted with the PLAXIS 2D ﬁnite element code (Brinkgreve The results for correction factors under different conditions are

et al., 2011). shown in Figs. 3–5. The results in the ﬁgures have been

158 K.S. Ng, S.A. Tan / Soils and Foundations 55 (2015) 154–165

discussed in Ng and Tan (2012) and will not be repeated here. implications for the real soil behavior or, in other words, the

From the ﬁgures, it can be noted that even under a low applied area replacement ratio with Nopt is not indicative of the

load, e.g., 25 kPa, some yielding has already happened (as unfavorable area replacement ratio to be adopted in the design.

Ncorr 4 1), especially when the column0 s friction angle is The equivalent stiffness of the composite ground calculated

small. For ECM to be used correctly, the stone column using Eq. (12) was compared with different approaches

stiffness has to always be ﬁxed at 10 times larger than the (Poorooshasb and Meyerhof, 1997; Omine et al., 1998;

surrounding soil, i.e., Ec/Es ¼ 10. Based on ﬁeld data, Han Wang et al., 2002) and plotted for different area replacement

(2012) suggested the modular ratio should be limited to 20. ratios (vide Fig. 6). As expected, all the methods show that the

Finally, equivalent stiffness Eeq can be expressed as equivalent stiffness increases with the increase in the area

E composite replacement ratio. The equivalent stiffness for all the other

E eq ¼ ð12Þ methods is truly elastic Young0 s modulus, whilst the Young0 s

N corr

modulus for the ECM method has actually taken into account

The results in Figs. 3–5 show that the larger the stone column0 s the yielding behavior, which means that the ECM is supposed

friction angle ϕc0 is, the smaller the value of correction factor to give a softer response compared to the other methods. This

Ncorr. This is due to the higher friction angle being able to is true as compared with the other methods, except for that of

deter the forming of plastic points in the composite soil, hence, Omine et al. (1998), whose results are lower than the currently

giving a stiffer response. Another interesting phenomenon is proposed method. Additional information, like the loading

that the Ncorr seems to have an optimum value similar to the intensity and the column friction angle, is required for the

curve of the compaction results for obtaining the optimum dry ECM. Meanwhile, the bt parameter, which depends on the type

density, even though it is an unfavorable way in which larger of mixtures, was assumed to be 1/3 by Omine et al. (1998) for

Ncorr values imply smaller equivalent stiffness. Moreover, the the elastic material based on v¼ 0.3.

optimum value appears to shift to the left for higher friction Column length plays an important role in determining the

angles. This phenomenon is due to the relationship of the settlement performance of an improved ground. The feasibility

plastic yielding for stone column grounds and the average of ECM for use with ﬂoating columns is shown here. The

composite stiffness. The plastic yielding of stone column results of a FEM analysis for ﬂoating columns, with 100 kPa

grounds produces non-linear settlement behavior, whereas of loading and a 401 friction angle, were used to compare the

the average composite stiffness gives linear settlement beha- results with ECM. The calculation for ECM was done

vior. However, this relationship does not have any actual manually, using Eq. (9), but written in the form of constraint

modulus D for easy hand calculation. A ﬂoating column-

25000 improved ground is a two-layer soil system consisting of an

improved layer and an unimproved layer. For the improved

20000

layer, the Ncorr was used for the area replacement ratio,

namely, α ¼ 0.11, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.35, and 0.45 are 1.49,

15000

Eeq(kPa)

1.57, 1.61, 1.63, 1.54, and 1.39 respectively, taken from Fig. 3.

The stiffness values for the soil and the column are

10000

Es ¼ 3000 kN/m2 and Ec ¼ 30,000 kN/m2, respectively, the

5000

same parameters used in the reference model. A comparison

of the results of ECM and FEM are given in Table 2. The

0 agreement between the two sets results is very good in spite of

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 the correction factors being the same for end bearing as those

α used for ﬂoating columns. This is not surprising as the unit cell

Fig. 6. Comparison of different approaches for equivalent stiffness. concept adopts equal strain assumptions and the load is

Table 2

Settlements results for ﬂoating columns.

FEM ECM FEM ECM FEM ECM FEM ECM FEM ECM FEM ECM

0.9 195 192 177 174 157 153 140 137 111 107 89 86

0.8 202 198 186 182 168 163 153 149 128 123 109 104

0.7 209 204 195 190 180 174 165 161 144 139 128 122

0.6 216 210 204 198 190 184 179 174 160 154 146 140

0.5 222 217 213 207 201 195 192 186 176 170 164 158

0.4 229 223 221 215 212 206 203 198 191 185 181 176

0.3 234 229 228 223 221 216 216 211 207 201 199 194

0.2 240 235 236 231 230 227 227 223 221 216 216 212

0.1 246 241 244 239 241 237 240 235 236 232 233 230

K.S. Ng, S.A. Tan / Soils and Foundations 55 (2015) 154–165 159

uniformly applied. This means that the same correction factor, N ¼ de/dc – the diameter ratio;

Ncorr, can be used for both end-bearing and ﬂoating columns to H – the longest drainage due to the vertical ﬂow.

obtain the equivalent stiffness, as in Eq. (12), provided that the

condition does not violate the assumptions of the unit cell

concept. As part of achieving environmental sustainability in ground

improvement, there is an increasing desire to use recycled and

secondary material for stone column techniques (Serridge,

4. Formulation of equivalent permeability 2005). However, the characteristics (i.e., shape and grading) of

these material sources will affect the shear strength of the

The second part of the ECM method is to establish the column material as well as the drainage capacity. In addition,

equivalent permeability (coefﬁcient of permeability), keq, for there is potential for the crushing of the aggregates (during

the composite ground. For stone columns formed from installation or the loading stage) and for the existence of

material that has very high permeability, the permeability ratio contaminants in the columns (e.g., silt, clay, slag, and dust)

between the stone column and the surrounding soil can be in which will further reduce the permeability function of the

the order of 100,000 times depending on the material grading column by a few orders compared to clean aggregates. In view

and the method of construction. Seed and Booker (1977) of that, the effect of the low permeability of the column

claimed that the permeability of stone columns should be at material on the composite ground was studied.

least 200 times larger than that of the surrounding soil to avoid The attempt to form the equivalent permeability for stone

the build-up of excess pore pressure within the columns during column-reinforced grounds may be the ﬁrst of its kind in

an earthquake event. Normally, stone columns formed with the determining the time-dependent consolidation behavior for the

wet vibroﬂotation method would provide a better drainage path homogenization technique. It began with adopting the basic

compared to the dry vibroﬂotation method. The reason is that case, as described above, where a stone column improved

during the dry method process, the surrounding soil is ground received a 100 kPa of loading intensity. Firstly, the

displaced greatly (this is, in fact, a beneﬁcial effect in terms time for a 90% degree of consolidation was obtained from the

of producing larger lateral stress) and mixes profusely with the consolidation results of FEM for different area replacement

stone column material, thus, creating thicker smear zones. The ratios and column permeability, kc. Assuming isotropic and

degree of the disturbing effect due to the installation is smaller homogeneous conditions, the coefﬁcient of consolidation for

for the wet process. Moreover, the material used in the wet the improved ground, cv, was then calculated using Terzaghi0 s

process normally contains larger-sized stones than the dry time factor, Tv, of 0.848 (i.e., cv ¼ 0:848 d 2 =t 90 ). Employing

method. Apparently, the casing installation method can pro- the elasticity theory, the composite permeability, kcomposite, was

vide the lowest effect of disturbance compared to the above obtained as follows:

two vibroﬂotation methods. cv U γ w

Similarly, Barksdale and Bachus (1983) stated that the kcomposite ¼ ð14Þ

Deq

drainage ability of stone columns might be degraded due to

the installation of the columns, causing disturbance to the where Deq ¼ constraint modulus for the composite ground

surrounding soil (smear effect), and that ﬁne-grained soil could assuming a single type of soil; and γw ¼ unit weight of water,

be mixed into the stone columns (well resistance). Han and 10 kN/m3.

Ye (2002) included these effects in their analytical solution to The permeability of the column material, kc, is varied each

obtain the degree of consolidation for stone columns. The time and the soil permeability is kept constant at ks ¼ 0.0001

degree of consolidation due to the radial ﬂow is m/day. The relationship between composite permeability

0 0 kcomposite and the permeability ratio, kc/ks (where kc ¼ perme-

U r ¼ 1 exp ½8=F m T rm ð13Þ ability of the stone column and ks ¼ permeability of the

where

0 0 1

T rm ¼ crm t=d2e – modiﬁed time factor k /k

100000

0 N2 N ks 3 S2 ks S2 0.1 10000

Fm ¼ 2 ln þ ln S þ 2 1 1 2

N 1 S kw 4 N 1 kw 4N 1000

500

kcomposite(m/day)

0.01 250

ks 1 S2 32 ks H 2 100

þ 1 þ 50

kw N 2 1 N2 π 2 kc dc 0.001 25

10

0.0001 1

ks – the permeability of the surrounding soil;

1E-05

0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50

kw – the permeability of the smear zone; α

S¼ ds /dc – the diameter ratio of the smeared zone to the Fig. 7. Composite permeability, kcomposite, under inﬂuence of area replacement

drain well; ratio and permeability ratio.

160 K.S. Ng, S.A. Tan / Soils and Foundations 55 (2015) 154–165

0 The ECM results are compared with both FEM and the

Average degree of consolidation,U (%)

10

analytical solution provided by Han and Ye (2002), as shown

20 FEM

ECM

in Fig. 8, for α ¼ 0.25. Since ECM cannot consider the smear

30 Han & Ye (2002) effect, S¼ 1 was input in Eq. (13). In an actual construction

40

work, the thickness of the smear zone and its permeability are

50

largely unknown. Good agreements are obtained for FEM and

60

70

ECM with only some noticeable difference during the early

80

consolidation. The discrepancy at the early consolidation is

90 α = 0.25,k = 0.0001 m/day

attributed to the use of Tv ¼ 0.848 assumed for the 90% degree

100

of consolidation in the ECM. The consequence of this is the

0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 underestimation of the consolidation rate at the early stage, as

Time (day)

the assumption does not account for the progressive plastic

Fig. 8. Comparison of results with FEM and analytical solution. straining with time in the composite soil, as opposed to the

FEM results where the substantial amount of plastic straining

surrounding soil), was developed for different area replace- occurred gradually during the early consolidation and then

ment ratios (i.e., 0.11, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, 0.35, and 0.45), as faster at later stages. This discrepancy at the early stage of

designated in Fig. 7. The permeability ratio adopted in this consolidation is of little importance, since the consolidation

study lies in the range of 1–100,000. As expected, a decrease process at the later stages (4 50%) has more practical

in the permeability of the stone column, kc, causes a reduction signiﬁcance.

in the permeability ratio, resulting in a decrease in the The Han and Ye (2002) solution overestimates the con-

composite permeability. Conversely, an increase in the perme- solidation rate compared to FEM and ECM. The reason for the

ability ratio causes a rise in the composite permeability, but fast computed rate for the analytical solution is that the authors

there is a diminishing return when the permeability ratio is assumed linear elastic behavior for both the soil and the

above 10,000. From this, it can be deduced that there is an column. This inherent shortcoming of the Han and Ye (2002)

optimum permeability ratio, i.e., kc /ks ¼ 10,000. This result solution was also pointed out by Castro and Sagaseta (2009).

also suggests that slight contamination (i.e., ﬁnes) inside clean An additional assumption in the Han and Ye analytical

uniform grading stones may have a minor effect on the overall solution is the value of the stress concentration ratio, ns (stress

consolidation function. In the same ﬁgure, interestingly, the acting on the column/stress acting on soil), which was taken as

composite permeability appears as a linear straight line on a 4.0, similar to that in FEM for α ¼ 0.25. None of the existing

semi-log graph. One possible inference is that the change in current analytical solutions considers both the permeability

the composite permeability, due to a different area replacement ratio and the plastic deformation of the composite ground.

ratio, is of an exponential function, thus highlighting the The proposed ECM method here is able to predict the

positive implication of having a larger area replacement ratio. permeability of composite grounds even for column material

The effect of the column0 s friction angle and load level on the with low permeability. A wide range in permeability ratios

composite permeability was not investigated. In general, covers almost all the possible conditions which may be

however, the column0 s friction angle affects the yielding of encountered on site. However, the correct determination of

the column, where a higher friction angle deters the develop- the permeability of the stone column material still remains one

ment of plastic straining in the column and the surrounding of the most difﬁcult parameters to measure on site (Adalier and

soils (Ng and Tan, 2014b). Elgamal, 2004).

The permeability of the surrounding soil for the basic case is

ks ¼ 0.0001 m/day, which is a constant throughout the study. 5. Validation

Therefore, the equivalent permeability, keq, can be expressed as

Two case studies were used to validate this simple homo-

k composite U ks

keq ¼ ðm=dayÞ ð15Þ genization method. The ﬁrst case study focused on the

1 10 4 : comparison between two different numerical approaches, that

is, the plane strain trench wall and the ECM. The advantage of

Composite permeability kcomposite and equivalent permeability

the ECM over the plane strain trench wall method is that no

keq both refer to the permeability of the composite ground, but

the former refers to the permeability back calculated from the Table 3

FEM study, while the latter refers to the permeability to be Material properties for hypothetical case.

computed. One just needs to determine the kcomposite from

ID Name Depth γ⧸γsat v0 E0 c0 ϕ0 [deg]

Fig. 7 and then the permeability equivalent, keq, can be easily [kN/m ]3 2 2

[kN/m ] [kN/m ]

calculated from Eq. (15). The value of kcomposite is equal to keq

only when the permeability of the soil, ks, is 0.0001 m/day, as 1 Crust 0–1 m 19/20 0.3 15,000 1 30

adopted in the base reference case. Subsequently, the Terzaghi 2 Soft soil 1–20 m 18/18 0.3 5000 1 25

3 Embankment ﬁll 4 m high 20/20 0.3 15,000 1 35

1-D consolidation analytical method can be adopted to

4 Stone column 10 m long 19/20 0.3 50,000 1 50

estimate the degree of consolidation.

K.S. Ng, S.A. Tan / Soils and Foundations 55 (2015) 154–165 161

Fig. 9. Plane strain trench wall model for hypothetical embankment problem.

Table 4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Equivalent material properties – Case study 1. 0

Settlement (mm)

50

2 SCþSoft soil 0.3 18,333 100

PS

150 ECM

modeling effort signiﬁcantly. The second case study was an

Fig. 11. Settlement plot for hypothetical problem – Case study 2.

actual ﬁeld study with time-settlement measurement.

The columns were 1.0 m in diameter and spaced at 2.0 m in

A hypothetical embankment problem was used to validate square grid pattern (i.e., α ¼ 0.2). The material properties are

the ECM for ﬂoating stone columns. Stone columns, 10.0 m in shown in Table 3.

length, were used to support a 4.0-m high embankment ﬁll A plane strain (PS) half model was ﬁrst created in the ﬁnite

constructed above 19.0 m of thick soft soil, underlain by a element program PLAXIS 2D. The columns were modeled as

layer of crust with a thickness of 1.0 m. The top width of the an equivalent trench wall by adopting Tan et al.0 s (2008)

embankment was 40.0 m and had a 1(V):2(H) slope gradient. method 2 approach. In this method, the plane strain column

162 K.S. Ng, S.A. Tan / Soils and Foundations 55 (2015) 154–165

width, bc, is given by the following relationship: intention is given for a check of the slope stability as the ECM

r2 is derived from the unit cell concept. However, if this check is

bc ¼ B c2 ð16Þ necessary, the weighted average shear strength parameters can

re

be used (Barksdale and Bachus, 1983).

where re is the tributary soil radius, B is the equivalent plane The hypothetical problem was then analyzed using the

strain width for the tributary soil, and rc is the column radius. coupled consolidation analysis. The embankment was

For a square pattern of columns, re ¼ 1.13B is based on Barron constructed in four layers with each layer laid in t¼ 5 days.

(1948). The plane strain trench wall was calculated as being The permeability of the embankment, the soft clay, and the

0.4 m in thickness and no adjustments in the material proper- crust are k¼ 0.001 m/day, while that of the stone column

ties were needed. The plane strain trench wall model is shown material is of k ¼ 1.0 m/day. Therefore, the ratio of the stone

in Fig. 9. Stone columns were modeled as wished-in-place in column to surrounding soil is a fourth order higher. From

the model. The initial horizontal to vertical stress, Ko, for both Fig. 7, the equivalent permeability for the composite material

the columns and soil is taken as 0.7, while the Ko for crust was taken as keq ¼ 0.032 m/day.

layer is 0.5. The ground water level is 1.0 m below the ground At the end of the embankment construction, t¼ 20 days, the

surface. Subsequently, the equivalent column method was excess pore pressure shading for the methods of the plane

adopted where the treated zone was replaced with material strain trench wall (PS) and equivalent column method (ECM)

of equivalent stiffness, as shown in Fig. 10. The equivalent are shown in Fig. 12. The distribution patterns for the two

material properties are given in Table 4. From Fig. 5, the Ncorr methods are comparable, albeit a little higher for the plane

was taken as 1.2 for the 4.0-m embankment ﬁll, which is of strain trench wall model. This is probably due to the assump-

80 kN/m2. tion in ECM where only the vertical ﬂow (one direction) is

In the ﬁrst part of this validation case, drained analyses were assumed compared to the PS model where both radial and

conducted for both the PS model and the ECM. Therefore, the vertical ﬂows (combined effect) are considered. The shadings

effects of the time-dependent behavior due to consolidation are in the untreated zone below the ﬂoating columns illustrate the

not considered at this stage. The settlement results are shown remaining high excess pore pressure which may pose a long-

in Fig. 11. The results from the two methods agree very well, term settlement issue. There is a dark zone in the PS model

with the maximum settlement of around 175 mm occurring at located at the column right below the embankment toe. This

the center of the embankment. Disk-shaped settlement proﬁles probably indicates the early dissipation of excess pore pressure

under the embankment were obtained for both methods. The from the surrounding soil towards the columns, in addition to

constitutive soil model for the composite material is linear low excess pore pressure generated near the embankment toe

elastic; therefore, no shear strength parameters are required. No and high permeability of the column. However, this dark zone

• • •

D

•

A B C ECM

• • •

D

•

K.S. Ng, S.A. Tan / Soils and Foundations 55 (2015) 154–165 163

Time (days) 80

PS

0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 70

0 ECM

60

25

50 50

Settlement (mm)

75 40

100 30

PS -A

125 PS -B 20

PS -C

150 10

ECM -A

175 ECM -B

0

ECM -C 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000

200

Time (days)

Fig. 13. Settlement versus time plot for hypothetical problem. Fig. 15. Excess pore pressure distributions at point D.

appear to be parallel with each other. Settlement values at

0 25 50 75 points B and C in the plane strain trench wall are larger

0 compared to the point at the center of the axis, A. The

settlement values are about the same for ECM. This is

evidenced when the horizontal displacement of the vertical

2

line at the toe of the embankment is compared, as shown in

Fig. 14, where the PS model gives larger horizontal movement

4 compared to the ECM model. From all the curves shown in

Fig. 13, the consolidation rates for both methods are generally

about the same judging from the gradient of the curves,

6 although the consolidation period is slightly longer for the

plane strain trench wall method.

To further access the excess pore pressure dissipation over

8 time in an untreated zone, a stress point D was taken at the

bottom left corner. Fig. 15 shows that the dissipation curves

Depth (m)

for both methods are almost identical with the peak excess

10

pore pressure around 73 kN/m2. After the construction period,

the dissipation of excess pore pressure in the ECM dissipates

12 slightly faster. The time required for the excess pore pressure

to drop to Δu ¼ 10 kN/m2 is about 1500 days and 2000 days

for the ECM and PS models, respectively.

14

16

Extensive ground treatment works using stone columns were

carried out at the Shah Alam West (Kebun) Interchange for the

18 ECM Shah Alam Expressway, Malaysia. The project details have been

PS published in Keller0 s Technical Papers 12-64 E and 12-65 E. The

embankment geometry and subsoil properties are shown in

20 Fig. 16 together with the stone column layout. The embankment

Fig. 14. Horizontal displacement below embankment toe. was 2.0 m in height with an additional preload of 1.0 m. The

column was 12.0 m in length with a diameter of 1.1 m, and

is not present in the ECM model where individual columns are spacing of 2.2 m (i.e., α¼ 0.2). The treated soil was extremely

not modeled. soft with a modulus value of 500–1500 kPa or coefﬁcient of

The settlement points, A, B, and C, are taken along the consolidation values, cv, ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 m2/year at a

original ground surface 0 m, 5 m, and 10 m away from the vertical stress of 100 kPa. Fig. 17 depicts Taylor0 s square root of

center axis. The settlement distributions against time are time ﬁtting method for the estimation of a 90% degree of

plotted in Fig. 13 for the plane strain trench wall and the consolidation. The construction sequence and the settlement

ECM for these few locations. For point A, right under the versus time are plotted in Fig. 18. The preload was not removed

center of the embankment, the total settlement obtained for during the ﬁeld measurements. It can be seen that only about 25%

both methods is about the same, s E177 mm (also identical to of the settlement had taken place during the embankment

the drained analysis). In addition, the consolidation curves construction, while the remaining settlement occurred over a

164 K.S. Ng, S.A. Tan / Soils and Foundations 55 (2015) 154–165

platform

12 m

Extremely very soft clay

Firm to stiff layers Stone column

Ø 1.1 m

qc = 0.1– 0.3 MPa cu = 9 –15 kPa Es= 0.5 –1.5 MPa

Fig. 16. Cross section of embankment and stone column layout (Keller Technical Paper, 1997a, 1997b).

√t (day) Table 5

0 5 10 15 20 Composite material properties input for FE model – Case study 2.

0

ID Stiffness, Permeability, Eeq kcomposite keq

E k [kN/m2] [m/day] [m/day]

[kN/m2] [m/day] Ncorr=1.3

10

Compacted 15,000 0.864 31,870 0.0001 0.864

sand blanket

Settlement (mm)

20

marine clay

Stone Ec/Es=10 kc/ks=10,000

column

30

40 Time (days)

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

0

5 Field result

50 10

ECM

Settlement (cm)

Fig. 17. Taylor's square root of time method for prediction of 90% 15

25

30

35

40

45

shown in Table 5. The stone column over the surrounding soil

stiffness ratio, Ec/Es, was ﬁxed at 10 where the stiffness of the

soil, Es, was taken as 500 kPa or the constraint modulus,

Ds ¼ 673 kPa. The friction angle of the columns was assumed

to be 401. The coefﬁcient of permeability for marine clay is

Fig. 18. Embankment height and settlement over time at CH 15.450 (Keller normally between the values of 10 9 to 10 10 m/s. However,

Technical Paper, 1997a, 1997b).

in this case, the average k was calculated using the average cv

of 0.75 m2/year which gives the value of k ¼ 3.53 10 10 m/s.

period of almost eight months thereafter. One peculiar thing is The secondary compression settlement was not considered

that was no settlement happened between day 30 and day 45. here.

Referring to Fig. 17, the lower gradient at the beginning of the The results are presented in Fig. 19. A good match was

consolidation process may roughly explain why the phenomenon obtained compared to the ﬁeld measurements in terms of the

exists. It seems that the soil may experience some kind of over- time rate of consolidation and the ﬁnal settlement. The ﬁeld

consolidated behavior. measurements showed a slower consolidation response at the

K.S. Ng, S.A. Tan / Soils and Foundations 55 (2015) 154–165 165

early stage as no settlement was observed between day 30 and Castro, J., Sagaseta, C., 2009. Consolidation around stone columns. Inﬂuence

day 45. Over the consolidated behavior cannot be predicted by of column deformation. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech. 33 (7),

851–877.

the ECM. However, beyond that, the ECM method gives a

Han, J., 2012. Recent advances in columns technologies to improve soft

very good prediction for the rate of settlement (almost parallel foundations. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Ground

lines for the ﬁeld and ECM results) as well as for the ﬁnal Improvement and Ground Control. Wollongong, Australia, pp. 99–113.

settlement. Han, J., Ye, S.L., 2002. A theoretical solution for consolidation rates of stone

column-reinforced foundations accounting for smear and well resistance

effects. Int. J. Geomech. 2 (2), 135–151.

6. Conclusion Kamrat-Pietraszewska, D., Karstunen, M., 2010. Modelling embankments on

ﬂoating stone columns. In: Proceedings of the Numerical Methods in

Geotechnical Engineering (7th NUMGE). Trondheim, Norway,

The objective of this study was to provide design engineers pp. 851–856.

with a simple modeling technique for stone column-reinforced Keller Technical Paper 12-64 E, 1997a. The Behavior of Very Soft

foundations based on the homogenization method. This semi- Soils Improved by Vibro Replacement. Keller Graundbau GmbH,

empirical homogenization method offers a quick solution for Kaiserleistr. 44, D-63067 Offenbach.

stone column-improved grounds (which can be carried out by Keller Technical Paper 12-65 E, 1997b. Vibro Replacement: A Technique for

Extensive Ground Improvement Works in Very Soft Cohesive Soils at

hand calculations) to predict both the settlement and consoli- Shah Alam Expressway. Keller Graundbau GmbH, Kaiserleistr. 44, D-

dation times. Moreover, it fulﬁlls all the design attributes of 63067 Offenbach.

practical analysis and design methods suggested by Poulos Killeen, M.M., McCabe, B., 2014. Settlement performance of pad footings on

(2000). soft clay supported by stone columns: a numerical study. Soils Found. 54 (4),

The proposal of equivalent stiffness in the design chart, 760–776.

Lee, J.S., Pande, G.N., 1998. Analysis of stone-column reinforced foundations.

accounting for different loading, the internal angle of friction Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech. 22 (12), 1001–1020.

for stone columns, and the area replacement ratios, facilitates Maheshwari, P., Khatri, S., 2012. Nonlinear analysis of inﬁnite beams on

users in selecting an optimum design scheme. On the other granular bed-stone column-reinforced earth beds under moving loads. Soils

hand, the ECM allows different permeability ratios to be Found. 52 (1), 114–125.

Ng, K.S., Tan, S.A., 2011. The modeling of ﬂoating stone column using unit

adopted by introducing an equivalent permeability value for

cell concept. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Geology,

the composite ground, an innovative solution that can be Geotechnology, and Mineral Resources of INDOCHINA. Khon Kaen,

obtained without going through a long theoretical derivation Thailand, pp. 152–160.

which has had little success until today. Ng, K.S., Tan, S.A., 2012. Equivalent column method for stone column

The equivalent column method (ECM) proposed here is design. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Ground

mainly based on the elastic-perfectly plastic theory. Despite Improvement and Ground Control, vol. 2011. Wollongong, Australia,

pp. 665–670.

being simple, the plastic straining under greater loading effects Ng, K.S., Tan, S.A., 2014a. Nonlinear Behaviour of an embankment on

is taken into account, thus making this proposed method ﬂoating stone columns. Geomech. Geoeng., 1–15 (ahead-of-print).

superior to the current design methods which are mainly based Ng, K.S., Tan, S.A., 2014b. Floating stone column design and analyses. Soils

on the elastic theory and empirical approaches. This method Found. 54 (3), 478–487.

has been validated through several case studies for end-bearing Omine, K., Ochiai, H., Bolton, M., 1998. A generalized two-phase mixture

model and its application to composite ground. Mem. – Faculty Eng.

and ﬂoating columns. However, the changes in permeability Kyushu Univ. 58, 83–110.

and the coefﬁcient of consolidation during consolidation or Poorooshasb, H.B., Meyerhof, G.G., 1997. Analysis of behavior of stone

loading intensity are not taken into account in this method. columns and lime columns. Comput. Geotech. 20 (1), 47–70.

Care should be exercised when using this method outside of Poulos, H.G., 1993. Settlement prediction for bored pile groups. In: Proceed-

ings of the 2nd Geotechnical Seminar on Deep Foundations on Bored and

the parameter range and assumptions for which it was

Auger Piles. Ghent, pp. 103–117.

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The Eighth Spencer J. Buchanan Lecture, Texas A & M University.

Schweiger, H., Pande, G., 1986. Numerical analysis of stone column supported

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