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Operational Liaison Meeting FBW aircraft

Fuel accuracy
Content

Introduction

What systems to determine Fuel quantity in the aircraft?


Fuel Quantity Indicator (FQI) System
Manual Magnetic Indicators (MMI)

Why Fuel quantity discrepancies:


On ground?
In flight?

Conclusion

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FQI System description

The FQI system is a computerized system that


measure:
the total fuel mass
the total fuel volume
fuel quantity in each tank

Fuel Volume and mass are determined using


Fuel probes (capacitance is proportional to fuel level)
densitometers

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FQI System description

Example of Probes
location in an
A320 aircraft

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FQI System description

Fuel Quantities are displayed on the ECAM


A320 A330

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FQI System description

Fuel Quantities are displayed on the ECAM


A320
FQI is inaccurate

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Manual magnetic Indicators
MMIs are installed in each wing tanks.
Each tank’s fuel quantity on ground can be determined:
reading the MMI dipstick number
reading the aircraft attitude (grid square letter and number)
using the MMI table

A320 MMI Wing Tanks MMI Table (Liters)


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Content

Introduction

What systems to determine Fuel quantity in the aircraft?


Fuel Quantity Indicator (FQI) System
Manual Magnetic Indicators (MMI)

Why Fuel quantity discrepancies:


On ground?
In flight?

Conclusion

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground?

At the end of refueling, discrepancies reported between:


uplifted quantity measured by the bowsers
uplifted quantity measured using FQI

Those discrepancies may be due to:


Bowser quantity and density error
APU fuel used
FQI accuracy

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground?

Bowser quantity and density tolerances:


Volume tolerance: generally less than 0.5% of fuel uplifted
Density tolerance (both temperature accuracy and density
reading error): 0.25% of fuel uplifted
Total bowser tolerance: 0.75% of fuel uplifted

APU fuel used:


To be taken into account when comparing FOB pre-refuel
and FOB post-refuel
depends on external condition and generator load
APU fuel consumption: between 100 and 150Kg/h

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground?

The FQI is a gauging system.

Bias and tolerances can affect FQI system accuracy:


tank manufacturing tolerances
FQI computer inaccuracies
tolerances in density determination
water that causes FQI over-reads
wing deflection

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FQI accuracy on ground

Single Aisle Aircraft

FOB OVERREAD UNDERREAD


0 to 0.5% Max FOB 0 - (0.5% Max FOB +0.5% FOB)
0.5%Max FOB to Max FOB 1% FOB

Long Range Aircraft:

FOB OVERREAD UNDERREAD


Below 2% Max FOB Decrease linearly to 0 Decrease linearly to -1% Max FOB
2% Max FOB to Max FOB +(0.5% Max FOB +0.5% FOB) - (0.5% Max FOB +0.5% FOB)

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FQI accuracy on ground

Single Aisle Aircraft

FOB OVERREAD UNDERREAD


0 to 0.5% Max FOB 0 - (0.5% Max FOB +0.5% FOB)
0.5%Max FOB to Max FOB 1% FOB

Long Range Aircraft:

FOB OVERREAD UNDERREAD


Below 2% Max FOB Decrease linearly to 0 Decrease linearly to -1% Max FOB
2% Max FOB to Max FOB +(0.5% Max FOB +0.5% FOB) - (0.5% Max FOB +0.5% FOB)

FAR/JAR 25.1337: Each fuel quantity indicator shall be calibrated


to read “zero” during level flight when the quantity of fuel
remaining in the tank is equal to the unusable fuel supply

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground?
Single Aisle FQI Accuracy (GROUND) MAX FOB= 19T

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1
FQI TOLERANCE Tonnes

0.05

-0.05

-0.1

-0.15

-0.2

-0.25
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Actual FOB Tonnes

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground?
LONG RANGE FQI ACCURACY (GROUND) MAX FOB=113T

1.5

1
FQI TOLERANCE Tonnes

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Actual FOB Tonnes

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground?

Max discrepancy =
Max [Fuel load(per bowser)- Fuel added on ECAM (FQI end-FQI start)]=
[±Bowser dev ± FQI dev(end) ± FQI dev(start) +APU fuel (refuel)]

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground?

EXEMPLE: (A320-200)
ACTUAL FOB before refueling: 3T
ACTUAL FOB after refueling: 18T
Max TOTAL Bowser inaccuracy : 115kg
APU Fuel used for 30minutes 50kg
Max FQI deviation* 220kg
______
TOTAL: 385kg

The FQI deviation is only significant when FQI


Over/ Under-readings before and after refueling are
very different

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground?
Single Aisle FQI Accuracy (GROUND) MAX FOB= 19T

0.25

0.2

0.15

MAX FQI
0.1
FQI TOLERANCE Tonnes

0.05
deviation
0
during
-0.05 refueling
-0.1

-0.15

-0.2

-0.25
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Actual FOB Tonnes

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground?
LONG RANGE FQI ACCURACY (GROUND) MAX FOB=113T

1.5

1
FQI TOLERANCE Tonnes

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Actual FOB Tonnes

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground?

What about MMI use?

MMI accuracy: +/-5% FOB

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground?
Single Aisle FQI Accuracy (GROUND) MAX FOB= 19T

1.5

1
FQI/MMI TOLERANCE Tonnes

0.5

FQI
0
MMI

-0.5

-1

-1.5
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Actual FOB Tonnes

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground?
LONG RANGE FQI ACCURACY (FLIGHT) MAX FOB=113T

4
FQI/MMI TOLERANCE Tonnes

FQI
0
MMI
0 20 40 60 80 100 120

-2

-4

-6

-8
Actual FOB Tonnes

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies on ground?

What about MMI use?

MMI accuracy: +/-5% FOB

Do not use MMI to check FQI system


Only use MMI when FQI is inoperative

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Content

Introduction

What systems to determine Fuel quantity in the aircraft?


Fuel Quantity Indicator (FQI) System
Manual Magnetic Indicators (MMI)

Why Fuel quantity discrepancies:


On ground?
In flight?

Conclusion

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies in flight?

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies in flight?

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies in flight?

When performing this check, discrepancies come from:

BLOCK FUEL accuracy

FU accuracy

FOB accuracy

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FU accuracy

FU is the integration of the Fuel Flow over time

The accuracy of the Fuel Flow meter depends on:


Fuel flow rate
Temperature conditions

But, keep in mind that the FU indication


does not take into account APU fuel
consumption

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FU accuracy

FU accuracy:

Estimated to be better than +/-1.5%

For normal Cruise conditions ~+/-1%

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FU accuracy on long Range Aircraft
Maximum F.USED Deviation
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
Deviatio n tonnes

0.2
0.1
0
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
-0.5
-0.6
-0.7
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110

FOB tonnes
F.USED 31 tonnes F.USED 67 tonnes F.USED 103 tonnes

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FQI accuracy in flight

Single Aisle Aircraft

FOB OVERREAD UNDERREAD


0 to 0.5% Max FOB 0 - (1% Max FOB +0.5% FOB)
0.5%Max FOB to Max FOB 1% FOB

Long Range Aircraft:

FOB OVERREAD UNDERREAD


Below 2% Max FOB Decrease linearly to 0 Decrease linearly to –0.64% Max
FOB
2% Max FOB to Max FOB +(0.3% Max FOB +0.95%FOB) - (0.3% Max FOB +0.95% FOB)

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies in flight?
Single Aisle FQI Accuracy (Flight) MAX FOB= 19T

0.3

0.2

0.1
FQI TOLERANCE Tonnes

-0.1

-0.2

-0.3

-0.4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Actual FOB Tonnes

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies in flight?
LONG RANGE FQI ACCURACY (FLIGHT) MAX FOB=113T

1.5

1
FQI TOLERANCE Tonnes

0.5

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2
Actual FOB Tonnes

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies in flight?

The maximum theoretical Combined FOB and FU


deviation in indication is possible when:

At departure the FQI system has the maximum deviation


(positive or negative)

At time X, the FQI system has the maximum deviation,


but with the opposite sign to the FQI at departure, and the
F. USED deviation moves in the same sense

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Why Fuel Quantity discrepancies in flight?

EXEMPLES:

A340 aircraft which takes off with 113 Tons on board.


Fuel check with 10 Tons on board:
MAX Theoretical Combined FOB and FU deviation:
2.554 Tons
A340 aircraft which takes off with 41 Tons on board.
Fuel check with 10 Tons on board:
MAX Theoretical Combined FOB and FU deviation:
1.749 Tons

Comparing FOB departure-FOB+FU is a good practice !

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Conclusion

Your FQI system has a good accuracy

On ground, only use MMI when FQI is inoperative

In flight, continue to perform the FOB check, being


confident on the Fuel Quantity Indications displayed on
ECAM

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