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THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL

The research proposal serves a dual purpose:

First, it provides a systematic plan of procedure for the researcher to follow.

Second, it provides a basis for the evaluation of the project and gives the advisor a basis during
the period of his or her assistance.

Elements of a Research Proposal

NOTE: There must be a Title page and a Table of Contents.


APA Style will be used

The Title
1. Background of the study
2. Literature Review
3. References

THE TITLE

The title is usually only formulated after the research problem and subproblems have been stated in a
more or less final format. The research project title should demarcate the following:
 the WHO or/and WHAT is researched;
 the WHERE;
 the WHEN;
 the HOW; and
 an indication of the ENVISAGED SOLUTION or possible NEW PRODUCT.

Chapter 1 (Background of the Study)

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.4a. Environmental
1.4b. Social
1.4c. Economic
1.4d. Industrial
1.4e. Academic
1.5 Scope and Delimitation

Introduction
This is a brief statement of the origin of the problem. It is an account describing the circumstances which
suggested research. It may include a justification on selection of choice of the study.

The statement of the problem


The statement of the problem/dilemma is the core of any research. Research starts with a
question in the researchers mind. It is this question which usually leads to a researchable problem.
Explain which dilemma of problems leads to the research, as well as the stance you intend to take. The
topic or first statement of the (first) paragraph must state the problem you are intending to solve. The
succeeding sentences (or paragraphs) are to explain or elaborate the topic sentence.

1) The problem should be stated precisely, accurately and clearly

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2) It can be stated either in the declarative or interrogative form
3) It can be either one main statement/question, or a series of statement/questions, or a
combination of these forms
4) The problem should be defined in terms the data can be obtained.

The research objectives are stated specifically in simple language in order that the researcher finds them
easy to measure by using research instruments in collecting.

Objectives of the study


The research objective states the reasons for conducting the study and it states what the study
wants to find out.

Objectives of the Study (Example)

The primary objective of this study is to ……. which is …………

Specifically, the proposed study aimed:


1. To design .............
2. To create .......
3. To construct ……….
4. To test the performance limits of the system in terms of ……….
5. To evaluate the acceptability of the system in terms of:
5.1 Functionality;
5.2 Reliability;
5.3 Efficiency and effectiveness;
5.4 Maintainability and
5.5 Portability.

Research problem and research objectives have the same characteristics (SMART) but they differ in
form because the former is stated in interrogative (question) form and the latter, in declarative form.

The significance of the problem


This part is usually required of research proposals so that the research can be justified. One of
the primary considerations in undertaking a research is the immediate or long-term benefit accruing to
the end-user. Under this item are presented the benefits that can be derived from the study. People or
institutions and others who may profit from the study are mentioned.

The discussion of the significance of the study is presented either in the inductive or deductive
perspective.

In an inductive perspective, the researcher moves from the particular to the general, and presents the
importance of the study from the target beneficiaries, to the researcher himself, to the people in the
community, to the people in the province, region and nation.

Likewise, in a deductive perspective, general to particular, discussion of the importance of the study
starts first from the national level…..to the researcher himself and to the target beneficiaries.

The investigator should prove that the study has important contributions in relation to
a) Solving the problem and need
b) Bridging a knowledge gap,
c) Improving social, economic and health conditions,
d) Enriching research instruments and methods, and
e) Supporting government thrusts.

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Benificiaries

Significance of the Study (Example)

The End User

The people benefit from the system. They would be informed immediately in case of abrupt
notices and announcements, hence they can prepare for it. They could easily make comment,
suggestions and feedbacks to further improve the community projects.

To the Local Government Units


A fast and easy way of providing an announcement and alerts was established. They could also
effortlessly relay to the public momentous reports like water and electricity loss advisories, class
suspensions, and other important events.

The Future Researcher


The system will serve as an inspiration to those who wanted to develop and improve the existing
system. The said idea also serves as a stepping stone in developing a system using different devices and
approaches. They can also use this research as a reference for whatever study they will be venturing.
Further revision of this dissertation to improve the system will be intensely promoted for the good of the
community.

Scope and Limitations, and Delimitations


Limits of the study need to be properly defined. The scope is expected to indicated a reasonable
area of study which is large enough to be significant but narrow to permit careful treatment. Limits or
boundaries should be set and made clear in terms of time, area, quality, etc. they should be stated in the
part of the report which covers the scope.

The scope of the problem should be stated specifically. The nature of any subject treated, their
number, the treatments they received, any limitation that exists in the reference population, instruments
or research design should be treated.

This section of the study includes the coverage of the study area, the subjects, the research
instruments, the research issues or concerns, the duration of the study, and the constraints that have
direct bearing on the result of the study.

Limitation vs Delimitation
Limitations are those conditions beyond the control of the researcher that may place restrictions
on the conclusions of the study and their application to other situations.
Delimitations. These are boundaries beyond which the study is not concerned.
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Common mistakes
 Failure to delimit the boundary conditions for your research.
 Failure to cite landmark studies.
 Failure to cite the intended user of the proposed study

Example(scope and Delimitation)


The study will be focused on the design and development of ……..
The system will provide……..
The system is intended ………..
The system will be developed using…..
The evaluation will be based ……

Chapter 2( Literature Review)

2.1 Introduction
2.2. Related Theories &Literature
2.3 Related Studies
2.4Theoretical /Conceptual Framework
2.5 Summary of Related Theories, Literature and Studies

Review of related literature


Sufficient background is established from previous studies and other primary and secondary sources.
 Only studies which are related in purpose, method or findings to the current study should be
included in the review. The discussion of such studies should be in the form of a brief critical
analysis of the purposes, method of study, principal findings and conclusions.
 Clarify the interrelationship of the studies reviewed. Point out weaknesses and strengths of each
study.
 Point out how each of the studies reviewed relates to the problem at hand. Summarize the
review and provide a transition from the past studies to the present one. The latter should be
shown to relate with or evolve from earlier work.
 In the text, only the last names of the authors are given. In the case of citations of different
works by persons with the same surname, initials should be included with the last name for
proper identification.

The word related means the readings, literature, and studies which have direct bearing relation to the
present study.

Literature may be defined as “written works collectively, especially, those of enduring importance,
exhibiting creative imagination and artistic skill which are written in a particular period, language, and
subject.” (Funk and Wagnalls Dictionary, 1976)

Parts of the review of related literature


I. Related readings
II. Related literature, and
III. Related studies

The major sources of related readings are laws and department directives such as circulars, orders,
memoranda, and others which are related to the present study. These laws and department directives
serve as legal bases for the paradigm of the study. This also presents the study as having direct or
indirect implications to the government thrusts.

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The related literature is a section in a research paper, thesis and dissertation in which the sources are
taken from books, journals, magazines, and many others. The review of related literature aims to provide
the reader with information on work previously done on the subject.

Published and unpublished studies are sources of materials that are included in the related studies. The
research studies which have direct bearing to the present study are segregated into foreign and local
studies.

The presentation of related readings, related literature and related studies are arranged in chronological
order either from the past to most recent or vice versa.

What are the Importance of Review of Related Literature?


 Serves as a source of research problems which can be gathered from existing studies
 Establishes the need/significance/justification in conducting the present study.
 Provides a historical background/perspective about the study.
 Serves as a basis for the development of the theoretical/conceptual framework.
 Avoids the unnecessary duplication of selecting a research problem which has been done
before.
 Helps to give more focus, direction, and clarity to the study.
 Familiarizes the reader with previous studies done related to the present topic.

What are the guidelines in undertaking an adequate related literature survey?


 Identify the relevant data sources
 Develop a systematic procedure and note-taking skill in collecting literature survey data
 Write a concise review of related literature.

Write a concise review of related literature.

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

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Theoretical framework is a symbolic construction which uses abstract concepts, facts or laws, variables
and their relations that explains and predicts how an observed phenomenon exists and operates.

An investigator is required to formulate existing theories which link his study because theories are useful
device for interpreting, criticizing, and unifying established scientific laws or facts that guide in
discovering new generalizations.

Conceptual framework presents specific and well-defined concepts which are called constructs. Its
function is similar with theoretical framework because the constructs used are derived from abstracts
concepts of the theoretical framework.

Sample Conceptual Framework:

3.REFERENCES

 Follow APA guidelines regarding use of references in text and in the reference list.

 Only references cited in the text are included in the reference list; however, exceptions can be
found to this rule. For example, committees may require evidence that you are familiar with a
broader spectrum of literature than that immediately relevant to your research. In such
instances, the reference list may be called a bibliography(MLA style).

Manuscript Construction Appearance


The manuscript must be prepared on a computer, neat in appearance, and without error. Strikeovers,
handwritten corrections, or interlineations are not accepted. Printing of the research proposal should be
letter/laser quality with dark black characters that are consistently clear and dense. Dot matrix is
unacceptable. The manuscript can be printed on only one side of each page received.

Paper
Good quality of bond, 8-1/2 by 11 inches in size, 20-pound weight, should be used for the original copy of
the manuscript. Only one side of the sheet is used in computerized manuscript.

Typeface

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Times New Roman is the only acceptable font. The same typeface must be used throughout the
manuscript, including figures, tables, plate captions with the exception of certain tables, figures and
appendix material, which may use a different type. Italics should be used only to highlight specific words
or phrases in the text. The official font size is 12 point and must be used for all material in the text.

Spacing
Double spacing is required throughout the manuscript. Footnotes, references entries, long quoted
passages, figure and table captions, and items in lists and tables may be single-spaced. If individual
footnote or references entries are single-spaced, there must be double-spacing between each entry.
There are special spacing requirements for some of the preliminary pages.

Margins
Margins must be uniform on all pages. Margin requirements apply to all materials included in the thesis
such as figures, tables, photographs, etc., and all material in appendices. The margins of the thesis page
are:

• 1 inch minimum on the top and bottom


• 1.5 inches minimum on the left
• 1 inch minimum on the right

Page numbers must fall within the margins. Page numbers must be placed in the top of the page at the
right side. The body of the text must be in fully/double justified with one inch indentation of each
paragraph’s first sentence