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Nature

Difficulty of audience analysis is greater

- Audience analysis
- Adjust with audience demographics

There’s a need to pre-structure the message

- Form of outline

Adjustments to feedback is less

- Forms value responses

Why study public speaking

- Personal benefits
o Beneficial first to oneself
o Feedback from classmates
o Know what’s best for you
- Professional benefits
o Future careers
- Public benefits
o Conquer one’s fear on public speaking

Sample:

SONAs

Wedding Messages

Causes of communication apprehension

- More anxious with unfamiliar people


- Unusual situations e.g. first job interview
- Being in the spotlight or center of attention
- Past failures
- When we are being evaluated

Symptoms of public speaking anxiety

- Indirect eye contact and sinking feeling


- Dry mouth
- Butterflies in the stomach
- Clammy hands and excessive perspiration
- Weak knees
- Cracking voice, vocal influency
- Mental blocks
- Blushing
- Increase in pulse rate and pounding of the heart
Managing fear

- Develop the right attitude about listeners


- Prepare thoroughly
- Use effective bodily action
- Look positively at other opportunities

“The King’s Speech” – Movie

7 steps of speech presentation

1. Choose a topic
a. Appropriate to you as the speaker
b. To your audience
c. For the occasion
i. To inform
ii. To persuade
1. Actuate – changing beliefs and personal beliefs and not necessarily
mean actions directly after the speech
iii. To entertain
d. Specific speech purpose is clear
e. Words he thesis statement – main idea
f. Tedtalks chris Anderson
i. Docus on one major idea
ii. Give people a reason
g. Science of persuasion
i. Reciprocity
ii. Scarcity
iii. Authority
iv. Consistency
v. Liking
vi. Consensus
h. Narrow the topic using mind map
i. Planning public speaking
2. Gather speech materials
a. Personal knowledge
b. Interviews and conversations
c. Print and non-print resources
d. Observation
e. Survey taking
f. Internet
g. Aka RESEARCH
h. Ask around, talk to people, and cite them during the speech as much as possible
3. Organize by writing the outline of the body of the speech
a. Evolve the main ideas according to patterns or order
b. Types
i. Word/topic outline
ii. Phrase outline
iii. Sentence outline
c. Functions
i. Test scope, logical relations relevance of supporting ideas, balance and notes
during delivery
d. Basic steps
i. Determine main points
ii. Determine subpoints
iii. Determine supporting points
e. Organizational patterns
i. Time order – chronological
ii. Spatial order – physical
iii. Causal order – cause and effect
iv. Problem-solution order
v. Comparative order – analogical
f. Transitions – makes the speech more fluid; creates a behavior that your audience will be
guided
i. Complimentary
ii. Causal
iii. Contrasting
iv. Chronological
4. Develop the body of the speech
a. Employ various types of verbal and non-verbal supporting materials
b. Carefully choose for appeal and attention
c. To support ideas
i. Use evidence
ii. Statistics
iii. Detailed or hypothetical examples
iv. Comparisons
v. Testimonies
d. Supporting materials
i. Audio visual aid
1. It may make the message clarity and impact
2. Speaker dynamism and confidence
3. Types
a. Objects
b. Diagrams
c. Charts
5. Develop the introduction – about a minute
a. Tell about the main idea
b. Functions
i. To stimulate interest in the subject matter and to orient the audience
c. Write the attention step
i. Significance of topic, use humor, interesting story, quotation, provocative
statement, pay audience complimentary remarks, etc.
d. Compelling introduction
6. Write the conclusion
a. Remind the audience what the speech is all about again
b. An effective conclusion should restate the main idea
c. Summary step
7. Practice
a. Rehearse the speech aloud

Presentational method

1. Memorized
2. Manuscript
3. Impromptu
4. Extemporaneous

Allowed to use DECENT LOOKING notecards containing the sentence outline

1. Adapt your appearance


2. Use gestures to enhance impact
3. Adopt confident posture
4. Use confident, and dynamic body language
5. Maintain good eye contact
6. Use volume that is strong
7. Use vocal inflection to enhance message
8. Use pauses for effect
9. Articulate clearly

Criteria for evaluation

10% speech plan

10% audience feedback

40% content

40% delivery