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Solomon, M.R., 2013. Consumer Behaviour: Buying, Having, and Being. 10th ed. Harlow: Pearson

Education Limited.

Glanz, K., Basil, M., Maibach, E., Goldberg, J. and Snyder, D., 1998. Why Americans eat what they

do: taste, nutrition, cost, convenience, and weight control concerns as influences on food

consumption. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 98(10), pp.1118-1126.

Rolls, B.J., Fedoroff, I.C. and Guthrie, J.F., 1991. Gender differences in eating behaviour and body

weight regulation. Health Psychology, 10(2), pp.133-142.

Johnson, F. and Wardle, J., 2005. Dieting restraint, body dissatisfaction, and psychological

distress: A prospective analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(1), pp.119-125.

Kolyesnikova, N., Dodd, T.H. and Wilcox, J.B., 2009. Gender as a moderator of reciprocal

consumer behaviour. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26(3), pp.200 – 213

Gough, B. and Conner, M.T., 2006. Barriers to healthy eating amongst men: A qualitative

analysis. Social Science & Medicine, 62(2), pp.387-395.

Gender refers to a social construct that is determined from the sex-based categories of

female or male (Kolyesnikova, Dodd and Wilcox, 2009). The way to differ between female and

male by roles, behaviour and attitudes. Male and female always behave differently and have

different consumptions pattern (Solomon, 2013). Hence, gender differences will impact on

consumer behaviour. Gender differences in eating behaviour will not always be the same. The

food preferences and eating styles are different between male and female. For example, female

consume less calories than male which shows that females tend to eat in a more feminine style

(Rolls, Fedoroff and Guthrie, 1991). This shows the behaviour of different gender will affect the

pattern of consuming food. Nowadays, there is a trend to be thin in body sizes to have a better

physique in society. Women have more concern about their body weight and the way to control
their food choice (Glanz, et al., 1998). They try to avoid foods that contain a lot of fats that

results in disordered eating behaviour and dieting behaviour in females. This is because females

have more dissatisfaction with their body size compare to males (Johnson and Wardle, 2005).

Besides that, the people who are suffering from obesity and overweight are increasing. Thus,

healthy eating behaviour is very important to all the gender. Women are more concerned about

healthy eating behaviour compared to men (Gough and Conner, 2006).

What did you find were some of the biggest differences between men and women in what
they were looking for in a quick-service restaurant?
The differences between what appeal to men and women are really interesting. Women are
driven by some of the intangible, subjective elements of their food and experience. Hot buttons
for them are health, the ability to customize their order, and the perceived quality of the food and
establishment. Men, however, focus more on the menu items themselves and the flavor variety
available for them to pick from. They’re much more likely to be won over by desserts, drinks,
combo meal options, and even sauces. For example, dads are twice more likely than average to
say dessert options are important to them when choosing a quick-service restaurant.


Restaurant companies from Buffalo Wild Wings to Olive Garden are trying everything to attract

Luring the 18 to 33-year-olds is key because their spending habits are expected to peak in the
coming years.

This is a challenge for restaurant chains because millennials' dining habits are drastically
different from their parents, according to a recent report by Morgan Stanley.

Here are a few key ways their preferences differ.

1. Eat out more often

Millennials go out to eat more often than Gen X or Baby Boomers, according to the analysts.

53% of the group goes out to eat once a week, compared with 43% for the general population.
Here are the stats for how often the age groups went out to eat at different kinds of restaurants.

QSR means a "quick-service restaurant," like McDonald's or Subway. CDR refers to casual-
dining establishments like Olive Garden or Applebee's. And FCR stands for fast casual
restaurants like Chipotle, Panera Bread, and Five Guys.

Morgan Stanley

2. Definition of "healthy" is totally different

While previous generations counted calories, millennials care more about food being "fresh, less
processed and with fewer artificial ingredients," Morgan Stanley writes.

This bodes well for Chipotle Mexican Grill, which serves meats without human antibiotics and
chops ingredients fresh daily.

This chart shows what "healthy" means to different groups of consumers.

Morgan Stanley

3. Increasingly want food with ethics

Young customers are more likely than their parents to say they want to visit companies with
good social ethics.

This could help explain the popularity of socially progressive brands like Starbucks or Chipotle
with young customers.

Morgan Stanley notes that this criteria still ranks very low for most people.

YouTube/Chipotle Careers

4. Embarrassed to eat fast food

Millennials are clearly frequenting fast food joints like McDonald's — but they don't want you to
know it.

McDonald's is still the most-visited restaurant for the demographic, according to analysts at
Morgan Stanley.

The fast food chain was also the least likely to receive their endorsement.

People in their 20s and 30s told Morgan Stanley that a lack of food quality at McDonald's was a
reason they would not recommend the brand to a friend.

Morgan Stanley

5. Fast casual is preferred format

Fast casual refers to when a restaurant serves casual-dining quality food at fast food speeds.

Millennials make up 51% of fast casual customers, although they represented only 31% of the
people surveyed by Morgan Stanley.

The analysts believe this category is winning because consumers like to feel like they're getting
great-tasting food for a good price.

Morgan Stanley

Income and Budget

Filipinos have difficulty keeping their budgets and lose a significant amount of their
weekly budget to “mystery spending”, a study conducted by a credit-card giant revealed.

In particular, Filipinos lose 42 percent of their weekly estimated expenses to unexplained

spending, or cash spent without knowing where it went, an online survey conducted by
Visa showed.Such are the unconscious, unplanned and unaccounted for bouts of
expenditure in a consumer’s daily life.
“It is revealed that Filipinos spend an average of P2,416 weekly, but lose track of an
average of P1,010 [42 percent], which amounts to more than P54,000 of money
unaccounted for in a year,” Visa said.

Visa differentiates the concept of mystery spending from misplaced or stolen cash, saying
that this is cash spent, but the consumer is unsure where it went.

“The survey highlights how mystery spending can cause financial setbacks for Filipinos in
the long run. It also tells us that Filipino consumers need to closely monitor their budget
to better manage their finances,” said Stuart Tomlinson, Visa country manager for the
Philippines and Guam.

Seven out of 10 Filipinos believe their mystery spending went into the purchase of
snacks. The number is above the regional average of only 45 percent.

Among other “distractions,” Filipinos say their mystery expense also went to shopping
for nonessential items at 49 percent; shopping for food and groceries, 46 percent; dining
out with family and friends, 33 percent; paying for entertainment, such as nightouts,
movies, parties, daily lunch and coffee breaks, 30 percent each; and paying for taxis, toll
and parking fees, 24 percent.

“One of the ways Filipinos can closely monitor their expenses is through using electronic
payment cards, such as debit and credit cards,”
Tomlinson said.

“Filipinos can stick to their budget and keep their mystery spending to a minimum when
they use electronic cards in their transactions,” he said.
There are now fewer shopping baskets containing food items that need to be cooked at
home as Filipinos go to fast food restaurants and convenience stores to grab a meal.

The Nielsen Shopper Trends Report reveals a 13% decline in monthly grocery spend of
Filipino respondents in 2014 compared to 2012. From a monthly spend of P5,400 in
2012, Filipino shoppers only spent P4,700 on an average in 2014.


Driving this cut in grocery spend is the spike in the number of consumers who are dining
out and the increased frequency in eating out of home. In the report, 25% of consumers
eat out at fast food restaurants at least once a week, a contrast to a year ago with only

The proliferation of convenience stores across the Philippines offering prepared meals
similar to quick serve restaurant (QSR) format is also encouraging Filipinos to dine out
rather than eat at home. The offerings of fast food restaurants and convenience stores
cater to shoppers’ increasing desire for convenience, quick preparation and ready-to-eat
meal options.
Food manufacturers in particular should understand that the need for “ready to eat” or
“quick and easy” is not just a fad that will fade away; it is here to stay. Manufacturers
and even retailers can ride on this trend by innovating to meet their needs or looking at
tie-up opportunities with fast food restaurants and convenience stores as a way to stay
relevant to these shoppers.


The Nielsen report also reveals that when Filipinos shop they prefer to consolidate all
their purchases in the stores closest to their neighborhood. Supermarkets are
expanding in both regular and small formats near residential areas, investing in bigger
fresh food sections within their stores. Similarly, vegetable vendors and mini-market
stalls set up closer to neighborhoods. This has led to shoppers again choosing the
more convenient alternative, at the expense of wet markets.

In smaller stores which have limited assortment, manufacturers and retailers should
ensure that shelf space is assigned not just to their top selling products, but that they
also have products that address the needs of various category segments. For
instance, most people just buy regular cola drinks but this does not mean that
neighborhood store should only carry this as shoppers sometimes feel the urge to buy
diet, flavored or imported drinks. Proper assortment is critical so as not to turn off


While 89% of Filipino shoppers claim that they plan what they will buy and 87% say that
they follow a strict budget, in contrast, 87% admit that they end up buying more than
what they had planned. Attractive promotions can encourage spontaneous buying as
close to half or 49% of Filipino shoppers are always on the lookout for promotions.

The study further reveals that most Filipinos opt for instant gratification type of
promotions such as “buy 1, take 1” and price discounts. While promotions are important
in keeping shopper engagement, it should be strategically planned with a marketing
objective in mind – to switch buyers, increase basket or drive purchase frequency –
otherwise, if abused, it could do more harm than good to the category.

Understanding the behavior of shoppers while in-store is critical in knowing the

appropriate tactics that will work for a brand and category. Retailers and manufacturers
must work together in developing and implementing strategies that can keep customers
coming to stores and increasing basket size.

*Shopper Trends is a syndicated annual report that Nielsen conducts across 54 markets
globally. It provides a comprehensive overview of retail environment trends and an
understanding of shopping behavior across the different trade channels. It provides
insights on where, when, and how often people shop, and their emotional commitment
and perceptions about key modern trade retailer


used to be that eating out was a way of celebrating special occasions. These days, it has
become a routine among Metro Manila consumers who have to contend with a hectic lifestyle
and the worsening traffic.

Online information on new dining places and food offerings has also fueled this phenomenon,
according to the latest report by the market research firm Nielsen, which showed that people in
the National Capital Region dine out of their homes an average of 42 times a month, or almost
twice a day.

The report also indicated lunch and afternoon snacks as the most commonly eaten meals away
from home. Among consumers pressed for time, the perennial question they have to answer is
where and what to eat, the report said.

It added that diners often consider accessibility to their workplace or residence in their choice of
dining places.

“Among the commonalities of these food [outlets] are their accessibility to the home or the work
area, their offer of convenience and value for money,” Nielsen Philippines managing director
Stuart Jamieson said in a statement.

“Usually, in these establishments, it is faster for consumers to eat and go, or just grab and go.
Consumers would also usually eat or buy meals on their way home, [en route] to work, or while
at work. And when they do, they look for places where they can get their pesos’ worth,”
Jamieson said.

Class ABCD

The findings are based on interviews and focused group discussions conducted in June and
July 2017 among Metro Manila respondents aged 16-50. The respondents come from
socioeconomic Classes ABCD and are considered “purchase decision makers.”
Additional focused group discussions were held among Metro Manila participants aged 24-45
from Class ABC1 and Class C2, and among “young millennials” aged 18-24.

According to the respondents, they frequent five or more different types of eating places in a
month, with quick service restaurants, convenience stores, neighborhood bakeries or
bakeshops, and roadside eateries or “carinderias” being the most popular. They eat or buy food
from these places at varying frequency—from once a week to almost daily.

The report noted that convenience stores have capitalized on this growing trend by offering
diners a variety of choices and introducing precooked packed meals that can be reheated and
eaten in the premises, or ordered as take-out meals.


Participants in the focused group discussion also cited the worsening traffic situation in Metro
Manila as deterrents to preparing and eating home-cooked meals even during dinner, a
challenge that could pave the way for the growth of such food outlets as rotisseries, barbecue
stalls, food carts and kiosks.

Less frequently patronized and still reserved mainly for special occasions are pricier food outlets
like casual dining places, sit-down restaurants, buffets and eat-all-you-can establishments, the
report said.

Word of mouth
Television—via ads or promotion on shows—continues to be an important source of awareness
when consumers look for new places to dine in, the report said. Word of mouth and store
display also place high in the respondents’ list of information sources.

Social media, meanwhile, in the form of feature stories on food blogs and food reviews, are
gaining traction among the internet-savvy younger generation, the report added.

“For startup dining places with less budget to invest on TV commercials or billboards, word of
mouth and creating buzz online through blogs and reviews are practical alternatives, because
they are also potent sources of awareness and information especially among millennials,”
Jamieson said.

“In fact, four in 10 respondents belonging to the age group claim the highest reliance on online
food blogs compared to the more mature respondents,” he added.

The growing trend could affect the buying habits of consumers as well, Jamieson said. “As the
incidence of eating out of home increases, we can expect an effect on consumers’ household
purchases, especially of items used in cooking such as fresh ingredients, sauces and

Jamieson added: “Manufacturers can compensate for what could be lost at the household level
by tapping into the growing patronage of these neighborhood food establishments. Work with
these channels to come up with food, beverage and dessert offerings for consumers.”

Solo diners who asked for a “table for one” could once expect to be greeted with
pitying looks from restaurant staff before being ushered to a dusty corner of the
establishment – most likely next to the lavatories.

But the stigma around eating alone is starting to lift, new research has
suggested. Single cover reservations have more than doubled in the past two
years, shooting up by 110 per cent, according to data published by the restaurant
booking service OpenTable.

A poll of British diners, conducted by YouGov, found that restaurant-goers have

begun to shrug off their inhibitions, with 87 per cent of people surveyed saying
they would have no problem with eating out alone.

Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior Volume 46, Number 4S, 2014

Objective: The objective of this quantitative study was to identify factors that influence eating
behaviors of college students when dining out as compared to dining in (defined as eating at
residence hall dining center or apartment).

Study Design, Setting, Participants, and Intervention: A convenience sample of 273

undergraduate and graduate students attending a mid-sized regional University participated in
the online survey participated in the study.

Outcome, Measures and Analysis: Descriptive statistics to highlight influencing factors were
Results: The majority of participants ranked price and personal preference as most important
when selecting food regardless of where the food was consumed. A slightly higher percentage
of participants (4%) were more concerned with nutritional value when dining in. However, 43%
noted that if nutritional value was available in the dining center, they would not use it.

Additionally, 40% of participants noted that they never or rarely read the nutrition facts on the
food label when shopping. The meal most commonly consumed out during the week was dinner
with 29% of participants indicating eating dinner out 3 or more times weekly with breakfast, if
consumed, eaten most frequently at home.

Conclusions and Implications: Based on the results of this study, nutrition was not a strong
influencing factor for college students when selecting foods consumed regardless of dining
location. Intent to utilize nutrition information in the form of food labels was limited. Nutrition
education efforts on campus need to focus on consuming preferred foods on a budget with
nutritional value playing a supportive role.


MANILA – Planning to go on a food trip in Metro Manila? Instead of the usual Makati, Taguig or
Quezon City, head to Malabon and check out its growing restaurant scene.

Known mainly for its pancit (stir-fried noodles) and kakanin (rice cakes), Malabon is slowly
catching up to its foodie neighbors, with a number of promising restaurants opening here since
last year.

And the best part about these new dining destinations, said Malabon mayor Antolin “Len-Len”
Oreta, is that they do not leave a hole in the pocket.

Sapin-sapin at Dolor’s Kakanin. Photo by Karen Flores,

“Malabon kasi is an old city. It’s like a province but it’s a city, so ibang-iba. So if you come here,
it’s very different. You feel like you’re in a restaurant or café in Makati or Quezon City but you
only pay one-third of the price,” Oreta told

“Gusto naming makilala ‘yung mga establishments dito, hindi lang ng mga tao rito sa Malabon
but from other cities as well,” he added.

Despite this development, Oreta assured that efforts are in place to preserve Malabon’s old
charm and support “food institutions” such as his personal favorite restaurant Jamicos, which is
home to the Judy Ann Crispy Pata.

The deep-fried pork leg, named after the owner’s youngest daughter, is a must-try for its light,
crispy skin and fork-tender meat.

Judy Ann Crispy Pata at Jamicos. Photo by Karen Flores,

“Ang Judy Ann institusyon na siya rito sa Malabon… Ang nangyayari ngayon mayroong
contrasting culture, there’s the modern culture and the old Malabon culture. Pinagsasama
namin siya ngayon pero nandoon pa rin ‘yung culinary prowess ng mga tao,” Oreta explained.

Here are three new restaurants in Malabon that are worth a look, as recommended by the city
government during a food tour for selected members of the media.

Cocina Luna

Cocina Luna along General Luna Street. Photo by Karen Flores,

With its industrial-inspired design and tasty, comforting food at reasonable prices, Cocina Luna
along General Luna Street can easily fit in Maginhawa, Quezon City’s culinary-slash-art haven.

Owned by 26-year-old Anna Alcala, Cocina Luna has a short menu consisting of breakfast
favorites, sliders, bar chow, beers and cocktails. Nothing here goes above the P150 mark,
making the restaurant a hit among students and young professionals who want to unwind after a
long day.
Oreta shared that he often drops by Cocina Luna for the Pulled Pork Burgers, which is
described on the menu as “three-piece dinner roll buns filled with pulled pork in Cocina Luna’s
original barbecue sauce, topped with bacon, cheese and fried onion rings.”

Pulled Pork Burgers. Photo by Karen Flores,

The Pulled Pork Burgers, which is served with a bucket of fries, is a steal at P150. It was filling
but not too heavy, with the bite-size sandwiches having the right balance of sweet and savory.
The onion rings and bacon add a crunchy texture to the already flavorful dish.

Another must-try item on the menu is the Tapa (P120), which is served with rice, fried egg and
vinegar. The tender strips of meat absorbed Cocina Luna’s sweet and salty sauce like a
sponge, resulting in a very flavorful interpretation of the popular Filipino breakfast dish.

Cocina Luna’s Tapa. Photo by Karen Flores,

“Yung iba kasing usually matigas, eto mafee-feel mo talagang malambot. May iba siyang timpla.
‘Yung iba kasi usually either matamis lang o maalat. Eto nag-aagaw,” Alcala said of her Tapa.

Cocina Luna is located at 144 General Luna Street, Brgy. Ibaba, Malabon. For reservations, call
(02) 373-1420.


While it is technically a sit-down restaurant, Palmeras at the Paseo de San Antonio Complex is
often referred to by locals as a “fine dining” destination for its nicely plated home-cooked

One of the owners of the restaurant, Jay Robles, said the idea is to add new twists to otherwise
humble dishes such as Tokwa’t Baboy (P195), with the bean curd made to look like a small
tower of Jenga blocks.

Tokwa’t Baboy. Photo by Karen Flores,

Palmeras serves mostly appetizers, from oyster shooters and nachos to croquettes with bacon
and cheese. For main course, the restaurant is known for its Shrimp Salpicao (P235),
Deconstructed Pla-Pla (P195) and Creamy Tomato Pasta (P200).

Shrimp Salpicao with Rice. Photo by Karen Flores,

The Shrimp Salpicao was particularly tasty, with the garlic lending strong flavors to the fresh
shrimps, which Malabon is known for.

With its dim interiors and paintings of Malabon sights, Palmeras is ideal for a quiet afternoon or
dinner date.

Palmeras is located at Paseo de San Antonio Commercial Complex, Gov. Pascual Ave., Brgy.
Catmon. For reservations, call (02) 441-4332.

Cups and Cones

Located along General Luna Street, Cups and Cones is a great place to catch up with friends
for its cheerful interiors and welcoming atmosphere.

The café is popular among locals for its freshly made cakes – from Blueberry Cheesecake
(P140) to Triple Chocolate Cake (P110) and S’mores Cake (P120) – which are sweet but not

S’mores Cake. Photo by Karen Flores,

A must-try here is the Brownie ala Mode (P130), a heavenly combo of moist, fudgy brownie,
vanilla ice cream and chocolate syrup. This dessert has the stamp of approval of no less than
the city mayor, who admitted that it is his favorite item on the menu.

Brownie ala Mode. Photo by Karen Flores,

Desserts get the spotlight at Cups and Cones, but savory dishes are worth trying as well. The
café offers different types of pasta, sandwiches and breakfast fare such as Horse Tapa (P110),
which is somewhat sweet, slightly gamey and quite addictive.

Drinks here are quite cheap, too, with iced tea or juice priced between P25 and P30 per glass.
An Illy iced latte or caramel macchiato only costs P105 to P110, with flavored hot coffees not
going beyond the P120 mark.

Cups and Cones is located at 247 General Luna Street in Concepcion, Malabon. For
reservations, call (02) 294-2194.