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SYLLABUS

ME6016 ADVANCED I.C. ENGINES LTPC


3 0 0 3
OBJECTIVES:
 To update the knowledge in engine exhaust emission control and alternate fuels
 To enable the students to understand the recent developments in IC Engines
UNIT I SPARK IGNITION ENGINES 9
Mixture requirements – Fuel injection systems – Mono point, Multipoint & Direct
injection Stages of combustion – Normal and Abnormal combustion – Knock - Factors
affecting knock – Combustion chambers.

UNIT II COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINES 9

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Diesel Fuel Injection Systems - Stages of combustion – Knocking – Factors affecting
knock – Direct and Indirect injection systems – Combustion chambers – Fuel Spray

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behavior – Spray structure and spray penetration – Air motion - Introduction to Turbo-
charging.

UNIT III
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ENGINE EXHAUST EMISSION CONTROL 9

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Pollutant – Sources – Formation of Carbon Monoxide, Unburnt hydrocarbon, Oxides of
Nitrogen, Smoke and Particulate matter – Methods of controlling Emissions – Catalytic

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converters, Selective Catalytic Reduction and Particulate Traps – Methods of
measurement – Emission norms and Driving cycles.

UNIT IV
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ALTERNATE FUELS

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Alcohol, Hydrogen, Compressed Natural Gas, Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Bio Diesel
9

- Properties, Suitability, Merits and Demerits - Engine Modifications.

UNIT V RECENT TRENDS g.n 9


Air assisted Combustion, Homogeneous charge compression ignition engines –et
Variable Geometry turbochargers – Common Rail Direct Injection Systems - Hybrid
Electric Vehicles – NOx Adsorbers - Onboard Diagnostics.
TOTAL: 45 PERIODS
TEXT BOOK:
1. Ramalingam. K.K., "Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals", Scitech
Publications,2002
2. Ganesan V..” Internal Combustion Engines” , Third Edition, Tata Mcgraw-Hill ,2007

REFERENCES:
1. Mathur. R.B. and R.P. Sharma, "Internal Combustion Engines"., Dhanpat Rai &
Sons 2007.
2. Duffy Smith, "Auto Fuel Systems", The Good Heart Willcox Company, Inc., 1987.
2

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.NO TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE.NO

a. Aim and Objective of the subject 4


b. Detailed Lesson Plan 5
c. Unit I- Spark Ignition Engines -Part A 7
d. Unit I- Spark Ignition Engines -Part B 9

wwe.
f.
g.
Unit II- Compression Ignition Engines -Part A
Unit II- Compression Ignition Engines -Part B
Unit III- Engine Exhaust Emission Control -Part A
18
19
27

w.E
h.
i.
Unit III- Engine Exhaust Emission Control -Part B
Unit IV- Alternate Fuels -Part A
28
38
j.
k. asy
Unit IV- Alternate Fuels -Part B
Unit V- Recent Trends - Part A
40
45
l.
m. Question bankEn
Unit V- Recent Trends - Part B 46
54

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g.n
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ME 6016 ADVANCED I.C. ENGINES

1. Aim and Objectives:

 To understand the basic components of I.C engines (S.I & C.I engines).
 To understand the working principles of I.C engines.
 To know about what are the emission norms of I.C engine in INDIA and
other country.
 To understand what the alternate fuels are used in the I.C engine and know
about emission norms of the alternate fuels.

ww  To know about the recent trend in I.C engine and what are the modification

w.E in engine for the future.


2. Need and Importance for Study of the Subject


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As a mechanical engineer we need know about the I.C engine other than
normal person.


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Day by day the automobile industries are reaching unknown level we are in


the basic level only.
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Our country following the all foreign technology in automobile industries, we

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need to know the all the thinks and creating the new one.

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3. Industry Connectivity and Latest Developments
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After completion of this course, the students will able to apply the basic

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knowledge in innovating and creating new components of automobile.

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SCAD GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS


Department of Mechanical Engineering
Detailed Lesson Plan
Name of the Subject& Code: ME 6016: ADVANCED I.C. ENGINES
Name of the Faculty:
TEXT BOOK:
1. Ramalingam. K.K., "Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals", Scitech
Publications,2002.
2. Ganesan, "Internal Combustion Engines", II Edition, TMH, 2002.
REFERENCES:
1. Mathur. R.B. and R.P. Sharma, "Internal Combustion Engines"., Dhanpat Rai &

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Sons 2007.
2. Duffy Smith, "Auto Fuel Systems", The Good Heart Willcox Company, Inc., 1987.

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3. Eric Chowenitz, "Automobile Electronics", SAE Publications, 1995

S.NO UNIT
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TOPICS COVERED
NO OF
HOURS
CUMULATIVE
HOURS
BOOKS
REFERRED

En SPARK IGNITION ENGINES

1.
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Air-fuel ratio requirements 1 1 T1,T2
2.
3.
4.
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Fuel injection systems
Monopoint, Multipoint Injection
Direct injection in SI Engines
1
1
1 rin
2
3
4
T1,T2
T1,T2
T1,T2
5.
I Stage of combustion
Normal and abnormal
2
g.n6 T1,T2
6.
7.
8.
combustion
Factors affecting knock
Combustion chambers
1
1
1
et
7
8
9
T1,T2
T1,T2
T1,T2

COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINES

9. Diesel Fuel Injection Systems 1 10 T1,T2


10. Stages of combustion 1 11 T1,T2
11.
Normal and abnormal 1 12 T1,T2
combustion
12.
13.
II Factors affecting knock
Direct injection systems
1
1
13
14
T1,T2
T1,T2
14. Indirect injection systems 1 15 T1,T2
15. Combustion chambers 1 16 T1,T2
16. Air Motion,Fuel Spray behaviour 1 17 T1,T2
5

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Spray structure, spray


17. 1 18 T1,T2
penetration
18. Turbo charging 1 18 T1,T2

ENGINE EXHAUST EMISSION CONTROL

19. Formation of NOX 1 19 T1,T2


20. HC/CO mechanism 1 20 T1,T2
21. Smoke and Particulate emissions 1 21 T1,T2
22. Methods of controlling emissions 1 22 T1,T2
Catalytic converter and Particulate
23. 1 23 T1,T2
Trap
24. III Selective Catalytic Reduction 1 24 T1,T2

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25.
HC,CO, NO and NOX Measuring
Equipments
1 25 T1,T2

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26.

27.
Smoke and Particulate
measurement
Indian Driving Cycles ,Emission
1

1
26

27
T1,T2

T1,T2
norms

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En ALTERNATE FUELS

28. Alcohols
Bio-Diesel
gin 1 28 T1,T2

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29. 1 29 T1,T2
30. Compressed Natural Gas 1 30 T1,T2
31.
32.
IV Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Hydrogen
1
1 rin 31
32
T1,T2
T1,T2
33.
34.
Properties , Suitability
Engine Modifications, Performance
2
2 g.n 34
36
T1,T2
T1,T2

Homogeneous Charge
RECENT TRENDS et
35. 1 37 T1,T2
Compression Ignition Engine
36. Air Assisted Combustion 2 39 T1,T2
37. Variable Geometry turbochargers 1 40 T1,T2

38.
V Common Rail Direct Injection
2 42 T1,T2
Diesel Engine
39. Hybrid Electric Vehicles 1 43 T1,T2
40. NOx Adsorbers 1 44 T1,T2
41. Onboard Diagnostics 1 45 T1,T2

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UNIT I

SPARK IGNITION ENGINES


Part A

1. List down the air fuel ratio requirements of a SI engines? May2012


 By using the desired air fuel ratio, the maximum economy can be gained.
 The air fuel mixture gives the maximum output
 The best power mixture is much richer than the chemically correct mixture and
the best economy mixture is slightly leaner than the stochiometric mixture

2. Mention the components of an injection system in SI engines.

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The components of an injection system in SI engines are:
a) Pumping Element – To pump the fuel from fuel tank
b) Metering Element – To measure and supply the fuel

w.E c) Mixing Element – To atomize and mix the fuel with air
d) Distributing Element – for equal distribution among the cylinders.

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3. What is a heterogeneous air-fuel mixture? May2013

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A heterogeneous mixture is a type of mixture in which the components can be
seen, as there are two or more phases present.

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4. Sketch T-head type combustion chamber used in SI engines? May2013

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5. Why do we require rich mixture during idling? Nov2013
The idling system gets operational at starting, idling and very low speed
running of the vehicle engine and is non – operational when throttle is opened
beyond 15% to 20%

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6. List the various factors that influence the flame speed in SI engine
combustion. Nov2013
Factors Influencing
 Turbulence
 Fuel – air ratio
 Temperature and pressure
 Compression ratio
 Engine output
 Engine speed
 Engine size

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7. What are different air fuel mixtures on which an engine can be operated?
May2014

w.E
The different air mixture is 7:1 compression ratio is of order of 30% where as air
standard efficiency is order of 54% this is the air fuel mixture on which engine can
be operated.
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8. What are the factors that influence the flame speed? May2014
 Turbulence
 Fuel-air ratio En
 Temperature and pressure
 Compression ratio
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 Engine output
 Engine speed
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 Engine size.
g.n
9. List the different operating conditions of an automobile SI engine and
indicate the relevant Air-fuel ratio needed. Nov2014
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 The condition for the operating of SI engine is the gas is mixed with air and
the mixture is introduced into the cylinder during the suction stroke.
 The relevant air fuel ratio is remains a constant over a wide range of
operation.

10. What is pre-ignition? Explain? Nov2014


Ignition of air fuel mixture by some hot spot which exists within the combustion
chamber, before the occurrence of spark is called pre-ignition. In a SI engine, the
spark that jumps across the terminals of the spark plug initiates combustion.
Similarly if there is any other hot source in the combustion it will heat up air fuel
mixture surrounding it. Then pre flame reaction will certainly by accelerated by this
not spot.

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Part B

1. Explain the various stages of combustion in a SI engine with a P-θ diagram.


May2012
Three Stage of Combustion

There are three stages of combustion in SI Engine as shown


 Ignition lag stage
 Flame propagation stage
 After burning stage

a. Ignition lag stage:


There is a certain time interval between instant of spark and instant

ww where there is a noticeable rise in pressure due to combustion. This time lag is
called IGNITION LAG. Ignition lag is the time interval in the process of
chemical reaction during which molecules get heated up to self-ignition

w.E temperature , get ignited and produce a self-propagating nucleus of flame. The
ignition lag is generally expressed in terms of crank angle (q1). The period of

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ignition lag is shown by path ab. Ignition lag is very small and lies between
0.00015 to 0.0002 seconds. An ignition lag of0.002 seconds corresponds to 35

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deg crank rotation when the engine is running at 3000 RPM angle of advance
increase with the speed. This is a chemical process depending upon the nature

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of fuel, temperature and pressure, proportions of exhaust gas and rate of
oxidation or burning.

b. Flame propagation stage:


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Once the flame is formed at ‚b‛, it should be self-sustained and must be

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able to propagate through the mixture. This is possible when the rate of heat
generation by burning is greater than heat lost by flame to surrounding. After
the point ‚b, the flame propagation is abnormally low at the beginning as heat

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lost is more than heat generated. Therefore pressure rise is also slow as mass
of mixture burned is small. Therefore it is necessary to provide angle of
advance 30 to35 deg, if the peak pressure to be attained 5-10 deg after TDC.
The time required for crank to rotate through an angle q2 is known as
combustion period during which propagation of flame takes place.

c. After burning:
Combustion will not stop at point‚c‛ but continue after attaining peak
pressure and this combustion is known as after burning. This generally
happens when the rich mixture is supplied to engine.

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2. Describe the features of any two SI engine combustion chambers. May2012

Variations are enumerated and discussed below:

w.E  L-head combustion chamber


 I-head (or overhead valve) combustion chamber
 F-head combustion chamber
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It may be noted that these chambers are designed to obtain the objectives namely:

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 A high combustion rate at the start.
 A high surface-to-volume ratio near the end of burning.

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 A rather centrally located spark plug.

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a) T Head Type Combustion chambers

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This was first introduced by Ford Motor Corporation in 1908. This design has
following disadvantages.

g.n
 Requires two cam shafts (for actuating the in-let valve and exhaust valve
separately) by two cams mounted on the two cam shafts.

because the average octane number in about 40 -50.

b) L Head Type Combustion chambers


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 There was violent detonation even at a compression ratio of 4. This is

It is a modification of the T-head type of combustion chamber. It provides


the two values on the same side of the cylinder, and the valves are operated
through tappet by a single camshaft. This was first introduced by Ford motor in
1910-30 and was quite popular for some time. This design has an advantage
both from manufacturing and maintenance point of view.

Advantages:
 Valve mechanism is simple and easy to lubricate.
 Detachable head easy to remove for cleaning and decarburizing without
 Disturbing either the valve gear or main pipe work.

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 Valves of larger sizes can be provided.

Disadvantages:
 Lack of turbulence as the air had to take two right angle turns to enter the
cylinder and in doing so much initial velocity is lost.
 Extremely prone to detonation due to large flame length and slow
combustion due to lack of turbulence.
 More surface-to-volume ratio and therefore more heat loss.
 Extremely sensitive to ignition timing due to slow combustion process
 Valve size restricted.
 Thermal failure in cylinder block also. In I-head engine the thermal failure is
confined to cylinder head only.

ww c) Overhead valve or I head combustion chamber


The disappearance of the side valve or L-head design was inevitable at high

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compression ratio of 8:1 because of the lack of space in the combustion chamber
to accommodate the valves. Diesel engines, with high compression ratios,

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invariably used overhead valve design. Since 1950 or so mostly overhead valve
combustion chambers are used. This type of combustion chamber has both the

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inlet valve and the exhaust valve located in the cylinder head. An overhead engine
is superior to side valve engine at high compression ratios.

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The overhead valve engine is superior to side valve or L head engine at high
compression ratios, for the following reasons:

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 Lower pumping losses and higher volumetric efficiency from better breathing

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of the engine from larger valves or valve lifts and more direct passageways.
 Less distance for the flame to travel and therefore greater freedom from
knock, or in other words, lower octane requirements.
g.n
 Less force on the head bolts and therefore less possibility of leakage (of

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compression gases or jacket water). The projected area of a side valve
combustion chamber is inevitably greater than that of an overhead valve
chamber.
 Removal of the hot exhaust valve from the block to the head, thus confining
heat failures to the head. Absence of exhaust valve from block also results
in more uniform cooling of cylinder and piston.
 Lower surface-volume ratio and, therefore, less heat loss and less air
pollution.

d) F- Head combustion chamber


In such a combustion chamber one valve is in head and other in the
block. This design is a compromise between L-head and I-head combustion
chambers. One of the most F head engines (wedge type) is the one used by the

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Rover Company for several years. Another successful design of this type of
chamber is that used in Wiley‟s jeeps.

Advantages
 High volumetric efficiency
 Maximum compression ratio for fuel of given octane rating
 High thermal efficiency
 It can operate on leaner air-fuel ratios without misfiring.

The drawback
 This design is the complex mechanism for operation of valves and
expensive special shaped piston.

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w.E
asy
En
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g.n
et
3. With a neat sketch, explain in detail about the different types of Multi point
fuel injection system used in SI engines. May 2016
Multipoint fuel injector(MPFI)
The basic parts of the multipoint electronic fuel injection system are
1.Electronic fuel pump 6.Sensors
2. Fuel rail 7.ECU
3.Pressure regulator 8. Fuel Tank
4.Fuel return line 9.Filter
5.Injection
Gasoline injection
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 Dc motor driven electronic pump force the fuel to fuel rail and injection.
 Diaphragm operated pressure regulator limits the pressure and bleeds the
excess fuel through the return line. Fuel is constantly circulated through the
system. Sensors are devices capable of changing internal resistance. These
sensor report engine condition to computer, Which is a programmed
electronic control unit(ECU) operate the injectors when needed. The above
list may be included as foot note beneath the concern circuit drawing. This
system is divided into two types:
D-MPFI
L-MPFI
 In the D-MPFI type, the vacuum in the inlet manifold is measured. Moreover
it also senses the volume of air by its density. In the L-MPFI type, fuel

ww metering is regulated by the speed of the engine and the actual amount of
air entering the engine. This type is a port fuel injector system.

w.E D-MPFI
D-MPFI system is a kind of manifold fuel injection system. In this system
first the intake manifold vacuum is sensed and moveover the volume of air

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by its density is sensed. The functioning of D-MPFI system is illustrated by
one layout diagram in figure.

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When air enters into the system the intake manifold vacuum is sensed cy
the pressure sensor and transmits the information to ECU. The details of

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engine speed are sensed by the speed sensor and transmit the information
to ECU. The ECU further sends commands to the injector and regulate the

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supply of gasoline for injection. The injector sprays the gasoline fuel into

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droplets in the inlet manifold to mix with the air and then mixture reaches the
cylinder.

g.n
et

L-MPFI
 The L-MPFI system is kind of port injection. In this system the engine
speed regulates the fuel metering and the amount of air entry into the
engine. This is termed as air mass metering. The functioning of L-MPFI
system is illustrated by the layout as shown in figure.
13

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 When this enters into the intake manifold, the amount of air entry is sensed
by the air flow sensor and transmitted to ECU. In the same way speed is
also sensed by the speed sensor, then transmitted to ECU. All the
information received by ECU are processed and corresponding command is
sent to the injector to regulate the petrol supply for injection.

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w.E Thus the MPFI functionally consists of
Electronic control system

asy Fuel system


Air induction system

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MPFI- Electronic control system consists different inputs sensors to cold

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start injector and from there the output is to corresponding injectors. Apart
from the input sensors various other sensors like intake air temperature, the


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oxygen, water temperature starter, signal along with the throttle position.
Sensor signals are sent to ECU. Of course, along with this in addition the
ignition sensor transmits about the engine speed.
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MPFI-Fuel system consists of fuel pump fuel cold start injector timing

g.n
switch injection signal from different injectors/ECU which controls the
injection volume. ECU finally commands the injection to intake


the injectors thereby control the volume of fuel injection. et
manifold.Thus ECU processes all such signals and commands appropriately

MPFI-Air induction system consists of air cleaner air flow throttle body air
valve air intake chamber intake manifold (Injection from injectors) cylinder.
The amount of air necessary for complete combustion is supplied. Thus the
overall electronic control system consists the main ECU. The final ECU
regulates the duration of operation of the injectors moreover starter timing
switch is used to control the operation of the injector for cold start injector.
Finally it is the Electronic Control Unit(ECU) which receives all the signals
from various sensors and decide the exact opening time of the injectors.

4. Describe in detail the phenomenon of knock in SI engines. Nov 2013

The various engine variables affecting knocking can be classified as:


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 Temperature factors
 Density factors
 Time factors
 Composition factors
i. TEMPERATURE FACTORS
Increasing the temperature of the unburned mixture increase the possibility of
knock in the SI engine we shall now discuss the effect of following engine
parameters on the temperature of the unburned mixture:

a) Raising the Compression Ratio


Increasing the compression ratio increases both the temperature and
pressure (density of the unburned mixture). Increase in temperature reduces

ww the delay period of the end gas which in turn increases the tendency to
knock.

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b) Supercharging
It also increases both temperature and density, which increase the knocking

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tendency of engine

c) Coolant Temperature

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Delay period decreases with increase of coolant temperature, decreased
delay period increase the tendency to knock

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d) Temperature Of The Cylinder And Combustion Chamber Walls

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The temperature of the end gas depends on the design of combustion
chamber. Sparking plug and exhaust valve are two hottest parts in the

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combustion chamber and uneven temperature leads to pre-ignition and
hence the knocking.

ii. DENSITY FACTORS g.n


et
a) Increasing the density of unburnt mixture will increase the possibility of knock
in the engine. The engine parameters which affect the density are as follows:
b) Increased compression ratio increase the density
c) Increasing the load opens the throttle valve more and thus the density
d) Supercharging increase the density of the mixture
e) Increasing the inlet pressure increases the overall pressure during the cycle.
f) The high pressure end gas decreases the delay period which increase the
tendency of knocking.
g) Advanced spark timing: quantity of fuel burnt per cycle before and after TDC
position depends on spark timing. The temperature of charge increases by
increasing the spark advance and it increases with rate of burning and does
not allow sufficient time to the end mixture to dissipate the heat and increase
the knocking tendency

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iii. TIME FACTORS


Increasing the time of exposure of the unburned mixture to auto-ignition
conditions increase the possibility of knock in SI engines.

a) Flame travel distance:


If the distance of flame travel is more, then possibility of knocking is also
more. This problem can be solved by combustion chamber design, spark plug
location and engine size. Compact combustion chamber will have better anti-
knock characteristics, since the flame travel and combustion time will be
shorter. Further, if the combustion chamber is highly turbulent, the combustion
rate is high and consequently combustion time is further reduced; this further
reduces the tendency to knock.

ww b) Location of sparkplug:
A spark plug which is centrally located in the combustion chamber has

w.E minimum tendency to knock as the flame travel is minimum. The flame travel
can be reduced by using two or more spark plugs.

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c) Location of exhaust valve:
The exhaust valve should be located close to the spark plug so that it is not in

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the end gas region; otherwise there will be a tendency to knock.

d) Engine size
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Large engines have a greater knocking tendency because flame requires a

generally limited to 100mm

e) Turbulence of mixture
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longer time to travel across the combustion chamber. In SI engine therefore,

rin
g.n
Decreasing the turbulence of the mixture decreases the flame speed and
hence increases the tendency to knock. Turbulence depends on the design of
combustion chamber and one engine speed.

iv. COMPOSITION FACTORS


et
a) Molecular Structure
The knocking tendency is markedly affected by the type of the fuel used.
Petroleum fuels usually consist of many hydro-carbons of different molecular
structure. The structure of the fuel molecule has enormous effect on knocking
tendency. Increasing the carbon-chain increases the knocking tendency and
centralizing the carbon atoms decreases the knocking tendency. Unsaturated
hydrocarbons have less knocking tendency than saturated hydrocarbons.

b) Fuel-air ratio:
The most important effect of fuel-aft ratio is on the reaction time or ignition
delay. When the mixture is nearly 10% richer than stoichiometric (fuel-air ratio
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=0.08) ignition lag of the end gas is minimum and the velocity of flame propagation
is maximum. By making the mixture leaner or richer (than F/A 0.08) the tendency to
knocks decreased. A too rich mixture is especially effective in decreasing or
eliminating the knock due to longer delay and lower temperature of compression.

c) Humidity of air:
Increasing atmospheric humidity decreases the tendency to knock by
decreasing the reaction time of the fuel

5. What is meant by abnormal combustion? May 2013

i. Normal combustion
Spark-ignited flame moves steadily across the combustion chamber until the

ww charge is fully consumed. A combustion process which is initiated solely by a timed


spark and in which the flame front moves completely across the combustion
chamber in a uniform manner at a normal velocity

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ii. Abnormal combustion

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Fuel composition, engine design and operating parameters, combustion
chamber deposits may prevent occurring of the normal combustion process. A
combustion process in which a flame front may be started by hot combustion-

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chamber surfaces either prior to or after spark ignition, or a process in which some

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part or all of the charge may be consumed at extremely high rates.There are two
types of abnormal combustion:

a. Knock
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b. Surface ignition
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a. Knock
g.n
Knock is the auto ignition of the portion of fuel, air and residual gas mixture

across combustion chamber, end gas is compressed causing pressure,


temperature and density to increase. This causes high frequency pressure
et
ahead of the advancing flame that produces a noise. As the flame propagates

oscillations inside the cylinder that produce sharp metallic noise called knock.
Knock will not occur when the flame front consumes the end gas before these
reactions have time to cause fuel-air mixture to auto ignite. Knock will occur if the
pre combustion reactions produce auto ignition before the flame front arrives

b. Surface Ignition
Surface ignition is ignition of the fuel-air charge by overheated valves or spark
plugs, by glowing combustion chamber deposits or by any other hot spot in the
engine combustion chamber - it is ignition by any source other than the spark\ plug.
It may occur before the spark plug ignites the charge (pre ignition) or after normal
ignition (post ignition).

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UNIT II

COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINES


Part A

1. What do you understand by spark knock and diesel knock? May2012


 In SI engines, knocking occurs at the end of combustion whereas in CI
engines, knocking occurs at the beginning of the combustion.
 In SI engines, detonation occurs at very high rate of pressure raise. In CI
engine, rate of pressure raise is normal.
 In SI engine, it is easy to identify the noise difference of knocking and in CI
engines, it is difficult to identify because of more noise in initial stage itself.

ww
2. How the thermodynamic analysis of a CI engine is different from SI engine.
May2012

w.E
The ideal cycle for the SI engine is otto cycle whereas for CI engine, it is diesel or
dual combustion cycle. For the certain compression ratio, otto cycle is more

asy
efficient than diesel cycle. But compression ratio in diesel engines is higher than
petrol engine. Therefore in practice the efficiency of diesel engine is higher than
that of petrol engine.
En
gin
3. Mention any two advantages of induction swirl. May2013
Excess air allows lower average combustion chamber temperature
No cold starting problems
ee
4. What is an indirect- injection type combustion chamber? May2013
rin
In this in direct-injection type, the combustion chamber is divided into two area and

g.n
the fuel is injected into „pre-chamber‟ and which is connected to the main
combustion chamber by a nozzle or orifice

5. Define cetane number scale. Nov2013 et


Cetane number of high grade fuels will have octane number rating as low. Hence,
the cetane number increases the grades of fuels.

6. What is meant by injection lag?


In fuel injection there is a time lag between the closure of fuel pump ports by the
plunger or the opening of the delievery valve of the fuel injection pump and
beginning of fuel injection by the injector. This time interval is called injection lag

7. State the purpose of turbocharger in automotive engines. May2014


It can change the high power to power weight ratio and it has high brake mean
effective pressure of 30bar can be obtained.

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8. What do you understand by indirect injection systems? May2014


The fuel is metered and pumped to the fuel valve by a camshaft driven fuel pump.
The injection of fuel which is indirectly into the combustion chamber with primary
automation is called indirect injection system.

9. What is time significance of cetane numbers in the combustion process


observed in the engine? Nov2014
If the cetane number of the fuel increases in the fuel which reduces the delay
period in the combustion process.

10. List any four types of turbochargers used in CI engines. Nov2014


 Reciprocating type turbo charger.
 Vane type turbocharger.

ww  Lysholm type turbo charger.


 Centrifugal turbo charger

w.E Part B
1. Explain with the help of a P-θ diagram the various stages of combustion in a
CI engine.
asy
STAGES OF COMBUSTION IN CI ENGINE
May2012 , May 2016

En
The combustion in CI engine is considered to be taking place in four
phases:

gin
a) Ignition Delay period /Pre-flame combustion
b) Uncontrolled combustion

d) After burning ee
c) Controlled combustion

rin
g.n
et

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ww
a. Ignition Delay period /Pre-flame combustion
The fuel does not ignite immediately upon injection into the combustion

w.E
chamber. There is a definite period of inactivity between the time of injection and
the actual burning this period is known as the ignition delay period. In Figure 2. the
delay period is shown on pressure crank angle (or time) diagram between points a

asy
and b. Point ‚a‛ represents the time of injection and point ‚b‛ represents the time of
combustion. The ignition delay period can be divided into two parts, the physical

En
delay and the chemical delay. The delay period in the CI engine exerts a very great

gin
influence on both engine design performance. It is of extreme importance because
of its effect on both the combustion rate and knocking and also its influence on

b. Period of Rapid Combustion ee


engine starting ability and the presence of smoke in the exhaust.

rin
The period of rapid combustion also called the uncontrolled combustion, is

g.n
that phase in which the pressure rise is rapid. During the delay period, a
considerable amount of fuel is accumulated in combustion chamber, these

et
accumulated fuel droplets burns very rapidly causing a steep rise in pressure. The
period of rapid combustion is counted from end of delay period or the beginning of
the combustion to the point of maximum pressure on the indicator diagram. The
rate of heat-release is maximum during this period. This is also known as
uncontrolled combustion phase, because it is difficult to control the amount of
burning / injection during the process of burning. It may be noted that the pressure
reached during the period of rapid combustion will depend on the duration of the
delay period (the longer the delay the more rapid and higher is the pressure rise
since more fuel would have been present in the cylinder before the rate of burning
comes under control).

c. Period of Controlled Combustion


The rapid combustion period is followed by the third stage, the controlled
combustion. The temperature and pressure in the second stage are so high that

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fuel droplets injected burn almost as they enter and find the necessary oxygen and
any further pressure rise can be controlled by injection rate. The period of
controlled combustion is assumed to end at maximum cycle temperature.

d. Period of After-Burning
Combustion does not stop with the completion of the injection process. The
unburnt and partially burnt fuel particles left in the combustion chamber start
burning as soon as they come into contact with the oxygen. This process continues
for a certain duration called the after-burning period. This burning may continue in
expansion stroke up to 70 to 80% of crank travel from TDC.

2. Explain the principle of operation of a turbocharger with a neat sketch;


indicate the objectives of turbo charging. May2012

ww A turbocharger or turbo is a forced induction device used to allow more power


to be produced for an engine of a given size. A turbocharged engine can be more

w.E
powerful and efficient than a naturally aspirated engine because the turbine forces
more air, and proportionately more fuel, into the combustion chamber than

asy
atmospheric pressure alone.

En
gin
ee rin
g.n
et

Working principle

A turbocharger is a small radial fan pump driven by the energy of the exhaust
gases of an engine. A turbocharger consists of a turbine and a compressor on a
shared shaft. The turbine section of a turbocharger is a heat engine in itself. It
converts the heat energy from the exhaust to power, which then drives the
compressor, compressing ambient air and delivering it to the air intake manifold of
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the engine at higher pressure, resulting in a greater mass of air entering each
cylinder. In some instances, compressed air is routed through an intercooler before
introduction to the intake manifold. Because a turbocharger is a heat engine, and is
converting otherwise wasted exhaust heat to power, it compresses the inlet air to
the engine more efficiently than a supercharger.

Components

The turbocharger has four main components. The turbine (almost always a
radial turbine) and impeller/compressor wheels are each contained within their own
folded conical housing on opposite sides of the third component, the centre
housing/hub rotating assembly (CHRA).

ww The housings fitted around the compressor impeller and turbine collect and
direct the gas flow through the wheels as they spin. The size and shape can dictate
some performance characteristics of the overall turbocharger. Often the same

w.E
basic turbocharger assembly will be available from the manufacturer with multiple
housing choices for the turbine and sometimes the compressor cover as well. This

asy
allows the designer of the engine system to tailor the compromises between
performance, response, and efficiency to application or preference. Twin-scroll

En
designs have two valve-operated exhaust gas inlets, a smaller sharper angled one
for quick response and a larger less angled one for peak performance.

gin
The turbine and impeller wheel sizes also dictate the amount of air or exhaust

ee
that can be flowed through the system, and the relative efficiency at which they
operate. Generally, the larger the turbine wheel and compressor wheel are the

rin
larger than the flow capacity. Measurements and shapes can vary, as well as

g.n
curvature and number of blades on the wheels. Variable geometry turbochargers
are further developments of these ideas. The centre hub rotating assembly (CHRA)

et
houses the shaft which connects the compressor impeller and turbine. It also must
contain a bearing system to suspend the shaft, allowing it to rotate at very high
speed with minimal friction. For instance, in automotive applications the CHRA
typically uses a thrust bearing or ball bearing lubricated by a constant supply of
pressurized engine oil. The CHRA may also be considered "water cooled" by
having an entry and exit point for engine coolant to be cycled. Water cooled models
allow engine coolant to be used to keep the lubricating oil cooler, avoiding possible
oil coking from the extreme heat found in the turbine. The development of air-foil
bearings has removed this risk.

3. Distinguish between DI and IDI diesel engines with neat sketch. May2012
A. Direct injection diesel engine

 Direct injection diesel engines have injectors mounted at the top of the
combustion chamber.
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 The injectors are activated using one of two methods - hydraulic pressure from
the fuel pump, or an electronic signal from an engine controller.
 Hydraulic pressure activated injectors can produce harsh engine noise.
 Fuel consumption is about 15 to 20% lower than indirect injection diesels.
 The extra noise is generally not a problem for industrial uses of the engine, but
for automotive usage, buyers have to decide whether or not the increased fuel
efficiency would compensate for the extra noise.
 Electronic control of the fuel injection transformed the direct injection engine by
allowing much greater control over the combustion.

ww
w.E
asy
En
B. Indirect injection diesel engine

gin
 An indirect injection diesel engine delivers fuel into a chamber off the

ee
combustion chamber, called a pre-chamber or ante-chamber, where
combustion begins and then spreads into the main combustion chamber,
assisted by turbulence created in the chamber.
rin
 This system allows for a smoother, quieter running engine, and because

g.n
combustion is assisted by turbulence, injector pressures can be lower, about

et
100 bar (10 MPa; 1,500 psi), using a single orifice tapered jet injector.
 Mechanical injection systems allowed high-speed running suitable for road
vehicles (typically up to speeds of around 4,000 rpm).
 The pre-chamber had the disadvantage of increasing heat loss to the engine's
cooling system, and restricting the combustion burn, which reduced the
efficiency by 5”10%.[35] Indirect injection engines are cheaper to build and it is
easier to produce smooth, quiet-running vehicles with a simple mechanical
system.
 In road-going vehicles most prefer the greater efficiency and better controlled
emission levels of direct injection.
 Indirect injection diesels can still be found in the many ATV diesel applications.

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4. List the factors affecting knock and explain their influence in detail. May2013

Knocking is violet gas vibration and audible sound produced by extreme


pressure differentials leading to the very rapid rise during the early part of
uncontrolled second phase of combustion. In C.I. engines the injection process
takes place over a definite interval of time. Consequently, as the first few droplets
injected are passing through the ignition lag period, additional droplets are being
injected into the chamber. If the ignition delay is longer, the actual burning of the
first few droplets is delayed and a greater quantity of fuel droplets gets
accumulated in the chamber. When the actual burning commences, the additional
fuel can cause too rapid a rate of pressure rise, as shown on pressure crank angle
diagram above, resulting in Jamming of forces against the piston (as if struck by a
hammer) and rough engine operation. If the ignition delay is quite long, so much

ww fuel can accumulate that the rate of pressure rise is almost instantaneous. Such, a
situation produces extreme pressure differentials and violent gas vibration known

w.E
as knocking (diesel knock), and is evidenced by audible knock. The phenomenon
is similar to that in the SI engine. However, in SI Engine knocking occurs near the

asy
end of combustion whereas in CI engine, knocking then occurs near the beginning
of combustion.

En
gin
ee rin
g.n
et

Delay period is directly related to Knocking in CI engine. An extensive delay


period can be due to following factors:

 A low compression ratio permitting only a marginal self-ignition temperature to


be reached.
 A low combustion pressure due to worn out piston, rings and bad valves
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 Low cetane number of fuel


 Poorly atomized fuel spray preventing early combustion
 Coarse droplet formation due to malfunctioning of injector parts like spring
 Low intake temperature and pressure of air

5. What are the various factors that influence spray penetration in CI engines?
Explain in detail. May 2016

ww
w.E
asy
En
gin
Spray Formation:
ee rin
The main function of the nozzles provided in the CI engine is to
disintegrate the fuel into droplets. The formation of the spray depends on air

g.n
turbulence and aerodynamic resistance of dense air in the combustion chamber.It is to
be noted that before the end of fuel injection,combustion starts. It is difficult to analyse
the spray developed at the verge of the nozzle. The air stream encounters
et
aerodynamic resistance from the dense air in the combustion chamber and breaks into
a spray. Initially when the the pressure is low fuel injection is as tiny individual
droplets.

As soon as the pressure increases the fuel droplets combine and develop into
stream lined motion. As the pressure increases the stream line pattern of the fuel
spray develop into fuel spring or fuel spray and get splashed. With gradual increase in
the pressure the distance of the spray formation from the nozzle tip increases. The
spray is formed into a spray cone at nozzle tip itself. With further increase in pressure
difference the break up distance decreases and the cone angle increases till the apex
coincides with the nozzle orifice. The spray pattern depends on the fuel quality,
pressure and time required for formation.

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When the initial pressure and spray density are less the injection pressure is
less which may even lead to slight leakage of liquid fuel. The velocity of stream line
motion of the fuel will get reduced step by step as the fuel formed into fine droplets. In
the presence of air resistance the fuel droplets may slightly retard the further fuel
droplets to follow up. So the delayed formation of spray even though cross the
previous droplets pattern may get prevented for a while. So even the droplet
movement is faster the spray tip will move at a lower speed. Thus the fuel spray work
like a drill bit within the air region.

Spray Characteristics:

Even though the fuel gets disintegrated into many number of droplets the
time to induce the surface of the droplets to reach the self ignition temperature may be

ww
not sufficient. Thus this Delay period depends on the chemical nature or the structure
of the fuel and not on the quality of the fuel spray. When the injection pressure

w.E
increases the velocity of the spray is also increases. At increased velocity larger
number of small droplets and lesser number of large sized droplets are being formed.
As the air resistances reduces the spray penetrating distance of the fine droplets may

asy
not increased. Moreover in case of fine droplets as the surface area per unit volume is
higher the fuel will get easily vaporized. So the fuel injection accelerates the rate

En
combustion. Therefore at the second stage of combustion the pressure increase may
exceed the limit. When the nozzle tip diameter is increased the diameter of the solid

gin
inner core of the fuel spray also gets increased. Therefore the inner core of the fuel
spray gets mixed with air stream in the combustion chamber the air movement will be

disintegrate into droplets. ee


the same as the spray velocity. So at this stage it may not be possible to further

rin
Spray Penetration :
g.n
et
Droplets of larger size have higher penetration. But smaller droplets get
quick mixing and evaporation of fuel. The degree of atomization is indicated by mean
droplet (less than 5 microns). Increase in injection pressure results in smaller droplets
but with uniform atomization. The penetration of the spray depends on the momentum
of droplets and velocity of the air in the combustion chamber. The salient factors that
determine the penetration of spray are Momentum of the droplets, density of air in the
combustion chamber and velocity of air in the combustion chamber.

Spray Direction:

As soon as the fuel droplets enter into the combustion chamber absorb
heat from the air and the completion of the ignition delay combustion starts at the outer
end of the spray injected.

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UNIT III

ENGINE EXHAUST EMISSION CONTROL


Part A

1. Write about the causes of hydrocarbon emission from SI engine? May2012


 In complete combustion
 Leakage past the exhaust valve
 Valve overlap
 Deposits on walls
 Oil on combustion chamber walls
These are the causes of hydrocarbon emissions from SI engine.

ww
2. What is the principle of flame ionization detector (FID)? May2012
Flame ionization detector is based on the principle of detection of ions formed

w.E
during combustion of organic compounds in a hydrogen flame. The generation of
these ions is propotional to the concentration of organic species in the sample gas

asy
stream. Carbon monoxide and carbon di oxide are not detectable by FID

3. Why smoke is formed in a CI engine? May2013

En
Carbon particles suspended in the exhaust gas is known as smoke. It is
generated when the engine is accelerated or decelerated.

gin
4. State the significance of stoichiometric air-fuel mixture. May2013

ee
Engine operating at full throttle and constant speed with varying A/F ratio. The

rin
mixture corresponding to the maximum output on the curve is called the best
power. Mixture with a A/F ratio of approximately 12:1, it is the best economy A/F
mixture.

5. What is green house effect? Nov2013 g.n


et
The large amount of CO2 emitted into atmosphere from automobiles and power
plant is very much concerned for the thermal un equilibrium of the earth. This effect
of co2 is known as green house effect. `

6. Define conversion efficiency of a catalyst? Nov2013


Catalytic converter provides another way to treat the exhaust gas. These
devices located in the exhaust system convert the harmless gases.
The catalytic converter the exhaust gases Passover a large surface area coated
with a catalytic.

7. Give a brief account of other emissions from engines? May2014


 Carbon monoxide
 Nitrous oxide
 Hydro carbon
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8. State usage of Ringlemann chart? May2014


The advantage of purely motion have for long been known and appreciated,
consequently a number of patents including the patent of rotary steam engine
were taken. it is the use of ringlemann chart.

9. What is the difference between smoke and particulate emissions? Nov2014


Particulate emission:
Particulate formation is due to the use of hydrocarbons, lead additives and
sulphur dioxide. Lead is a toxic compound and 70% of lead in exhaust gases will
settle down in the ground.
Smoke:
Smoke is produced due to the incomplete burning of air fuel in the combustion
chamber. Smoke does not settle down in the ground.

ww
10. How does the 3 way catalytic converter differ in operation with 2 way

w.E
converter? Nov2014
3 way catalytic converter:
In the 3 pollutants, namely CO, HC and NO are destroyed with the supply of

asy
lean or rich mixture of fuel.
2 way catalytic converter:

En
In these pollutants namely CO and HC are destroyed with supply of lean mixture
of fuel.

gin
ee Part B

rin
1. Explain the principle of operation of a three way catalytic converter with a

g.n
neat sketch? May2012

et

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A catalytic converter is a vehicle emissions control device which converts toxic


by-products of combustion in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine to less
toxic substances by way of catalysed chemical reactions. The specific reactions
vary with the type of catalyst installed. Most present-day vehicles that run on
gasoline are fitted with a ‚three way‛ converter, so named because it converts the
three main pollutants in automobile exhaust: carbon monoxide, unburned
hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen.

A three way catalyst is a mixture of platinum and rhodium. It acts on all three
of the regulated pollutants (HC, CO and NOx) but only when the air-fuel ratio is
precisely controlled. If the engine is operated with the ideal or stoichiometric airfuel
ratio of 14.7:1. The three way catalyst is very effective. It strips oxygen away from
the NOx to form harmless water, carbon dioxide and nitrogen. However the air-fuel

ww ratio must be precisely controlled, otherwise the three way catalyst does not work.

w.E
asy
En
gin
ee rin
g.n
Figure shows a three way catalytic converter.
et
The front section( in the direction of gas flow) handles NOx and partly handles
HC and CO. The partly treated exhaust gas is mixed with secondary air. The
mixture of partly treated exhaust gas and secondary air flows into the rear section
of the chamber. The two way catalyst present in the rear section takes care of HC
and CO.

Reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and oxygen:


2NOx → xO2 + N2
Oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide:
2CO + O2 → 2CO2
Oxidation of unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) to carbon dioxide and water:
CxH2x+2 + [(3x+1)/2] O2 → xCO2 + (x+1) H2O.

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2. Discuss briefly the HC, CO, and NO pollutant formation mechanism in a SI


engine. May2012
Formation of NOX, HC/CO mechanism
Mechanism of NO formation:
The nitric oxide formation during the combustion process is the result of
group of elementary reaction involving the nitrogen and oxygen molecules.
Different mechanism proposed is discussed below.

Simple reaction between N2 and O2:


N2 + O2 ----------------- 2 NO

This mechanism proposed by Eyzat and Guibet predicts NO concentrations


much lower that those measured in I.C engines. According to this mechanism, the

ww
formation process is too slow for NO to reach equilibrium at peak temperatures
and pressures in the cylinders.

w.E
a. Zeldovich Chai Reaction mechanism:

asy O2------------------------- 2 O ------- (1)


O+ N2 ------------------- NO + N ------ (2)
N + O2 ------------------- NO + O ----(3)

En
The chain reactions are initiated by the equation (2) by the atomic oxygen,

gin
formed in equation (1) from the dissociation of oxygen molecules at the high
temperatures reached in the combustion process. Oxygen atoms react with

ee
nitrogen molecules and produces NO and nitrogen atoms. In the equation (3) the
nitrogen atoms react with oxygen molecule to form nitric oxide and atomic oxygen.

rin
According to this mechanism nitrogen atoms do not start the chain reaction

g.n
because their equilibrium concentration during the combustion process is relatively
low compared to that of atomic oxygen. Experiments have shown that equilibrium

et
concentrations of both oxygen atoms and nitric oxide molecules increase with
temperature and with leaning of mixtures. It has also been observed that NO
formed at the maximum cycle temperature does not decompose even during the
expansion stroke when the gas temperature decreases. In general it can be
expected that higher temperature would promote the formation of NO by speeding
the formation reactions. Ample O2 supplies would also increase the formation of
NO. The NO levels would be low in fuel rich operations, i.e. A/F 15, since there is
little O2 left to react with N2 after the hydrocarbons had reacted.

The maximum NO levels are formed with AFR about 10 percent above
stoichiometric. More air than this reduces the peak temperature, since excess air
must be heated from energy released during combustion and the NO
concentration fall off even with additional oxygen. Measurements taken on NO
concentrations at the exhaust valve indicate that the concentration rises to a peak
and then fall as the combustion gases exhaust from the cylinder. This is consistent
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with the idea that NO is formed in the bulk gases. The first gas exhausted is that
near the exhaust valve followed by the bulk gases. The last gases out should be
those from near the cylinder wall and should exhibit lower temperatures and lower
NO concentration.

b. Hydrocarbons formation:
Hydrocarbon exhaust emission may arise from three sources as
 Wall quenching
 Incomplete combustion of charge
 Exhaust scavenging in 2-stroke engines
 In an automotive type 4-stroke cycle engine, wall quenching is the
predominant source of exhaust hydrocarbon under most operating

ww conditions.

c. Wall quenching:

w.E The quenching of flame near the combustion chamber walls is known as wall
quenching. This is a combustion phenomenon which arises when the flame tries to

asy
propagate in the vicinity of a wall. Normally the effect of the wall is a slowing down or
stopping of the reaction. Because of the cooling, there is a cold zone next to the
cooled combustion chamber walls. This region is called the quench zone. Because of

En
the low temperature, the fuel-air mixture fails to burn and remains unburned. Due to

gin
this, the exhaust gas shows a marked variation in HC emission. The first gas that
exits is from near the valve and is relatively cool. Due to this it is rich in HC. The next

ee
part of gas that comes is from the hot combustion chamber and hence a low HC
concentration. The last part of the gas that exits is scrapped off the cool cylinder wall
and is relatively cool. Therefore it is also rich in HC emission.
rin
d. Incomplete combustion:
g.n
Under operating conditions, where mixtures are extremely rich or lean, or

et
exhaust gas dilution is excessive, incomplete flame propagation occurs during
combustion and results in incomplete combustion of the charge. Normally, the
carburetor supplies air fuel mixture in the combustible range. Thus incomplete
combustion usually results from high exhaust gas dilution arising from high vacuum
operation such as idle or deceleration. However during transient operation, especially
during warm up and deceleration it is possible that sometimes too rich or too lean
mixture enters the combustion chamber resulting in very high HC emission.

Factors which promote incomplete flame propagation and misfire include:


 Poor condition of the ignition system, including spark plug
 Low charge temperature
 Poor charge homogeneity
 Too rich or lean mixture in the cylinder
 Large exhaust residual quantity
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 Poor distribution of residuals with cylinder


Carburetion and mixture preparation, evaporation and mixing in the intake
manifold, atomization at the intake valve and swirl and turbulence in the combustion
chamber are some factors which influence gaseous mixture ration and degree of
charge homogeneity including residual mixing. The engine and intake system
temperature resulting from prior operation of the engine affect charge temperature
and can also affect fuel distribution. Valve overlap, engine speed, spark timing,
compression ratio, and intake and exhaust system back pressure affect the amount
and composition of exhaust residual. Fuel volatility of the fuel is also one of the main
reasons.
e. Scavenging:
In 2-stroke engine a third source of HC emission results from scavenging of

ww
the cylinder with fuel air mixture. Due to scavenging part of the air fuel mixture blows
through the cylinder directly into exhaust port and escapes combustion process

w.E
completely. HC emission from a 2-Stroke petrol engine is comparatively higher than
4-Stroke petrol engine.
f. Carbon monoxide Formation:

asy
Carbon monoxide remains in the exhaust if the oxidation of CO to CO2 is not
complete. This is because carbon monoxide is an intermediate product in the

En
combustion process. Generally this is due to lack of sufficient oxygen. The emission
levels of CO from gasoline engine are highly dependent on A/F ratio. The amount of

gin
CO released reduces as the mixture is made leaner. The reason that the CO
concentration does not drop to zero when the mixture is chemically correct and

ee
leaner arises from a combination of cycle to cycle and cylinder to cylinder mal

rin
distribution and slow CO reaction kinetics. Better carburetion and fuel distribution are
key to low CO emission in addition to operating the engine at increased air-fuel ratio.

3. What are the various types of instruments used for measurement of


g.n
emissions from IC engines?
a) Non dispersive infrared sensor (Carbon mono oxide)
et
May2013

A non dispersive infrared sensor (or NDIR) sensor is a simple spectroscopic


device often used as gas detector. It is called non dispersive because wavelength
which passes through the sampling chamber is not pre-filtered instead a filter is
used before the detector

The main components are an infrared source (lamp), a sample chamber or light
tube, a wavelength sample chamber, and gas concentration is measured electro
optically by its absorption of a specific wavelength in the infrared (IR). The IR light
is directed through the sample chamber towards the detector. In parallel there is
another chamber with an enclosed reference gas, typically nitrogen.

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The detector has an optical filter in front of it that eliminates all light except the
wavelength that the selected gas molecules can absorb. Ideally other gas
molecules do not absorb light at this wavelength, and do not affect the amount of

ww
light reaching the detector to compensate for interfering components. For instance,
CO2 and H2O often initiate cross sensitivity in the infrared spectrum. As many

w.E
measurements in the IR area are cross sensitive to H2O it is difficult to analyze for
instance SO2 and NO2 in low concentrations using the infrared light principle. The
IR signal from the source is usually chopped or modulated so that thermal

asy
background signals can be offset from the desired signal.

En
b) Flame ionization detector (Hydro Carbon)
The operation of the FID is based on the detection of ions formed during

gin
combustion of organic compounds in a hydrogen flame. The generation of these
ions is proportional to the concentration of organic species in the sample gas

ee
stream. Hydrocarbons generally have molar response factors that are equal to

rin
number of carbon atoms in their molecule, while oxygenates and other species that
contain heteroatoms tend to have a lower response factor. Carbon monoxide and
carbon dioxide are not detectable by FID.
g.n
In order to detect these ions, two electrodes are used to provide a potential

et
difference. The positive electrode doubles as the nozzle head where the flame is
produced. The other, negative electrode is positioned above the flame. When first
designed, the negative electrode was either tear-drop shaped or angular piece of
platinum. Today, the design has been modified into a tubular electrode, commonly
referred to as a collector plate. The ions thus are attracted to the collector plate and
upon hitting the plate, induce a current. This current is measured with a high-
impedance picoammeter and fed into an integrator. The manner in which the final
data is displayed is based on the computer and software. In general, a graph is
displayed that has time on the x-axis and total ion on the y-axis. The current
measured corresponds roughly to the proportion of reduced carbon atoms in the
flame. Specifically how the ions are produced is not necessarily understood, but
the response of the detector is determined by the number of carbon atoms (ions)
hitting the detector per unit time.

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ww
w.E
asy
En
This makes the detector sensitive to the mass rather than the concentration,

gin
which is useful because the response of the detector is not greatly affected by
changes in the carrier gas flow rate.

ee
c) Chemiluminescence Detector (NOx measurement)

rin
Chemiluminescence (sometimes "chemoluminescence") is the emission of light
(luminescence), as the result of a chemical reaction. There may also be limited

g.n
emission of heat. Given reactants A and B, with an excited intermediate ◊,

[A] + [B] → [◊] → [Products] + light


et
For example, if [A] is luminol and [B] is hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a suitable
catalyst we have:

Luminol + H2O2 → 3-APA [◊] → 3-APA + light

Where 3-APA is 3-aminophthalate


3-APA [◊] is the vibronic excited state fluorescing as it decays to a lower energy

One of the oldest known chemo luminescence reactions is that of elemental white
phosphorus oxidizing in moist air, producing a green glow. This is a gas-phase
reaction of phosphorus vapour, above the solid, with oxygen producing the excited
states (PO) 2 and HPO.

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Another gas phase reaction is the basis of nitric oxide detection in commercial

ww analytic instruments applied to environmental air-quality testing. Ozone is


combined with nitric oxide to form nitrogen dioxide in an activated state.

w.E NO+O3 → NO2 [◊] + O2


The activated NO2 [◊] luminance broadband visible to infrared light as it reverts
to a lower energy state. A photomultiplier and associated electronics counts the

asy
photons that are proportional to the amount of NO present. To determine the
amount of nitrogen dioxide, NO2, in a sample (containing no NO) it must first be

En
converted to nitric oxide, NO, by passing the sample through a converter before the
above ozone activation reaction is applied. The ozone reaction produces a photon

gin
count proportional to NO that is proportional to NO2 before it was converted to NO.
In the case of a mixed sample that contains both NO and NO 2, the above reaction

ee
yields the amount of NO and NO2 combined in the air sample, assuming that the

rin
sample is passed through the converter. If the mixed sample is not passed through
the converter, the ozone reaction produces activated NO2[◊] only in proportion to

g.n
the NO in the sample. The NO2 in the sample is not activated by the ozone
reaction. Though un activated NO2 is present with the activated NO2, photons are

et
emitted only by the activated species that is proportional to original NO. Final step:
Subtract NO from (NO + NO2) to yield NO2.

4. What is smoke and explain the principle used in measurement of smoke?


Nov 2013
Engine exhaust smoke is a visible indicator of the combustion process in the
engine. Smoke is due to incomplete combustion. Smoke in diesel engine can be
divided into three categories: blue, white and black.
Blue smoke:
It results from the burning of engine lubricating oil that reaches combustion
chamber due to worn piston rings, cylinder liners and valve guides.
White or cold smoke:
It is made up of droplets of unburnt or partially burnt fuel droplets and is usually
associated with the engine running at less than normal operating temperature after

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starting, long period of idling, operating under very light load, operating with leaking
injectors and water leakage in combustion chamber. This smoke normally fades
away as engine is warmed up and brought to normal stage.
Black or hot smoke:
It consists of unburnt carbon particles (0.5” 1 microns in diameter) and other
solid products of combustion. This smoke appears after engine is warmed up and
is accelerating or pulling under load.

Formation of smoke in Diesel engines:


The main cause of smoke formation is known to be inadequate mixing of fuel
and air. Smoke is formed when the local temperature is high enough to decompose
fuel in a region where there is insufficient oxygen to burn the carbon that is formed.

ww The formation of over-rich fuel air mixtures either generally or in localized regions
will result in smoke. Large amounts of carbons will be formed during the early

w.E
stage of combustion. This carbon appears as smoke if there is insufficient air, if
there is insufficient mixing or if local temperatures fall below the carbon reaction
temperatures (approximately 1000C) before the mixing occurs. Acceptable

asy
performance of diesel engine is critically influenced by exhaust some emissions.
Failure of engine to meet smoke legislation requirement prevents sale and

En
particularly for military use, possible visibility by smoke is useful to enemy force.
Diesel emissions give information on effectiveness of combustion, general

gin
performance and condition of engine

Particulates
ee
Particulate matter comes from hydrocarbons, lead additives and sulphur

rin
dioxide. If lead is used with the fuel to control combustion almost 70% of the lead is

g.n
airborne with the exhaust gasses. In that 30% of the particulates rapidly settle to
the ground while remaining remains in the atmosphere. Lead is well known toxic

et
compound. Particulates are inhaled or taken along with food leads to respiratory
problems and other infections. Particulates when settle on the ground they spoil the
nature of the object on which they are settling. Lead, a particulate is a slow poison
and ultimately leads to death.

Particulate matter and Partial Oxidation Products Formation:


Organic and inorganic compounds of higher molecular weights and lead
compounds resulting from the use of TEL are exhausted in the form of very small
size particles of the order of 0.02 to 0.06 microns. About 75% of the lead burned in
the engine is exhausted into the atmosphere in this form and rest is deposited on
engine parts. Some traces of products of partial oxidation are also present in the
exhaust gas of which formaldehyde and acetaldehyde are important. Other
constituents are phenolic acids, ketones, ethers etc., These are essentially
products of incomplete combustion of the fuel.

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5. Explain the methods of controlling emissions. Nov 2013


Method of controlling emissions:
To reduce atmospheric pollution, two different approaches are followed:

 To reduce the formation of pollutants in the emission by redesigning


the engine system, fuel system, cooling system and ignition system.
 By destroying the pollutants after these have been formed.

In petrol engine, the main pollutants which are objectionable and are to be
reduced are HC, CO and NOx.
These methods are
a) Modifications in the engine design.
b) Modifying the fuel used.

ww c) Exhaust gas treatment devices.


d) Evaporative emissive control devices.

w.E
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION:
In the emission control of SI ENGINE NOx reduction is a major problem.
When both the inlet and exhaust valves are partly opened between the

asy
corresponding strokes, the valves are said to overlap slightly,
Increase in the valve overlap causes some of the exhaust gas to enter into the

En
inlet manifold to mix with the fresh charge. Thus, this decreases the combustion

gin
temperature and lower consequently the NOx emission.
Control of oxides of nitrogen

ee
The concentration of NOx in the exhaust is closely related to the
peak cycle temperature and anything done to reduce this temperature will

rin
reduce the oxides of nitrogen. This suggest the number of methods for reducing
the level of nitrogen oxide among them the dilution of Fuel air mixture entering

g.n
the engine with exhaust gas is one of the major methods this involves
recirculating the controllable proportion of engine exhaust back into the intake
air.
et
The valve is usually used to control the flow of gas. This termed
as exhaust gas recirculation. In absence of oxygen exhaust gas by itself will not
burn but it may absorb of quantity of heat of combustion this will reduce the
formation of NOx. The arrangements consists of diaphragm which is spring
loaded and linked with tapered wall. This tapered wall controls the exhaust gas
on one side port inlet vacuum acts over the spring loaded diaphragm. The
operation of tapered wall is by means of diaphragm movement which admits the
exhaust gas into the inlet manifold. EGR valve should be in closed position
because incase of idling with the exhaust gas recirculates it would cause rough
idling.
When throttle begins to open from the idling position the vacuum
to the port will gradually open the tapered wall so the exhaust gas entered into
the inlet manifold. However, if the throttle is fully opened there would not be any
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vacuum. So the tapered valve will return back to its seat by spring. This design
arrangement is such that the exhaust gas is the recirculated only when the
running engines form NOx.
A thermal control valve is provided as shown n figure in the
vacuum line and helps to make EGR functioning at low temperature. This
thermal control valve in vacuum line is much useful in diesel engine when
catalytic converter fails to promote chemical reaction due to excess oxygen, so
that NOx emission remains the same.
Advantage of EGR
1. Reduced NOx
2. Potential reduction of throttling losses on spark ignition engines at part
load.

ww 3.Improved engine life


temperatures(particularly exhaust valve life
through reduced cylinder

w.E
Disadvantages and difficulties of EGR
1. Since EGR reduces the available oxygen in the cylinder, the
production of particulates (fuel which has only partially combusted) is increased.

asy
This has traditionally been a problem with diesel engines, where the trade off
between NOx and particulates is a problem to calibrators.

En
2. The deliberate reduction of the oxygen available in the cylinder will
reduce the peak power available from the engine. For this reason the EGR is

gin
usually shut off when full power is demanded, so the EGR approach to
controlling NOx fails in this situation.

ee rin
g.n
et

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UNIT IV

ALTERNATE FUELS
Part A

1. Compare octane number and the calorific value of alcohol with petrol.
May2012

ALCOHOL PETROL
Octane rating alcohol is 110 Octane rating petrol is 81.
Calorific value of alcohol is 30000 Calorific value of petrol is 48,000kJ/kg
kJ/kg

ww
2. List down the major constituents of natural gas and LPG. May2012
Natural gases:

w.E Natural gas is produced from gas wells or tied in with crude oil production.
Natural gas (NG) is made up primarily of methane (CH4) but frequently contains
trace amounts of ethane, propane, nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide, hydrogen

LPG: asy
sulphide, and water vapour.

En
LPG is typically a mixture of several gases in varying proportions. Major
constituent gases are propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10), with minor quantities

gin
of propane (C3H6), various butanes (C4H8), iso-butane, and small amounts of
ethane (C2H6).

ee
3. State the methods by which ethanol are produced. May2013

rin
Ethanol can be made from ethylene (or) from fermentation of grains and sugar.

g.n
Much of it is made from sugarcane, sugar beets, and even cellulose (wood and
paper).

4. Comment on the water tolerance of alcohol blends May2013


et
Is high octane fuel with anti-knock index numbers (octane number on fuel pump) of
over 100. High octane numbers result, at least in part, from the high flame speed
of alcohol.

5. What are the commonly used alternative fuels? Nov2013


 Alcohols  Hydrogen
 Methanol  Natural gas
 Ethanol  LPG & CNG
 Gasoline
 Bio gas

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6. What are the advantages of hydrogen as a fuel? Nov2013


Low emission most exhaust would be H2O and N2
Fuel availability
Fuel leakage to environment is not a pollutant.

7. Can one use solid fuels for IC engine? If so how? May2014


The row methanol is then purified to remove water. Currently aldehyde and
higher alcohols are removed after methanol synthesis, but this is not necessary for
methanol to be used as motor fuel.

8. Cad alcohol be used for CI engines? Explain? May2014


While SI engine can use alcohol fuel with minimal modifications to their fuel
deliverd systems the diesel engine has not been a good candidate for alcohols.

ww
9. List any four advantages of bio diesel over petroleum based fuel. Nov2014
a) They are free from HC, CD and NO.

w.E b)
c)
It does not cause atmospheric pollution.
They are eco-friendly.

asy
10. Why engine modification is needed while using bio diesels in a engines as
fuel? Nov2014

En
The flash point of bio-diesel engine high as compared to the other petroleum
based CI engines. So the modification of high flash point CI engine is needed.

gin Part B

hydrogen in SI engines. May2012 ee


1. Discuss the performance combustion and emission characteristics of using

rin
g.n
Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel which uses electrochemical cells or
combustion in internal engines, to power vehicles and electric devices. It is also

et
used in the propulsion of spacecraft and can potentially be mass-produced and
commercialized for passenger vehicles and aircraft. Hydrogen is one of two natural
elements that combine to make water. Hydrogen is not an energy source, but an
energy carrier because it takes a great deal of energy to extract it from water. It is
useful as a compact energy source in fuel cells and batteries. Hydrogen is the
lightest and most abundant element in the universe. It can be produced from a
number of feedstocks in a variety of ways. The production method thought to be
most environmentally benign is the electrolysis of water, but probably the most
common source of hydrogen is the steam reforming of natural gas. Once produced,
hydrogen can be stored as a gas, liquid, or solid and distributed as required. Liquid
storage is currently the preferred method, but it is very costly. Hydrogen-powered
vehicles can use internal combustion engines or fuel cells. They can also be hybrid
vehicles of various combinations. When hydrogen is used as a gaseous fuel in an
internal combustion engine, its very low energy density compared to liquid fuels is a
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major drawback requiring greater storage space for the vehicle to travel a similar
distance to gasoline

ww
w.E
Advantages:
 Emits only water vapour, assuming there is no leakage of hydrogen gas
 It can store up to 3x as much energy as conventional natural gas.
Disadvantages:
asy
 Storage is really tough because hydrogen is such a low density gas
En
 Distribution and infrastructure needs to be refurbished to cope with hydrogen,

gin
which can metals by making them brittle

Alcohols ee
2. Explain the fuel characteristics of alcohols, and CNG. May2012

rin
Alcohol has been used as a fuel. The first four aliphatic alcohols (methanol,

g.n
ethanol, propanol, and butanol) are of interest as fuels because they can be
synthesized chemically or biologically, and they have characteristics which allow

alcohol fuel is CnH2n+1OH. et


them to be used in internal combustion engines. The general chemical formula for

Most methanols are produced from natural gas, although it can be produced from
biomass using very similar chemical processes. Ethanol is commonly produced from
biological material through fermentation processes. This mixture may also not be
purified by simple distillation, as it forms an azeotropic mixture. Biobutanol has the
advantage in combustion engines in that its energy density is closer to gasoline than
the simpler alcohols (while still retaining over 25% higher octane rating); however,
biobutanol is currently more difficult to produce than ethanol or methanol. When
obtained from biological materials and/or biological processes, they are known as
bio alcohols (e.g. "bioethanol"). There is no chemical difference between biologically
produced and chemically produced alcohols. One advantage shared by the four
major alcohol fuels is their high octane rating. This tends to increase their fuel
efficiency and largely offsets the lower energy density of vehicular alcohol fuels (as
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compared to petrol/gasoline and diesel fuels), thus resulting in comparable "fuel


economy" in terms of distance per volume metrics, such as kilometres per liter, or
miles per gallon.

Advantages
 Is cheaper and more efficient and does not damage environment as much.
 It reduces certain greenhouse emissions, CO and UHC's
 Higher octane rating, engine can have higher compression
Disadvantages
 Less energy content, it has 1/3 less energy than gasoline. Emits cancer
causing emissions 40x more than gasoline.
 Ethanol destroys aluminum, rubber, gaskets, and many other things, so

ww special materials are used in FFV's and to transport it.


 May corrode parts of engine, you may have to fill in more often as alcohol
runs out quickly.

w.E
Natural gas

asy
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily
of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other hydrocarbons, carbon

En
dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide. Natural gas is an energy source often used
for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. It is also used as fuel for vehicles

gin
and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercial
important organic chemicals. Natural gas is found in deep underground natural rock

ee
formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as
methane clathrates. Petroleum is also another resource found in proximity to and

rin
with natural gas. Most natural gas was created over time by two mechanisms:

g.n
biogenic and thermogenic. Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in
marshes, bogs, landfills, and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater

Advantages: et
temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material.

 It is easily transported via pipelines and fairly easily using tankers (land and
sea)
 It can be piped into homes to provide heating and cooking and to run a variety
of appliances.
 Natural gas is more economical than electricity,
 It is faster when used in cooking and water heating and most gas appliances
are cheaper than electrical ones.
 Gas appliances also do not create unhealthy electrical fields in your house.

Disadvantages:
 Even though it is cleaner than coal and oil, it still contributes a large amount
of carbon dioxide to greenhouse gases.
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 If your house is not properly insulated it can be very expensive.


 It can leak, potentially causing an explosion.

3. Explain the performance combustion and emission characteristics of CI engine


using bio-diesel as a fuel? Nov2013
 High thermal efficiency.
 Fuel requirement – ability to use less fuel; ability of multi – fuel operation.
 Ease of starting.
 Capacity of variable speed operation.
 Smoothness of operation and avoidness of diesel knock.
 Low exhaust emission.
 Nozzle design.

ww 

High volumetric efficiency.
High bmep.

w.E
With the development of bio-gas plants small diesel engines have been modified to
run on diesel alone or diesel biogas combustion. The properties of typical biogas are
given in:
Combustion : asy 60% CH2

En 40% CO2
Trace of H2, H2S.
Calorific value:
gin 5160 kcal/m3
4250 kcal/kg.
Stoichiometric A/F ratio:
By Volume:
By gas:
ee
5.27
6.09
rin
Calorific value of mixture: 767 kcal/m3
85% of gasoline. g.n
4. Explain the properties of LPG in detail. May2012
et
Liquefied petroleum gas, also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, liquid petroleum gas or
simply propane or butane, is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a
fuel in heating appliances and vehicles. LPG is prepared by refining petroleum or
"wet" natural gas, and is almost entirely derived from fossil fuel sources, being
manufactured during the refining of petroleum (crude oil), or extracted from
petroleum or natural gas streams as they emerge from the ground. LPG is a mixture
of propane and butane (this is called auto gas).Relative fuel consumption of LPG is
about ninety percent of that of gasoline by volume.

LPG has higher octane number of about 112, which enables higher compression
ratio to be employed and gives more thermal efficiency. Due to gaseous nature of
LPG fuel distribution between cylinders is improved and smoother acceleration and

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idling performance is achieved. Fuel consumption is also better. Engine life is


increased for LPG engine as cylinder bore wear is reduced & combustion chamber
and spark plug deposits are reduced. As LPG is stored under pressure; LPG tank is
heavier and requires more space than gasoline tank. There is reduction in power
output for LPG operation than gasoline operation. Starting load on the battery for an
LPG engine is higher than gasoline engine due to higher ignition system energy
required. LPG system requires more safety. In case of leakage LPG has tendency to
accumulate near ground as it is heavier than air. This is hazardous as it may catch
fire. Volume of LPG required is more by 15 to 20% as compared to gasoline. LPG
operation increases durability of engine and life of exhaust system is increased.

LPG has lower carbon content than gasoline or diesel and produces less
CO2which plays a major role in global warming during combustion. The normal

wwcomponents of LPG are propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10). Small concentrations
of other hydrocarbons may also be present.

w.E Methane - 0%
Ethane - 0.20%

asyPropane - 57.30%
Butane - 41.10%

Advantages En
Pentane - 1.40%

gin
 LPG is cheaper than petrol (up to 50%)
 It produces less exhaust emissions than petrol

ee
 It is better for the engine and it can prolong engine life
 In some vehicles, it can provide better performance
 Has a higher octane rating than petrol (108 compared to 91) rin
Disadvantages g.n
 It isn't highly available
 It has a lower energy density than petrol
 No new passenger cars come readily fitted with LPG (they have to be
et
converted)
 The gas tank takes up a considerable amount of space in the car boot

5. Explain in detail the engine modification of alternative fuels? May2013

Spark plugs

Use cold rated spark plugs to avoid spark plug electrode temperatures exceeding
the auto-ignition limit and causing backfire. Cold rated spark plugs can be used
since there are hardly any spark plug deposits to burn off.

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Ignition system

Avoid uncontrolled ignition due to residual ignition energy by properly grounding


the ignition system or changing the ignition cable‟s electrical resistance.
Alternatively, the spark plug gap can be decreased to lower the ignition voltage.

Injection system

Provide a timed injection, either using port injection and programming the
injection timing such that an initial air cooling period is created in the initial phase of
the intake stroke and the end of injection is such that all fuel is inducted, leaving no
fuel in the manifold when the intake valve closes; or using direct injection during the
compression stroke.

ww
Hot spots

w.EAvoid hot spots in the combustion chamber that could initiate pre-ignition or
backfire.

asy
En
gin
ee rin
g.n
et

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UNIT V

RECENT TRENDS

Part A

1. Mention the principle of a surface ignition engine. May2012


Surface ignition engine is also known as “Hot bulb” engine. It is mounted on the
cylinder head into which fuel sprayed. It is connected to the cylinder by a narrow
passage and is heated by combustion gases while running an external flame, such
as a blow torch orv slow – burning which is used for starting on later models electro
heating or pyrotechnics were sometimes used.

2. How the in cylinder pressure is measured in a engine? May2012

ww In cylinder pressure is measured during the four strokes of engine operation. The
pressure during the expansion is the most important, because the cylinder pressure

w.E
is pushed on the piston to produce power.

3. What is the working principle of pre chamber stratified charge engine?


May2013
asy
Pre- chamber stratified charge engine is a type of internal combustion engine,

En
used in automobiles, in which the fuel is injected into the cylinder just before ignition.
This allows for higher compression ratios without “knock”, and leaner air/fuel ratio

gin
than in conventional internal combustion engines

ee
4. Mention the advantages of plasma ignition system. May2013

rin
The factors that can influence the operation of the plasma jet plug are the
amount of the applied electrical energy, the rate of energy delivery, the cavity

g.n
volume, the cavity dimensions, the orifice size, the ambient gas pressure and the
quantity of fuel present in the cavity.

5. Define charge stratification. Nov2013


et
The stratified chare engine can be classified in two types according to the
method of the heterogeneous mixture in the combustion chamber.
 Those using fuel injector and positive ignition (including swirl stratified charge
engine)
 Those using carburetion alone.

6. What is the function of charge amplifier? Nov2013


The charge amplifies the charge produced in the stratification process. Thus it
increase the sufficiency of the charge.

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7. Write a short note on pressure pickup used in engine measurement? May2014


In ic engine satisfactory measurement of air consumption is quid difficult because
the flow is pulsating due to cyclic nature of engine and because of air is
compressible fluid.

8. What are the advantages of gasoline direct injection? May2014


 Engine design modification
 Treatment of exhaust gas
 Fuel modification.

9. What is the principle of operation of a stratified charge engine? Nov2014


Stratified charge engine works on the principle of both the “internal combustion
engine and compression engine and compression ignition” engine with providing

wwdifferent fuel air mixture strength in the combustion chamber.

w.E
10. Why do we require a charge amplifier in the measurement of engine pressure?
Nov2014
The engine pressure is measured by the strain gauge sensor, capacitance

asy
sensor, plezoelectric sensor,etc. But the values produced by these sensors are not
accurate to amplify it and to produce a accurate value charge amplifier is needed.

En Part B

gin
1. Explain the characteristics of a homogeneous charge compression ignition
engine. May2012

ee rin
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a form of internal
combustion in which well-mixed fuel and oxidizer (typically air) are compressed to

g.n
the point of auto-ignition. As in other forms of combustion, this exothermic reaction
releases chemical energy into a sensible form that can be transformed in an engine
into work and heat.

Operation
et
A mixture of fuel and air will ignite when the concentration and temperature of
reactants is sufficiently high. The concentration and/or temperature can be increased
by several different ways: Methods

High compression ratio


Pre-heating of induction gases
Forced induction
Retained or re-inducted exhaust gases

Once ignited, combustion occurs very quickly. When auto-ignition occurs too
early or with too much chemical energy, combustion is too fast and high in-cylinder
pressures can destroy an engine. For this reason, HCCI is typically operated at lean
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overall fuel mixtures In an HCCI engine (which is based on the four-stroke Otto
cycle), fuel delivery control is of paramount importance in controlling the combustion
process. On the intake stroke, fuel is injected into each cylinder's combustion
chamber via fuel injectors mounted directly in the cylinder head. This is achieved
independently from air induction which takes place through the intake plenum. By
the end of the intake stroke, fuel and air have been fully introduced and mixed in the
cylinder's combustion chamber

ww
w.E
asy
En
gin
ee rin
g.n
et

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As the piston begins to move back up during the compression stroke, heat
begins to build in the combustion chamber. When the piston reaches the end of this
stroke, sufficient heat has accumulated to cause the fuel/air mixture to
spontaneously combust (no spark is necessary) and force the piston down for the
power stroke. Unlike conventional spark engines (and even diesels), the combustion
process is a lean, low temperature and flameless release of energy across the entire
combustion chamber. The entire fuel mixture is burned simultaneously producing
equivalent power, but using much less fuel and releasing far fewer emissions in the
process. At the end of the power stroke, the piston reverses direction again and
initiates the exhaust stroke, but before all of the exhaust gases can be evacuated,
the exhaust valves close early, trapping some of the latent combustion heat. Heat is
preserved, and a small quantity of fuel is injected into the combustion chamber for a

wwpre-charge (to help control combustion temperatures and emissions) before the next
intake stroke begins.

w.E
Advantages
 Homogeneous mixing of fuel and air leads to cleaner combustion and lower
emissions.
asy
 HCCI engines can operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, and most alternative fuels.

En
 In regards to gasoline engines, the omission of throttle losses improves HCCI
efficiency.

Disadvantages
gin
 High in-cylinder peak pressures may cause damage to the engine.
ee
 High heat release and pressure rise rates contribute to engine wear.

rin
2. Explain Variable geometry turbocharger in detail?
Variable geometry turbocharger g.n
et
It is also known as variable nozzle turbine. It is much more common in diesel
engine as the lower exhaust temperature means they are less prone to failure.
This type of turbocharger controls the width of the nozzle so as to direct the
exhaust gas into the turbine wheel. The width of the nozzle opening is being
narrowed. This makes the turbine speed to get increased with the increase in
exhaust back pressure.
Working Principle:
The principle is similar to the narrowing the opening of the garden hose tip
so that the water jet is forced out. To vary the flow passage diameter an electric
or air tight actuator is operated. This makes the nozzle ring to narrow its width
because of this variation the turbine speed is increased by boosting the pressure
rapidly.

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Therefore at low speed and load highest boost pressure is obtained in


better maximum than fixed geometry vanes or waste gate turbocharger. When
the variable valve opening is increased more exhaust will flow across the turbine
speed will decrease and their by the back pressure is reduced.
The purpose of ECU is to open and close the nozzle vane in the
turbocharger through the variable geometry control solenoid valve provided. This
makes the boost pressure to be reached with respect to the engine operation.
The input of the various sensors provided in the arrangements determines the
boost pressure. The engine ECU controls the operation of the variable geometry
controls the solenoid valves. This control brings the actual boost pressure to
equate the target boost pressure.

ww
Pivoting vane and Moving wall VGT:

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The design of the VG turbocharger is to allow the effective aspect ratio of
the turbine to be varied. Because the optimum aspect ratio at low engine speed
is different from that at high engine speed. By narrowing the tip of the nozzle ring
the aspect ratio is varied. If the aspect ratio is the highest then the turbine will not
boost at low speeds. On the other hand if the aspect ratio is lowered the turbine
will choke the engine at high speeds. This will lead to high exhaust manifold
pressure and high pumping losses with loss in power output. So by altering the
geometry by the movable /sliding valve ring as the engine accelerates the aspect
ratio of the turbine can be maintained at the optimum conditions.
VGT do not require a waste gate. Moreover VGT have a minimum amount
of lag, minimum boost threshold and higher efficiencies at higher engine speeds.
The vanes are controlled either by a membrane vacuum actuator or electric
servo actuators or an actuator using air brake system. The most common design
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includes a ring of aerodynamically designed vanes in the turbine housing at the


inlet of the turbine.
For light duty vehicles like passenger cars LMV commercial vehicles the
vane rotate in collaboration with the variation of the gas swirl angle and cross
sectional area. But for heavy duty engines the vane do not rotate but the axial
width of the inlet is blocked by the axial sliding wall. To achieve this either the
vanes are suitably covered by a moving slotted shroud or the vanes movement is
selectively made to move with respect to stationary slotted shroud. In both the
ways the area between the tips of the vanes changes leading to a variable
aspect ratio of the vanes.

3. Explain NOx adsorber and On Board Diagnostics in detail? May2012

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NOx Adsorber
A NOx adsorber or no trap is a device which is used to reduce the oxides

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of nitrogen emission from the exhaust.Adsorber serve to collect certain pollutants
especially NOx or HC during engine operating conditions which are not ideal, to

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store these pollutants and later to treat the same when the conditions become
suitable. NOx adsorber is to reduce nitrogen emissions in the exhaust gas of

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alean burn IC engines.These adsorb and store NOx under lean conditions in lean
burn petrol and diesel engines.

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A short return to stochiometric condition for a few seconds is sufficient to
desorb the stored nox. The lean burn diesel engine poses a challenge to

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emission control systems, due to gas stream. Though the three way catalytic
converter has been successful at O2 level in excess of 1% and will not function at

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levels above0.5%. so to meet the increasing need to limit NOx emission from

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diesel engine, developed technologies like EGR and selective catalytic reduction
(SCR) have been used. But ecr effectiveness is limited and scr needs a
reductant.
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Moreover even in SCR, if the reductant tank becomes dry, the SCR
system fails.In NOx adsorber, the concept is that the zeolite will trap the no and
NO2 molecules acting as a molecular sponge. Different schemes have been
designed to purge or regenerate the absorber. Injection of diesel fuel or other
reductant before the adsorber can purge it; use of hydrogen also has been tried,
but is difficult to store hydrogen. Nox adsorber are experimental technology and
highly expensive, still this method is not commercially successful.
On board diagnostics (OBD)
On board diagnostics are found to be more essential for long term
functioning of vehicle system. On board diagnostics is an automotive term
referring to vehicles self diagnostic and reporting capability. By this operation it is
possible to maintain clean exhaust. Any fault detected will be indicated to the
driver by earning signal. Digital electronics allow both the actuators and sensors

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for perfect monitoring , this is being carried out by allocating valves to all the
operating status of the sensors and actuators, the derivations from these figures
is detected and stored in memory, these stored memory can be an output to help
for the fault findings.
OBD-II system will illuminate or flicker the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL)
if any problem exist. Thus it informs the driver that there is a problem be noted
and rectified, modern OBD implementation adopt a standardized digital
communications to provide real time date along with series diagnostic trouble
codes(DTCS). These diagnostic codes rapidly identify and remedy the
malfunctions within the vehicle.
OBD II connector on a car:
OBD-II details provide a standardized hardware interface. This is found

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of the steering wheel and is within reach of the driver.

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OBD communication protocol:
The different modes list the following functions:
 Used to identify what power train information is available to the scan tool.

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 Displays freeze frame data.
 Lists the emissions related “confirmed: trouble codes.

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 Used to clear emission-related diagnostic information.
 Displays the oxygen sensor monitor screen and the results about oxygen
sensor.
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Apart from the above data there are ten numbers available as follows;
 Rich to lean O2 sensor.
 Lean to rich O2 sensor
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 Low sensor voltage for switch time measurement. rin
 High sensor voltage for switch time measurement.
 Rich to lean switch time in millisecond
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 Lean to rich switch time in millisecond
 Minimum voltage for test
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 Maximum voltage for test
 Time between voltage transmission
 Request for On-Board monitoring test results for monitored systems.

4. Discuss the concept of electric and hybrid vehicle with neat sketch.

 A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a type of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle
which combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) propulsion
system with an electric propulsion system. The presence of the electric power
train is intended to achieve either better fuel economy than a conventional
vehicle or better performance.

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 There are a variety of HEV types, and the degree to which they function as
EVs varies as well. The most common form of HEV is the hybrid electric car,
although hybrid electric trucks (pickups and tractors) and buses also exist.
 Modern HEVs make use of efficiency-improving technologies such as
regenerative braking, which converts the vehicle's kinetic energy into electric
energy to charge the battery, rather than wasting it as heat energy as
conventional brakes do. Some varieties of HEVs use their internal combustion
engine to generate electricity by spinning an electrical generator (this
combination is known as a motor-generator), to either recharge their batteries
or to directly power the electric drive motors.
 A hybrid-electric produces less emission from its ICE than a comparably sized
gasoline car, since an HEV's gasoline engine is usually smaller than a

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fuels produce lower emissions) and if not used to directly drive the car, can be

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 Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the ICE at idle and
restarting it when Needed this is known as a start-stop system

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5. Explain Common Rail Direct Injection Diesel Engine. May2012

Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct fuel injection
system for petrol and diesel engines. A diesel fuel injection system employing a
common pressure accumulator, called the rail, which is mounted along the engine
block. The rail is fed by a high pressure fuel pump. The injectors, which are fed from
the common rail, are activated by solenoid valves.

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The solenoid valves and the fuel pump are electronically controlled. In the common
rail injection system the injection pressure is independent from engine speed and
load. Therefore, the injection parameters can be freely controlled. Usually a pilot
injection is introduced, which allows for reductions in engine noise and NOx
emissions.

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A diesel fuel injection system employing a common pressure accumulator, called the
rail, which is mounted along the engine block. The rail is fed by a high pressure fuel

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pump. The injectors, which are fed from the common rail, are activated by solenoid
valves.

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The solenoid valves and the fuel pump are electronically controlled. In the common

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rail injection system the injection pressure is independent from engine speed and

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load. Therefore, the injection parameters can be freely controlled. Usually a pilot
injection is introduced, which allows for reductions in engine noise and NOx

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emissions. This system operates at 27,500 psi (1900 BAR). The injectors use a
needle-and seat-type valve to control fuel flow and fuel pressure is fed to both the

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top and bottom of the needle valve. By bleeding some of the pressure off the top, the
pressure on the bottom will push the needle off its seat and fuel will flow through the
nozzle holes.

Advantages of common rail:

• Fuel pressure available on demand.


• Higher injection pressures and finer atomization of fuel.
• Injection pressure created independent of engine speed.
• Multiple injections per cylinder combustion are possible.
• Reduction of particulate emissions.
• Reduction of noise emissions.
• Improved fuel efficiency.
• Higher performance.

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Question Paper Code : 21555


B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY/JUNE 2013
Eighth Semester
Mechanical Engineering
ME 2041/ME 807 – ADVANCED I.C. ENGINES
(Regulation 2008)
Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks
Answer ALL questions

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1. What is a heterogeneous air-fuel mixture? In which engine is it used?

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2. Sketch T-Head type combustion chamber used in S.I engines.

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3. Mention any two advantages of induction swirl.
4. What is an indirect-injection type combustion chamber.

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5. Why smoke is formed in a CI engine?

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6. State the significance of stoichiometric air-fuel mixture.

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7. State the methods by which ethanol is produced.
8. Comment on the water tolerance of alcohol blends.
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9. What is the working principle of prechamber stratified charge engine?
10. Mention the advantages of plasma ignition system.
PART B – (5 X 16 = 80 marks) et
11. (a) (i) Explain the stages of combustion in SI engines elaborating the flame front
propagation. (10)
(ii) Explain briefly the various factors that influence the flame speed in S.I. engines.
(6)
Or
(b) Describe the requirements of an S.I engine combustion chamber and explain the
various types of combustion chamber.

12. (a) With the aid of a schematic diagram , explain the combustion process in a
C.Iengine.
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Or
(b) Explain the factors affecting the delay period in C.I engines and summarize them.

13. (a) (i) Specify the main emissions from a multi-cylinder passenger car C.I engine.
How is the air-fuel ratio controlled so as to reduce emissions? (10)
(ii) What is a driving cycle? Discuss its significance with regard to emissions. (6)
Or
(b) (i) Explain the functioning of three way catalytic converter , with a sketch.
Mention the limitations of a catalytic converter. (12)

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(ii) What are the methods to reduce particulate matter emissions?

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14. (a) Compare the properties of gasoline , methanol and ethanol as engine fuels
and explain how they influence combustion and emissions?

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(b) Discuss the change in properties of alcohol-petrol blends and their effect on the
performance of the engine.

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15. (a) (i) Describe with a sketches how a CI engine can be controlled electronically.

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(12)
(ii) What is stratified charge? Give its significance. (4)
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(b) (i) Describe the features of homogenous charge compression ignition engine and
common rail direct injection engine with neat sketches. (6 + 6)
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(ii) Briefly discuss about the necessity of pressure pick, charge amplifier in an IC
engine. (4)

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