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KLIEM, C. and BURGER, H.

Integrated data analysis for the selection of favourable areas of Pb - Zn mineraliza-


tion on Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. APCOM 87. Proceedings of the Twentieth International Symposium on
the Application of Computers and Mathematics in the Mineral Industries. Volume 3: Geostatistics. Johannesburg,
SAIMM, 1987. pp. 101-111.

Integrated Data Analysis for the Selection of


Favourable Areas of Pb-Zn Mineralization on Biga
Peninsula, NW Turkey
C. KLIEM and H. BURGER
Institute of Geology, Freie Universitaet Berlin

Geological, tectonic, geochemical and geophysical data were utilized for the
mineral resource assessment of the Biga Peninsula in NW Turkey. During
the deductive phase of the project multivariate statistical methods were applied
to accentuate characteristic parameters which sufficiently describe the different
types of Pb - Zn mineralization. The parameters most likely to be indicative
of mineral occurrences were determined. In the following prognostic phase
these parameters were further statistically treated to determine favourability
indexes for the occurrence of a deposit within each cell of the training area.
Preliminary results of probabilistic, univariate and multivariate methods are
presented.

Introduction

In 1984 the geological institutes of the lead-zinc resources. This method can be
Freie Universitaet Berlin and the applied to confirm the existing Pb-Zn
University of Istanbul initiated a common mineralizations. An exact estimation of
project for the development of quantitative ore reserves is not planned.
techniques for mineral resource assessment The indicators from the disciplines of
on the basis of integrated data analysis. geology (petrology and tectonics),
Figure 1 shows the test area in NW Turkey, geochemistry, remote sensing and eventually
of about 85 by 60 km. geophysics from this training area are to
Detailed information of the Ba1ikesir be used to predict resources in
province of the southern Biga Peninsula was neighbouring areas and later in unknown
gathered during an intensive prospecting target areas with a similar geological
campaign in 1978-1980 by the geological environment.
1
surveys of Turkey and Germany. This led to The structure of the project is shown in
a preliminary inventory of the Pb-Zn Figure 2. The data collection means the
potential of this district and therefore digitization of information from maps and
presents a good model area for further the transformation of data into a binary
investigation. variable system. Extensive information is
The main goal of this project is the available from
extraction of relevant geological, genetic geological map (1: 100 000) containing
and mining data which can be inserted in a all geological units of the Biga
mathematical model for the assessment of Peninsula;

INTEGRATED DATA ANALYSIS FOR AREAS OF Pb-Zn MINERALIZATION 101


Cl Biga

Balikesir
@

o__
~' c=~ __ ~==~
50' km
__

FIGURE 1. Locality map of test area (117/118) in the southern Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR MINERAL


RESOURCE ASSESSMENT ON BIGA PENINSULA

I DATA
------ !----------
11 DEDUCTIVE OR III PROGNOSTIC
COLLECTION ANALYTICAL PHASE PHASE

-
UNIVARIATE METHODS
.. HISTOGRAM
MULTIVARIATE METHODS -
.. CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS
.. SCATTERGRAM .. CLUSTER ANALYSIS
.. DISCRETE DISCRIMINANT

/~ ANALYSIS "'"

interpretation of
probabilistic methods graphic display - match coefficients
- geochem. variables - combination of (degree of association of
- geol. variables variables all cells to a model cell)

FIGURE 2. Structure of the project

102 GEOSTA TISTICS; THEORY


geochemica1 map (1:100 000) representing TABLE 1.
results from systematic prospecting of The set of about 60 variables
stream sediments; which were assigned to each cell
tectonic map (1:250 000);
locations of known Pb-Zn mineralization 1. Geological variables
and mining activities. 1) presence or absence of 25
geological units
In a later phase information derived from magmatic bodies: granodio-
geophysical prospecting restricted to some rites, vo1canics and spilitic
rocks
parts of Biga is to be inserted and scarns
integration of remote sensing data from pa1aeozoic metamorphic sedi-
ments of Ka1abak
LANDSAT images is planned. Pa1aeozoic-Mezozoic clastic
The test area was subdivided into a sediments
crystalline schists: para-
regular grid consisting of regional cells gneisses, mica schists,
of 1 by 1 km. A set of about 60 variables amphibo1ite schists and marble
2) presence or absence of certain
was assigned to each cell. The variables contacts between
take on a value of either 1 or 0 which magmatic bodies and wall rocks
3) distances from all cells to
describes the presence or absence of magmatic bodies and
attributes. They are listed in Table 1. contacts (quantitative variable)

In the deductive or analytical phase the II. Tectonic parameters


relationships between known occurrences of 1) presence or absence of faults in 4
directions
a certain mineralization and the available NS trending faults of Hercynian
data are to be deduced and the influence of phase
EW trending faults of alpine
parameters to these occurrences is to be phase
proved. NW-SE trending faults and
NE-SW trending faults of
In this phase an intensive collaboration neogeneous tectogenesis
between mining experts and geologists is 2) presence of intersections of faults
3) density or faults
necessary to get more information about 4) distance from all cells to faults
potential indicators of a certain deposit
Ill. Geochemica1 variables
or type of mineralization. occurrence of Pb, Zn, Cu, Mo,
New possible parameters which may be Sb and As anomalies
occurrence of known Pb, Zn, Cu,
important to characterize the deposits can Mo, Sb and As anomalies and
be deduced from available data, for example minera1izations

the calculation of distances from all cells IV. Sites of deposits and mining
to those which contain a certain rock type, activities (as dependent variable)

a certain contact or tectonic features.


The density and intersections of faults are
often mentioned in the literature as characteristic parameters which
controlling factors for a particular sufficiently describe the known deposits or
deposit type. existing types of mineralization.
In this deductive phase probalistic In the following prognostic phase one or
methods and either univariate or more of these parameters are used in
mu1tivariate procedures are applied to various model functions, each of which is
delineate these relationships. One aim is characteristic of a deposit type. These
to reduce the data to a limited set of functions are to be used to quantify the

INTEGRATED DATA ANALYSIS FOR AREAS OF Pb-Zn MINERALIZATION 103


favourabili ty of the occurrence of a given granodiorite intrusion occurred together
type of mineralization in each cell. The wi th andesitic, daci tic and tuffaceous
result is displayed in a favourability subvolcanism. The instrusive body of Eybek
index map and should confirm the known type covers large areas of the Biga
Pb-Zn mineralization pattern on the Biga Peninsula and has developed a wide contact
Peninsula. It may be possible that other zone to the adjacent rocks.
new favourable areas result within the well The neogeneous magmatism influenced the
prospected area which gives rise to further genesis and distribution of deposits and
prospecting activities. results in an enrichment of Pb-Zn
If a sufficient fit of the model to the mineralization on Biga. According to their
observed mineralization is obtained the distances to the neogeneous plutons the
model functions can be transferred to lead-zinc mineralization can be subdivided
unprospected areas on the Biga Peninsula or into several groups:
other Turkish metallogenic provinces where (i) mineralizations near the contact to
the geologic and genetic settings are very an igneous body found as scarn-
similar but the amount of available mineralizationsj
information is limited. (ii) contact pneumatolytic - hydrothermal
mineralization: (a) the metasomatic
Geology of the Biga Peninsula stratabound ores of Bagirkac type are
The oldest part of the Biga Peninsula, the of greatest importance on Bigaj (b)
Kazdag Crystalline, belongs to the North mineralization of Altinoluk type:
Anatolian Crystalline Swell. The high the ore is bound on stratigraphic or
grade metamorphic rocks of this area, tectonic contact between amphiboli te
consisting of paragneisses, marbles and schists and marble which are
amphibolite schists, are probably of intercalated by ore consisting of
Precambrian age. The Palaeozoic quartz-layersj
sedimentary series of Kalabak unconformably (iii) hydrothermal vein type related to
overlies the crystalline basement rocks and tectonic structures.
is intruded by granodiorites. These An exact separation of these groups is
instrusions often show tectonic contacts not possible because there exist every kind
wi th Kalabak sediments. Simul taneously, a of miscellaneous type.
regional metamorphism imprints the whole
complex whereby the schistosity followed
Probabilistic methods of deductive phase
the original sedimentary layers. The
tectogenetic and metamorphic main phase is Pb occurrences are connected to certain
regarded as Late Variscan. geologic units, geochemical anomalies and
In the Mesozoic erosion took place, and tectonic structures. To decide which
large parts of the swell region were deeply variables control the Pb-anomalies at
subsided. Sedimentation of mainly clastic surface some simple statistical methods
rocks terminates in the Upper Jurasic with were applied.
massive limestones. At the end of the
Jurasssic a strong spilitic magmatism 1. First, the occurrence of an anomaly in a
intruded the whole area. cell is related to all analyzed geochemical
In the Upper Tertiary (Neogene) a further variables by counting their absolute

104 GEOSTA TISTICS: THEORY


frequencies and by calculating the It was also surprising that the
conditional probabilities between Pb and Pb-mineralization is only weakly correlated
the elements Zn, Cu, Mo, Sb and As. to Pb-anomalies. We have the following
The formula is given here: probabili ties:
the estimated probabili ty for the
P(Pbn E) occurrence of
P(E I Pb)
P(Pb) Pb-anomaly is: P(Pba) = 0,086

where P is the probability that an event E Pb-mineral. is: P (Pbmin) = 0,014.

occurs when Pb is given.


The conditional probability P(PbminIPba)

11 of cells cont. Pb
= 0,3 means that only 30% of all surficial
P(Pb) 0,086
If of all cells anomalies are indicative of known
mineralizations. The conclusion is that

where P is the estimated probability that prospecting should not be restricted to

Pb occurs. The probability of Pb and E Pb-anomalies only.

appearing together is estimated as:


2. The occurrence of ores also depends on
the permeability of the host rocks • The
If of cells cont. Pb and E
P(Pbn E) wall rocks in the test area are the
If of all cells
metamorphic sediments of the Kalabak
series, the crystalline schists of the high
The estimated probability for each
grade basement complex and generally all
geochemical element is ordered as follows:
tectonic rocks. The contacts between these
rocks as well as the more permeable
P(Pb»P(As»P(Zn»P(Mo»P(Cu»P(Sb)
horizons within the formations are
favourable pathways for the dissemination
the estimated conditional probabilities are
of enriched solutions.
ordered as follows:
Table 2 shows the association between
P(ZnIPb»P(culpb»P(Aslpb»P(Molpb) Pb-anomalies, known mineralizations and
2
The x test for independence between Pb rock types. The conditional probability
and E, based on the 2 x 2 contingency table: analysis is most suitable to quantify these
associations.
Pb present Pb absent The value V can be interpreted as an
enrichment factor and shows the degree of
E present If If affinity of Pb for a rock relative to the
E absent If If general probability of the occurrence of
Pb. The value V=l indicates statistical
where the entries (If) in the four cells are independence of the distribution for the
the number of the relevant observations, events Pb and G.
shows total independence for Pb to the There exist significant differences for
elements Mo and Sb, whereas Pb and As the distribution of Pb-anomalies and
cannot be considered as independent mineralizations in the rock units:
events. As expected, there exist strong the Bagirkac granodiorite, whose
affinities between Pb, Zn and Cu. tectonic-stressed structure is

INTEGRATED DATA ANALYSIS FOR AREAS OF Pb-Zn MINERALIZATION 105


TABLE 2.
The association between Pb-anomalies,
known mineralization and rock type

P(Pb
a
I Gx ) i I Gx )
P(Pbmn
Rock type (G ) P(G ) V- V.
mIn
-
x x a
P(Pb ) P(Pb . )
a mIn

Crystalline schists 0,24 0,7


Palaeoz. Kalabal sed. 0,14
°
1,6 2,8
Bagirkac granod. 0,03 6,2 7,1
Palaeoz. mesoz. sed. 0,11 1,3 1,4
Eybek granodiorite 0,12 1,4 1,8
Tertiary volcanics 0,39 1,0 0,4
Scarns 0,015 2,4 10,7

relatively permeable to mineralized the statistical investigation. However,


solutions, is most important for the unexpected findings were also brought to
anomalies as wel1 as for the light.
mineralizations.
The conditional probability for Pb Multivariate techniques
anomalies and mineralizations in this In a following step of the analytical phase

rock type are, respectively, 6,2 and 7,1 the relationship between a
times higher than the expected value; Pb-mineralization as a dependent variable

even the scams which are found as and the control1ing variable system is to
broad contact zones around the tertiary be deduced by multivariate statistics.

Eybek granodiorite could be proved as For instance, a simple statistical method

favourable ore-bearing rock; tests the influence of all geochemical,


a surprising observation is the fact geological and tectonic parameters to known
that there are no significant affinities mineralizations. For this purpose a model
between the Pb occurrences and the cell is selected which contains a contact-
tertiary magmatic bodies; metasomatic deposit. All other cel1s are
in the sediments of the Kalabak now compared with this cell by calculating
series, where the schists are said to the degree of association.
be favourable hosts for mineralization, The number of matches indicates the fit
the mineral occurrences are more of cells to this mode1. It is calculated
numerous than the surface anomalies; by counting all attributes which are common
the crystalline complex shows no in the model cell and the other cells. The
anomalies, but some mineralizations and result is displayed graphically (see Figure
small deposits are known. 3).
The above considerations indicate that, The model cell contains 10 variables.
in most cases, the interpretation of the The higher the match, the higher is the
genesis of deposits, as reported in the agreement to the model cell.
literature, conforms with the results of If al1 known deposits are reproduced by

106 GEOSTATISTICS: THEORY


50

km

E G END
Degree of match

Size of cell

km
FIGURE 3. Degree of match of all cells to the model cell

50

40

30
km 11

20

10
- CD LE G END
JS:SI Anomaly/roe k coincidence
d Distance ( km)
~ 0< ds:20
[[] 20<ds:40
[] ~ r: ~ 4C1
Bagirkac Granite
Metasomatic type deposit
D Size of ce I1

10 20 30 40 so 60 70 80
km
FIGURE 4. Distances between Pb-anomalies and the nearest Palaeozoic granodiorite of Bagirkac type

INTEGRATED DATA ANALYSIS FOR AREAS OF Pb-Zn MINERALIZATION 107


so

40

30

km ~~
~

20
(2']
ISSI

~
x x
E G END
d DIStance of aG~~16d,toOr,r~~~k
10 d 00
IZLl 0<d<5
ISSI 5 ~d
~ Eybek GranodlOrtte
o Size of cell
o
o 30 40 so 60 70 80
km
FIGURE 5. Distances between Pb-anomalies and the nearest Neogene granodiorite of Eybek type

XX)()(x'<xxxx

so

40

30
km

xxxxxxxxxxxxxXXXXXXX
20 xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx
LEGEND
lZ2l
Neogene volcanic bod y
Distance of anomaly from
Neogene volcan ic body
10 ~
~
(km)

IZZJ 0<d~5
rs::sl 5< d
o Size of cell

20 60
km
FIGURE 6. Distances between Pb-anomalies and the nearest Neogene volcanic body

108 GEOSTATISTICS: THEORY


high matches it can be concluded that the this pluton are excluded, but these
given parameters sufficiently reflect this observations suggest a new
type of mineralization. Dtherwise, this interpretation.
method can quantify new target areas for (ii) The t~Ttiary magmatic bodies
further prospection by an high number of (Figures 5 and 6) from which all
2,3
match es. mineralizations originated are free
from anomalies in their central
Interpretation of graphical displays
parts. They only show anomalies and
Graphical displays of several variable
mineralizations in their peripheral
combinations are used to accentuate the parts which are changed to broad
distribution of Pb-mineralization and its contact zones.
association to certain rock types and to In the literature the contaltt
recognize relationships between Pb and between the Tertiary intrusions and
other geologic or tectonic structures. Palaeozoic sedimentary schists
Mineralizations are related to their (calcareous layers) is described as
distances, for example most important for the concentration
from their assumed source rock, of Pb and Zn. Quantitative methods,
from special contacts, however, do not confirm this
from tectonic features (faults and statement.
intersections of faults). (iii) This contact is not over lain by
Combinations of variables are displayed anomalies.
on a regular grid of I x I sq. km., for (iv) The zone between Palaeozoic
example granodiorite and sedimentary and

the distances of Pb to the volcanic and other magmatic bodies indicates

magmatic bodies (see Figures 4-6); anomalous areas and deposits.

the distances of Pb to different faults The next point to prove is the

corresponding to tectonical phases influence of tectonic elements to

(Figure 7); the distribution of ores.

Pb-mineralization combined with fracture (v) The alpidic phase is quantified in

density (Figure 8). EW-striking ore veins (see Figure 7).


(vi) The distributiGn of deposits is
Some results can be discussed here: independent of the directions of
(i) the old granodiorite seems to be faults. The intersections of
very important for the distribution different faults often offer good
of Pb. This can be shown by the condi tions for the migration and
facts that the lead anomalies cover concentration of ore-bearing
a relatively large area of this rock solutions.
type. The distances of the (vii) Twelve cells contain these
metasomatic deposits to the rock are intersections which do not coincide
small (see Figure 4) and the with anomalous and mining areas.
conditional probability for Pb to The density of faults in
occur in this rock is very high. combination with locations of mining
In all published investigations activities and other favourable
primary mineralization connected to areas is shown in Figure 8.

INTEGRATED DATA ANALYSIS FOR AREAS OF Pb-Zn MINERALIZATION 109


~
.. ,' .
, ' '

"

n "
"lJ'

km

LEGEND

'" ~­ ~
-
IZLl
Fault
Deposit and m"!ne

~- U:," bSl
, ',

[if ....
d
from faul t la~~lalies
Distance of

[SS] 0 <d::;5
D 5>d
o S Ize of cell

o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
km
' mines and d'Istances b etween Pb-anomalies and EW -trending faults
FIGURE 7 Map showing d eposlts,

30

Pb ANOMALIES

o MINING AREAS

o SIZE OF SM ALL CELL

10 20 30 60 70 80 km
M 40

FIGURE 8. ap showing Pb-mmeralization


' , mines and fauIt density per 5 x 5 km cell

110 GEOSTATISTICS: THEORY


(viii) Nearly all cells with revealed new aspects which have to be
mineralizations and mining confirmed and may then lead to a revision
correspond to areas with a density of the genetic model for lead
higher than five elements per mineralizations on Biga.
5 x 5 km cell.
References
Conclusions 1. BGR. Blei-Zink-Kupfer-Prospection auf
These few examples represent some of the der suedlichen Biga-Halbinsel.
numerous methods which have to be applied £ur.c.r:",<'mstalt fuer Geowissenschaften
during the analytical phase of the und Rohstoffe Abschlussbericht vom
project. Additionally, multivariate Projekt Nr. 742009.4, Hannover, 1981.
methods like cluster analysis, discrete
discriminant analysis and factor analysis 2. BOTBOL, J.M., SINDING-LARSEN, R.,
must be included. McCAMMON, R.B., and GOTT, G.B. A
In the present phase we use regionalized multivariate approach to
characteristic analysis to combine target selection in geochemical
geological, tectonic and geochemical data exploration. B~"d',0mic Geology,
for target selection with respect to vol. 73, no. 4, 1978, D~. 534-546.
several deposit models in the area.
The preliminary results obtained here by 3. BOTBOL, J.M. An application of
rather simple statistical methods are very characteristic analysis to mineral
encouraging because they have confirmed exploration. In: Decision-Making in
certain field observations and genetic the Mineral industry. Canadian
models described by mining geologists. Institute of Mining and Metallurgy,
Furthermore, the statistical methods have Special Volume 12, pp. 92-09.

INTEGRATED DATA ANALYSIS FOR AREAS OF Pb-Zn MINERALIZATION 111