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25 June 2010/ 6BI05/ 01

1 Computed tomography (CT) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are 
used to investigate brain structure and function.
The CT scans below show two different human brains with abnormal areas. These 
areas are indicated by arrows.

(a) Describe how these images could help a doctor to determine appropriate treatment 
of the abnormalities. (2)

1. nature of abnormality e.g. bleeding, ref. to density ;


2. location of abnormality ;
3. extent / size of abnormality ;
4. likely problems e.g. accessibility for surgery ;

(b) Explain why the abnormalities in these two brains could cause different symptoms. 
(2)

1. found in different regions of brain ;


2. the right hand brain has more / two abnormalities ;
3. different areas of brain have different functions ;
4. symptoms depend on region of brain affected / eq ;
5. idea of different types of abnormality can cause different symptoms ;

(c) Describe how fMRI is used to investigate brain function. (2)

1. detects level of oxygenation of the blood /measures changes in blood flow within brain ;
2. increased flow / more oxygen suggests increased activity ;
3. study brain activity related to stimuli / tasks ;

(d) The diagram below shows a section through the human brain.

For each of the activities below, indicate the region of the brain W, X, Y or Z whichwill 
be most involved. Put a cross in the box corresponding to the correct letter.(4)
2 The diagram below shows changes in potential difference across the membrane of a 
neurone during an action potential.
(a) Describe the events that begin the depolarisation of the membrane of a neurone. (2)

1. depolarisation of adjacent membrane ;


2. changes PD across membrane ;
3. opens sodium gates ;
4. sodium ions move into the neurone ;

(b) Complete the table below to show which ions are able to move across the 
membrane at positions A and D shown in the diagram.

Put a cross in the box if the membrane is permeable to the ion. (2)

(c) Give an explanation for the movement of ions at position C on the diagram. (3)

1. diffusion gradient of potassium ions ;


2. electrochemical gradient ;
3. increased permeability of membrane to potassium ions ;
4. potassium gates open ;
5. sodium gates closed ;

(d) Explain how the potential difference across the membrane is returned to the resting 
level in the time between 1.5 ms and 4.0 ms on the diagram. (3)

1. PD less negative
2. the membrane remains permeable to potassium ions ;
3. potassium ions move because of charge difference ;
4. into nerve cell / neurone / axon ;
5. potassium ion is removing a positive chargefrom the outside ;
6. equilibrium is established e.g. diffusion gradient balanced by potential difference ;

3 The apparatus shown in the diagram below was used to measure the rate of 
respiration of germinating seeds in air. The distance moved by the coloured liquid was 
measured at 15­minute intervals for one hour.

This was repeated with the air replaced by nitrogen gas.

The rate of respiration of small insects in air was measured using the same apparatus.
(a) Suggest reasons for absorbing carbon dioxide in this apparatus. (2)

1. carbon dioxide produced in respiration ;


2. affects volume / pressure of gas ;
3. allows measurement of oxygen used ;

(b) The table below shows results recorded by a student using this apparatus.

(i) In the space below, calculate the mean rate of respiration for the insects, expressed 
as movement of liquid in millimetres per minute.
Show your working. (2)

0.8 (mm min-1)

(ii) The seeds in the experiment with nitrogen gas continued to germinate.
Suggest an explanation for the lack of movement of the liquid. (2)

1. no oxygen available/no oxygen uptake ;


2. anaerobic respiration ;
3. carbon dioxide produced is absorbed ;
4. no net change of volume / pressure of gas ;
(iii) Suggest two reasons why a valid comparison cannot be made between the mean 
rates of respiration of the germinating seeds in air and the insects.
For each reason, suggest a modification that would allow a valid comparison. (4)

1. mass of organism may differ ;


2. use same mass / express results per unit mass ;
3. temperature changes ;
4. control temperature using a water bath ;
5. pressure may affect volume of gas ;
6. use of control with no organisms, at the same time ;

4 Electrical activity in heartbeats can be recorded using electrocardiograms (ECG). An 
ECG includes recording of the activity of the sinoatrial node (SAN).

(a) Describe the role of the SAN in controlling heartbeats. (2)

1. initiates heartbeat ;
2. starts wave of excitation / depolarisation ;
3. determines heart rate ;

(b) Describe how the cardiovascular centre, in the medulla oblongata, affects the SAN 
during exercise. (2)

1. increased impulses to SAN ;


2. via sympathetic nervous system ;
3. stimulates more frequent depolarisation in SAN ;
4. increases heart rate / cardiac output ;

(c) ECGs can be used to diagnose abnormalities in the heartbeat. One such 
abnormality is a ventricular ectopic beat. This occurs when a region of the ventricle has 
a similar effect on the heart as the sinoatrial node (SAN).

The diagrams below show a normal ECG trace and a trace that shows a ventricular 
ectopic beat, labelled E. The traces were recorded from left to right. Changes in blood 
pressure in the pulmonary artery are shown over the same period of time.
*Describe the effect of the ectopic beat on heart activity and suggest an explanation for 
this effect. (5)

1. changes electrical activity / depolarisation of heart ;


2. peak is reversed ;
3. idea that peak is earlier than expected ;
4. no change in pressure in pulmonary artery ;
5. because little blood in ventricles ;
6. missed normal wave after E / longer gap before next wave ;
7. missed effective contraction after E ;
8. early depolarisation leaves ventricle insensitive ;
9. the wave of depolarisation is prevented ;
10. refractory period ;

(d) Performance­enhancing drugs may affect heart activity. Outline one ethical position 
relating to whether these drugs should be banned. (2)

1. absolutists say drugs should not be used at any time ;


2. should not allow athletes to be pressured into using drugs ;
3. risk to health ;
4. gain unfair advantage ;
5. other harmful substances banned ;
6. burden on care services ;
7. relativists say that drugs could be used under some circumstances ;
8. they could be used for medication ;
9. drugs in the body can be difficult to legislate for ;

5 The diagram below shows the arrangement of muscles and bones in an arm.

A 5 kg mass was held steady in the position shown and then lifted upwards towards the 
body.

(a) In the table below, show which of the muscles are contracted when holding the mass
steady and when lifting it. Put a cross in the box beside muscles that are contracted.

(b) Name the structures that connect muscles to bones. (1)

Tendons

(c) Explain why muscles occur in antagonistic pairs. (2)

1. muscles cannot extend themselves ;


2. need opposing muscle to extend ;
3. antagonistic muscle allows control of movement ;
(d) The diagram below shows the arrangement of actin and myosin myofilaments in part
of an extended muscle.

Complete the diagram below to show accurately the arrangement of actin andmyosin 
when the muscle is contracted. (3)

1. all fibres same length and width as original ;


2. Z lines closer together ;
3. more overlap of actin and myosin ;

*(e) Describe and explain the role of calcium ions and ATP in muscle contraction. (5)

1. vesicles / t-tubules / sarcoplasmic reticulum contain calcium ions ;


2.binds to troponin ;
3. tropomyosin moves exposing binding sites ;
4. for myosin ;
5. needs ATP to remove calcium ions ;
6. ATP provides energy for changing shape of myosin ;
7. ATP is required to break cross bridges ;
8. ATP for synthesis of neurotransmitter ;

6 The diagram below shows part of the process of chemiosmosis in a mitochondrion.
(a) Name the enzyme labelled X involved in chemiosmosis. (1)

ATPase / ATP synthetase

(b) Explain how a high concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) is maintained in the 
intermembrane space. (3)

1. H+ ions from reduced NAD ;


2. H+ ions pumped into inter membrane space ;
3. energy needed for pump ;
4. movement of electrons along ETC ;
5. ETC on inner membrane / cristae;

(c) Describe the role of the hydrogen ion concentration gradient in making available an 
accessible supply of energy for biological processes. (2)

1. H+ ions follow diffusion gradient ;


2. this causes an energy change or makes energy available ;
3. ATP is formed ;
4. this occurs on stalked particles ;
5. ATP is energy source for biological processes ;
January 2011/ 6BI05/ 02

1 Sports injuries can result in damaged human knee joints. The damaged joint can be 
repaired using keyhole surgery.

The diagram below shows a human knee joint.

(a) Place a cross in the box to identify each of the following structures.

(i) Structure P (1)
D Tendon

(ii) Structure Q (1)
B Ligament

(b) Describe the function of structure Q. (2)

1. hold / attaches bones together ;


2. still allows movement at the joint ;

(c) Structure Q may become torn during some sporting activities. It may not be possible 
to join the torn parts together. Material can be removed from structure P without causing
any damage. This material can be used to join the damaged pieces of Q together.

Suggest why the use of material from structure P will mean that recovery will be quite 
slow and require careful physiotherapy. (2)

1. time needed for repair ;

2. difference in composition of P and Q e.g. ligament has more elastic fibres , P is inelastic, P
is less flexible ;

3. need to gradually stretch repaired tissue ;


(d) The operation to repair the damage can be done using keyhole surgery.

Suggest the benefits of this technique. (3)

1. less damage to tissue ;


2. short time for recovery ;
3. social benefit e.g. more patients can be treated ;
4. economic benefit e.g. cheaper than invasive surgery ;
5. less anaesthetic needed ;

2 Plants can detect and respond to environmental cues. Cocklebur is a plant that 
flowers after it has been exposed to a sufficiently long period of darkness. The minimum
length of time in darkness needed to stimulate flowering is called the critical period.

An investigation was carried out into the effect of light and dark periods on cocklebur 
flowering. Four plants, A, B, C and D, were exposed to light and dark periods of different
length. The presence or absence of flowers was recorded after several weeks.

The diagram below shows the pattern of light and dark periods for these plants and the 
effect on flowering.

(a) (i) Using the information in the diagram, give the critical period for flowering of 
cocklebur plants. (1)

between 7 and 8 hours / 8 hours

(ii) Using the information in the diagram and your own knowledge of photoreceptors, 
explain why plant B has not flowered. (2)

1. not enough time in the dark;


2. Pfr /active phytochrome levels remain too high ;
3. threshold e.g. once Pfr below a certain level flowering happens;
4. flowering stimulated by fall in Pfr;
(b) In a further investigation, plants E and F were exposed to six hours of darkness each
day. Part of a leaf on plant F was covered so that the leaf experienced eight hours of 
darkness each day.

The diagram below summarises the results of this investigation.
Explain the purpose of plant E in this investigation. (2)

1. control ;
2. comparison e.g. to show that flowering would not happen without the cover ;

(c) Using your own knowledge of photoreceptors, explain the results of these 
investigations. What do they suggest about the control of flowering in cocklebur plants? 
(4)

1. six hours too short to cause flowering in plant E ;


2. eight hours is long enough / causes flowering ;
3. enough stimulus if part of the plant is in the dark for 8 hours / long time / enough time ;
4. leaf is (photo) receptor ;
5. phytochrome / Pfr / Pr in leaves ;
6. signal must be passed to growing points/site of flower production from leaves ;

(d) Suggest benefits to plants of being able to respond to changes in day length. (3)

1. flowering / development happens at the right time ;

2. therefore flowers when insects available / leaf fall in autumn / same species flower at
the same time / seeds germinate at the right time ;

3. idea that day length changes to a set pattern e.g. always short days in winter / long days
in summer ;

4. comparison with other less regular stimuli e.g. temperature ;

3 L­Dopa can be used to treat people with Parkinson’s disease. Using L­Dopa for a long
period of time can have side effects that include uncontrolled movement of limbs.
It is possible that increasing the levels of serotonin in the brain could be an effective 
treatment for these side effects. It has been suggested that MDMA (ecstasy) could be 
used to increase levels of serotonin.

(a) Explain why L­Dopa is used to treat people with Parkinson’s disease. (2)

1. L-Dopa can reach brain / unlike dopamine treatment ;


2. converted to dopamine in brain ;
3. increases dopamine levels in the brain ;
4. Parkinson’s disease has low dopamine levels / reduces symptoms of Parkinson’s disease ;

(b) Explain how MDMA could affect levels of serotonin in the brain. (3)

1. higher levels of / moreserotonin ;


2. synapse;
3. inhibits reabsorption into neurone ;
4. may reverse pumps to release more serotonin ;

(c) In trials of this treatment, marmosets (small monkeys) were given a drug to reduce 
dopamine production. They were then treated with L­Dopa until they showed the side 
effects observed in the treatment of people with Parkinson’s disease.

(i) Suggest a reason why the marmosets were treated with a drug to reduce dopamine 
production. (1)

to mimic Parkinson’s disease / Parkinson’s disease has low dopamine levels ;

(ii) Describe the ethical issues involved in the use of animals in a trial of this kind. (3)

1. (rationalist view) overall good should outweigh harm to animals ;


2. (absolutist view) all use of animals unacceptable ;
3. as few animals as possible used in the trial ;
4. welfare of animals should be important ;

(d) The results of the study showed that MDMA did reduce the side effects in the 
marmosets.

Describe the steps that would need to be taken before a similar treatment could be used
in humans. (3)

1. test small sample for safety / of healthy individuals ;


2. large sample of patients / tested for effectiveness ;
3. clinical trials on 1000s / larger sample ;
4. double blind trials /tests ;
5. placebo ;
6. representative sample e.g. take into account sex, age ;
4 According to the sliding filament theory of muscular contraction, force is produced 
when myosin molecules change shape.

Myosin molecules can generate a force of 1.7 × 10–6 N per million molecules when they 
change shape.

Measurements of a single muscle fibre showed that a force of 3.5 × 10–3 N was 
produced when it contracted.

(a) Use this information to calculate the number of myosin molecules changing shape 
during the contraction of this muscle fibre. Show your working. (2)

3.5 x 10-3 ÷ 1.7 x 10-6/ (3.5 ÷ 1.7) x 10 3 ;


=2059 million / x 10 6 / 2058.8 {million / x 10 6

(b) Examination of this muscle fibre found that there were only a few mitochondria 
present.

(i) Name this type of muscle fibre. (1)

fast twitch fibre / type II fibre

(ii) The energy required for contraction of muscle fibres is provided by ATP.

Describe how enough ATP is made available for contraction of this muscle fibre, despite
there being only a few mitochondria. (5)

1. ATP from phosphorylation of ADP ;


2. energy required for phosphorylation ;
3. glycolysis / glucose converted to pyruvate ;
4. pyruvate converted to lactate / reduced ;
5. idea that makes NAD available ;
6. anaerobic respiration ;
7. in cell cytoplasm ;
8. ATP from oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria ;
9. phosphocreatine is involved in production of ATP ;

(iii) Explain why you would expect this type of muscle fibre to fatigue quickly. (2)

1. ATP supply limited ;


2. anaerobic respiration / lots of lactate ;
3. pH is lower ;
4. affects enzymes / prevents muscle contraction ;

5 The diagram below summarises some of the reactions in aerobic respiration.
(a) Name the process that produces pyruvic acid. (1)
Glycolysis

(b) Place a cross in the box that correctly identifies each of the following.

(i) The waste product V (1)
B Carbon dioxide

(ii) The molecule T that becomes reduced during the process (1)
C NAD

(c) An investigation was carried out into the ability of bacteria to use different 
substances as substrates for aerobic respiration.

Cultures of bacteria were grown separately in media containing lactic acid or one of the 
substances shown in the diagram (pyruvic acid, molecule B or molecule C). The initial 
concentration of each of these substances in the media was the same. The oxygen 
uptake of each culture was measured over a period of time. The results are shown in 
the graph below.
(i) Using the information in the diagram and the graph, suggest an explanation for the 
differences in oxygen uptake between bacteria using pyruvic acid, molecule B and 
molecule C as a substrate. (4)

1. oxygen to oxidise hydrogen / as hydrogen acceptor / as final acceptor of electron transport


chain;

2. reference to reduced coenzyme / NAD / FAD ;


3. reduced coenzyme from glycolysis / KrebsCycle ;
4. comparison of two oxygen uptake / respiration rates from pyruvate, molecules B and C e.g.
respiration rate faster in pyruvate than molecule B ;

5. uptake of substrate compared e.g. uptake of molecule B faster than molecule C ;


6. comparison of diffusion rate / molecular size;
7. oxidation level of substrate e.g. ratio H:O in molecule ;
8. relative quantity ofreduced coenzyme produced ;
9. pH effect of pyruvate more favourable for enzyme / reaction;
10. number of carbon atoms of C lower than B;

(ii) Suggest one reason for the rapid oxygen uptake by bacteria in a medium containing 
lactic acid. Give an explanation for your answer. (2)

1. lactate can be converted to pyruvate ;


2. increases oxygen requirement / reference to oxygen debt ;
3. most potential for oxidation e.g. can make the most reduced coenzyme ;

6 Cardiac muscle is myogenic.
The rhythmic contraction of the heart, in a particular sequence, is a feature of the 
cardiac cycle.

(a) Explain what is meant by the term myogenic. (2)

1. stimulation generated from within muscle e.g. no external stimulation ;


2. brings about depolarisation ;

*(b) Describe how the sequence of muscular contraction in the heart is coordinated and 
how the movement of blood through the heart is controlled. (6)

1.Sinoatrial node / SAN ;


2. initiates depolarisation ;
3. passes through wall of atria ;
4. causes atrial systole ;
5. AVN conducts to ventricles ;
6. Purkynefibres / bundle of His ;
7. ventricular systole follows from apex) ;
8. atrioventricular valves closed and prevent flow to atria ;
9. semilunar valves opened by pressure ;
10. blood forced into arteries ;
11. changed pressure in diastole closes semilunar valves ;
22 June 2011/ 6BI05/ 03

1 The diagram below shows a section through a motor neurone.

(a) Identify structures A, B, C and D by placing a cross in the correct box in the table 
below. (4)

DBCA

(b) Describe the role of the structure labelled C in the conduction of nerve impulses. (4)

1. electrical insulation ;
2. depolarisation at nodes ;
3. impulse jumps from node to node ;
4. saltatory conduction ;
5. faster conduction ;

(c) Explain how the structure of the axon cell membrane is related to the conduction of 
nerve impulses. (3)

1. phospholipid restricts ion movement ;


2. proteins span the membrane;
3. sodium potassium pump moves ions ;
4. protein gates / channels allow diffusion / movement of ions ;
2 The tip of a plant shoot was placed on two agar blocks and light was shone from one 
side. The tip was removed and the agar blocks were then placed on a shoot without a 
tip, as shown in the diagram below.

(a) In the space below, draw a diagram to show the shoot as it would appear several 
hours later.(1)

shoot bends to right ;

*(b) Describe the mechanism that causes the change you have drawn. (4)

1. phototropism ;
2. light causes redistribution of auxin / IAA ;
3. high concentration away from light / in block B ;
4. auxin diffuses down into shoot ;
5. stimulates cell elongation ;
6. description change in cell e.g. fewer crosslinks in cellulose, cell wall more plastic,
acidification, stimulation of enzyme production, vacuolation ;

7. side away from light longer / eq ;

(c) Compare this response of a shoot to light with hormonal coordination in animals. (4)

1. both chemical ;
2. both transported away from production site ;
3. comparison of mechanism of transport described e.g. diffusion in plants, blood system in
animals ;

4. speed of action compared e.g. slower in plants, some animal hormones are faster ;
5. duration of effect compared e.g. some animal hormones have a shorter term effect ;
6. idea that this plant response involves {growth / cell elongation} only e.g. animal hormones
do not just affect growth ;

7. comparison of stimuli ;
3 When exercise begins, both ventilation rate and heart rate increase. This supplies 
more oxygen to muscles.

(a) (i) Describe how breathing rate and tidal volume can be determined from a 
spirometer trace. (3)

1. breath identified ;
2. time for one / several peaks;
3. method for tidal volume e.g. height frompeak to trough on trace ;
4. calibration for volume ;

(ii) Explain how you would use breathing rate and tidal volume to calculate ventilation 
rate. (1)

breathing rate x tidal volume ;

(b) An investigation was carried out to study the changes in oxygen uptake by the blood 
in the lungs after the first ten seconds of exercise.

Men with artificial pacemakers agreed to exercise with their heart rate controlled at 50 
beats per minute. The ventilation rate and the oxygen uptake at rest were measured. 
These were also measured, after the first ten seconds of exercise and the differences 
recorded.

This was repeated with the heart rate controlled at 100 beats per minute. The results 
are shown in the table below.

(i) State one factor, other than heart rate, that could have affected the rate at which 
blood passed through the heart. (1)

stroke volume / strength of (cardiac) muscle contraction / blood viscosity / size


{atria/ventricles/chambers} / adrenaline ;

(ii) Using the information in the table, describe the effect of an increase in heart rate on 
both the ventilation rate and oxygen uptake by the blood, after the first ten seconds of 
exercise. (3)

1. there is little difference in ventilation rate /does not increase as much;


2. oxygen uptake increases ;
3. credit use of manipulated figures ;
(iii) Explain how an increased heart rate results in increased uptake of oxygen by the 
blood in the lungs. (3)

1. there is more blood passing through lungs ;


2. oxygen diffuses into blood ;
3. diffusion gradient being maintained ;
4. oxygen diffuses in faster ;

(iv) What conclusions could be drawn from the results of this investigation? (2)

1. increased heart rate from 50-100/ increases oxygen uptake / increases ventilation rate less
2. heart rate has a greater effect on oxygen uptake than on ventilation rate ;

4 In some organisms, the nervous response to a stimulus can reduce as a result of 
repetition. This is known as habituation.

Sea slugs are marine animals which have gills for the uptake of oxygen from seawater.

A sea slug withdraws its gill when its skin is touched. After some time, the gill is 
exposed again. With repeated touches, the time taken for it to expose the gill 
decreases. When the skin is touched frequently, the gill is not withdrawn.

The diagram below shows some of the neurones (nerve cells) involved in this response.
(a) Place a cross in the correct box in the table below to identify where structures A, B, 
C and D, listed in the table, are shown on the diagram. (3)

CAD

(b) (i) Suggest how a repeated stimulus could result in less response from the gill. (3)

1. high frequency of impulses ;


2. depletes neurotransmitter;
3. calcium ion channels do not open / are lessresponsive ;
4. synapse / synaptic membrane / knob;
5. post synaptic membrane not depolarised ;
6. impulses do not reach gill;

(ii) Suggest how this habituation may be of benefit to a sea slug. (2)

1. avoids wasted effort / time / resources ;


2. to non-threatening / unimportant stimulus ;
3. natural frequent stimuli e.g. wave action ;

5 An investigation was carried out into the effect of pH on the contraction of muscle 
fibres.

Single muscle fibres were used with their surrounding membranes removed. These 
fibres will contract when exposed to calcium ions in solution. Isolated slow twitch and 
fast twitch fibres were tested at pH 7 and pH 6, in a range of calcium ion concentrations.
Results for both types of fibre are shown in the graphs below.
(a) The sensitivity of a muscle fibre is defined as the concentration of calcium ions 
required to cause 50% of full contraction.

Using the information in the graphs, complete the table below. (2)

Fast twitch = 0.6
reading at pH 7 = 0.9 to 1.0, reading at pH 6 = 1.95-2.05
answer within the range 0.95 - 1.15

(b) Using the information in the graphs, compare the effect of pH on slow twitch and fast
twitch fibres. (2)

1. lower pH, both lesssensitive to calciumions / lower pH more calcium ions needed for 50%
contraction ;

2. effect on slow twitch is greater ;


3. lower pH decreases contraction in both ;
4. lower pH has no effect at high calcium ion concentration in both ;

(c) (i) Describe a circumstance that could cause a fall in pH in living muscle. (1)
Anaerobic {conditions/respiration} / lack of oxygen /
process that reduces pH / eq ;

(ii) Suggest how the different responses of these two types of fibre to pH may be related
to their different functions in muscle. (2)

1. fast twitch anaerobic / slow twitch aerobic ;


2. fast twitch more likely to experience low pH ;
3. low pH due to lactate ;
4. fast twitch is less affected by change in pH ;
5. can continue to respond to stimulus at lower pH ;

(d) It is possible to replace the troponin in fast twitch fibres with troponin from slow 
twitch fibres. Fast twitch fibres that have been treated in this way have the same 
sensitivity as slow twitch fibres.

Use your knowledge of the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction to explain why 
this might have been predicted. (3)

1. troponin binds calcium ions ;


2. tropomyosin moved ;
3. causing myosin binding sites exposed ;
4. on actin ;
5. calcium binding site sensitive to pH ;
6. idea that troponin is different in each fibre ;

6 Marathon runners can have difficulty with thermoregulation over the course of a 26 
mile race, particularly on a hot day. Two marathon runners, A and B, had their core 
temperatures recorded during a race.
The graph below shows the core temperatures recorded during the race.

(a)  Suggest an explanation for the change in core temperatures of both runners in the 
first 30 minutes of the race. (2)

1. more muscle contraction / respiration ;


2. heat energy released ;
3. more heat produced than lost ;

(b) Suggest an explanation for the constant core temperatures of both runners between 
60 and 100 minutes of this race. (5)

1. ref to {detection of temperature change / temperature receptors ;


2. reference hypothalamus ;
3. more sweating ;
4. loss of heat due to evaporation of water ;
5. vasodilation of arterioles ;
6. loss of radiant heat ;
7. heat gained equal heat lost ;
8. reference negative feedback ;
9. behavioural heat loss mechanism described;
(c) During this race, runner A lost 3.02 kg of water and runner B lost 2.43 kg of water.

Using the information in the question and your own knowledge, suggest reasons for the 
change in core temperature of runner A after 120 minutes. (2)

1. idea of dehydration ;
2. no longer sweating ;
3. cooling mechanisms failing ;
4. heat production greater than heat loss ;
5. increase of pace ;
31 January 2012/ 6BI05/ 04

1 The diagram below shows the position of some of the cells in the retina of the eye.

(a) Place a cross in the box next to the correct letter to complete each of thefollowing 
statements.

(i) Rod cells are found in the layer labelled (1)
C

(ii) The neurones of the optic nerve begin in the layer labelled (1)
A

(iii) In this diagram of the retina, the light would pass through from (1)
D top to bottom

(b) The macula is the central part of the retina in the eye. Macular degeneration is a 
common cause of blindness.

Recent research has shown that macular degeneration in adult mice can be 
successfully treated. This involves injecting embryonic stem cell­derived photoreceptors
into their retinas.

(i) Suggest why this sort of treatment might not restore vision in people with macular 
problems who have been blind from an early age. (3)

1. lack of visualstimulation limits brain development ;


2. this due to of lack of connections ;
3. within the visual cortex ;
4. the brain cannot interpret this visual information correctly;
5. reference to critical period / window ;
6. mice are different from humans ;
(ii) Suggest why this type of treatment for blindness in humans could be regarded as 
controversial. (2)

1. embryo supplies cells ;


2. some people have {ethical / eq} objections to the use of embryonic cells / eq ;
3. objections to the use of animals ;
4. risk of stem cells becoming cancerous ;

(c) A group of scientists proposed to investigate a treatment for people who have been 
blind from an early age.

This investigation involves kittens having their eyes kept shut immediately after birth. 
After 12 weeks, their eyes will be opened and stem cells injected into the cerebral 
hemispheres of their brains.

These kittens will then be raised for two years in a constant environment and 
thedevelopment of their retinas will be compared with a control group.

(i) Suggest why the stem cells will be injected into the cerebral hemispheres. (2)

1. cerebral hemisphere is the site of vision perception ;


2. reference to visual cortex ;
3. stem cells differentiate ;
4. this treatment will help to establish neurone connections;
5. Idea that can not get stem cells to this location any other way than injection;

(ii) Suggest why the environment should be kept constant in this investigation. (2)

1. reduce number of variables / to keep all variables constant;


2. so that only the effect of the treatment is measured;

2 Florence (Flo­Jo) Griffith­Joyner’s world record of 10.49 seconds for the 100 m 
women’s sprint in 1988 is unbeaten.

In this short time, a sprinter such as Flo­Jo could not deliver enough oxygen to her 
muscles to maintain aerobic respiration.
* (a) Describe how a sprinter is able to release sufficient energy for the 100 m sprint 
without having enough oxygen available for her muscles. (6)

1. energy obtained from ATP ;


2. ATP already in muscle cells e.g. ATP store ;
3. ATP from glycolysis/ substrate level phosphorylation;
4. glycolysis produces ATP rapidly;
5. some aerobic respirationdue to some oxygen present ;
6. glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm;
7. need to recycle NAD+ ;
8. pyruvate is converted to lactate ;
9. reference to anaerobic respiration ;
10. idea of lactate tolerance ;
11. reference to fast twitch muscle /fibres ;
12. reference to creatine phosphate ;

(b) (i) Lactate (lactic acid) can build up in the muscles of a sprinter.

Suggest why the build­up of lactate may prevent any further increase in speed. (2)

1. lactate build up causes drop in pH / more acidic / increase H+ ;


2. this affects enzyme activity / shape ;
3. this slows down glycolysis / ATP production / anaerobic respiration;
4. muscle contractions being affected ;

(ii) Explain the fate of lactate following a sprint. (4)

1. lactate in the blood / eq ;


2. transported to / broken down inliver ;
3. lactate is converted to pyruvate ;
4. this involves oxidation / production of reduced NAD ;
5. pyruvate is then oxidised ;
6. reference to Krebs cycle ;
7. this requires extra oxygen / oxygen debt ;
8. carbon dioxide and water are produced ;

3 The table below shows information about the top ten fastest men and women in both 
the 100 m sprint and the marathon race of 42.2 km.
(a) (i) Give reasons why the data in the table may be considered to be reliable. (2)

1. sample size is enough ;


2. comment on the accuracy of measurement ;
3. standard deviations are small ;

(ii) For the marathon, the women’s mean speed is 89.6% of the men’s mean speed. For 
the 100 m sprint, calculate the women’s mean speed as a percentage of the men’s 
mean speed.
Show your working. (2)

1. (9.35 ÷10.22) ;
2. (0.91487) × 100 = 91.5 (%) ;

(iii) Using the information in the table, describe the difference between the mean speeds
for men and women for the 100 m sprint.
Suggest a reason for the difference. (2)

1. men are faster than women;


2. differences in body structure e.g. men have more muscle, longer legs, more fast
twitchfibres ;

3. differences in physiology e.g. testosterone ;

(b) Suggest why the mean speeds for the marathon are less than the 100 m sprint for 
both men and women. (3)

1. marathon distance greater;


2. more aerobic respiration is needed ;
3. to reduce production of lactate ;
4. anaerobic respiration not efficient enough;
5.oxygen debt / lactate levels cannot be sustained over this distance;
6. marathon runners use slow twitch fibres ;

4 A study examined the risk of developing a mental disorder. This study determined the 
risk for both the population as a whole and for those who had a close relative (parent, 
brother, sister or child) with the same disorder. The results are shown in the table 
below.
(a) (i) People with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have symptoms such as 
repeated washing, checking, touching, counting or arranging.

Using the data in this table, give the evidence that OCD is an inherited condition.(2)

1. people are more likely to have obsessive compulsive disorder if they have a close relative
with the condition ;
2. credit manipulation of figures i.e. 100 times more likely ;
3. therefore they may also have the genes / alleles / genotypefor this condition;

(ii) Using the data in the table, explain the validity of the statement that ‘OCD is an 
inherited condition’. (2)

1. if they have a close relative with this illness, the risk ought to be higher than / is only 10%;
2. therefore other factors must be involved as well ;
3. named example of environmental influence e.g. learnt behaviour ;

(iii) Using the data in the table, state which disorder is least likely to be an
inherited condition. Give a reason for your answer. (2)

1. neurotic depression ;
2. little difference between population as a whole / females and close relative data ;

5 The apparatus shown in the diagram below can be used to measure the rate of 
respiration of small animals such as woodlice.

(a) (i) Potassium hydroxide solution absorbs carbon dioxide.

Suggest a reason for absorbing carbon dioxide in this apparatus. (1)

1. reduces volume / pressure of gas;


2. allows measurement of oxygen used / movement of liquid;
(ii) Suggest what the syringe is used for in this apparatus. (2)

1. returning the coloured liquid back to zero;


2. idea of calibration ;
3. repetition;

*(b) Describe how this apparatus could be used to find the mean rate of respiration of 
woodlice. (6)

1. reference to constant temperature ;


2. use of water bath;
3. reference to suitable / stated / fixed time;
4. Reference to measuring volume / distance;
5. description of how to obtain volume ;
6. calculation of rate described;
7. reference to replicates ;
8. description of control e.g. no woodlice ;
9. welfare of animals important ;
10. massof woodlice ;

6 Muscles, bones and joints allow movement of the skeleton.

(a) Place a cross in the box next to the correct word to complete each of thefollowing 
statements.

(i) Muscles are attached to bones by (1)
D tendons

(ii) In a joint, bones are joined to each other by (1)
B ligaments

(iii) Muscles that work in pairs across a joint are known as (1)
B antagonists

(iv) In key­hole surgery, cruciate ligaments are repaired using tissue from (1)
D tendons

(v) Fast twitch muscle fibres have (1)
A few capillaries

(vi) Slow twitch muscle fibres(1)
C have low glycogen content
7 In an investigation into dieting and obesity, mice were fed a restricted quantity of food.
It has been found that the stress of having less food causes the release of the hormone 
noradrenaline. This causes the mice to hunt for food. These food­restricted mice will 
tolerate electric shocks in order to eat.

(a) Suggest why this investigation might be regarded as unacceptable. (2)

1. animals are being mistreated e.g. caused stress, pain ;


2. it is not ethical ;
3. research topic might not be regarded as essential;

(b) Noradrenaline acts by increasing blood flow to the muscles.

(i) Suggest how this increase in blood flow is brought about. (2)

1. effect on heart described e.g. increase heart rate / increased cardiac output ;
2. acts as neurotransmitter/ effect on sites of control e.g. increased SAN activity, excitatory
centre, sympathetic nerves ;
3. idea of vasodilation ;
4. increase in blood pressure;

(ii) Suggest why this increase in blood flow would be of advantage to the food­restricted 
mice. (2)

1.increased blood flow provides more glucose / oxygen / enables more respiration/
energyrelease ;

2. for muscle used in “food hunt”;


23 June 2012/ 6BI05/ 05

1 (a) The brain acts as the main coordinating centre for nervous activity. It receives 
information, interprets it and responds accordingly.

(i) Coordination of movement is controlled by the part of the brain labelled (1)
B Cerebellum

(ii) During exercise, chemoreceptors in the carotid artery detect a decrease in pH
due to increased carbon dioxide. This results in nerve impulses being sent to the (1)
C Medulla oblongata

(b) At the start of depolarisation, the ions that move into the axon causing the action 
potential are (1)
C Medulla oblongata

(c) When an impulse arrives at a synapse, the ions that enter the pre­synaptic 
membrane are (1)
A Calcium

(d) Acetylcholine is a chemical which acts as (1)
C a neurotransmitter

(e) The drug MDMA (ecstasy) changes behaviour by (1)
D increasing the concentration of serotonin in brain synapses

2 The Human Genome Project is helping in the design of new drugs to treat a variety of
human diseases and in the development of synthetic tissues.

(a) (i) Explain the meaning of the term Human Genome. (1)

all the DNA / genes of the human species ;

(ii) Describe one ethical implication associated with the use of information obtained from
the analysis of the human genome. (1)

1. discrimination e.g. insurers might have access to a person’s DNA


2. who decides whether a person is tested
3. need for confidentiality
4. expensive medical treatments might be restricted ;

(b) Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer. Very few patients with this cancer 
survive for more than five years. Some melanomas are associated with a genetic 
mutation identified by the Human Genome Project.

Drug R (R05185426) has been developed to treat patients with these melanomas. In 
clinical trials, drug R has been shown to cause a 50% shrinkage of melanomas in only a
few months.

(i) Suggest how work on the Human Genome Project helped in the development of drug
R. (3)

1. Human Genome Project identifies allele related to melanoma e.g. mutant allele, aberrant allele ;
2. drug targets this allele ;
3. mutant allele can no longer express itself ;
4. drug preventing translation ;
5. such a drug is more effective ;

(ii) Suggest how drug R may have caused the melanoma to shrink in only a few 
months. (4)

1. drug affects expression of the allele ;


2. protein not produced ;
3. melanoma cells killed ;
4. melanoma cells do not divide ;
5. they are replaced with normal body cells ;
6. through mitosis ;
7. description of specific part of mitosis affected e.g. no spindle fibres ;

(iii) Drug R needs one more round of testing, in a phase III trial, before it can be 
approved for use. Explain what is meant by a phase III trial. (2)
1. randomised trial ;
2. large number of patients ;
3. double blind ;
4. use of placebo / use of current treatment ;
5. testing how effective the drug is on patients ;

(c) Yeast cells were genetically modified, using human DNA, to produce collagen. This 
collagen can be used to make synthetic corneas.

Ten patients who were blind were each given a synthetic cornea. They were all able to 
see with no reported complications due to tissue rejection. Suggest why these synthetic 
corneas were not rejected. (2)

1. yeast cells have human collagen gene / allele /DNA ;


2. new collagen is recognised as ‘self’e.g. has no non-self antigens ;
3. does not trigger immune response ;

3 (a) An investigation was carried out to study the ability of rats to learn. A number of 
rats were divided into two groups, P and Q.

The rats in group P were deprived of food for twenty hours and then released into a 
cage. The cage contained hidden food and the rats were left in this cage for four hours 
each day.
This was repeated each day for fourteen days. The diagram below shows the cage.

In the cage, the floors A, B, C, D and E had hidden food, water, wooden blocks, freshly 
cut wood chips, branches, fresh leaves, plastic containers and paper bags.

(i) The rats in group Q were used as a control.
Describe how the rats in control group Q would have been treated. (2)

1. cage with no enrichment / eq ;


2. same regime e.g. starvation time, feeding time, time in cage ;
(ii) Explain why the rats were not fed for twenty hours each day. (1)

motivation e.g. to encourage them to look for food ;

(b) During each four­hour period in the cage, the number of floors visited by the rats in 
group P was recorded as a percentage of the total number of floors. The graph below 
shows the results of this experiment.

Using the information in the graph, describe the behaviour of the rats in group P over 
the fourteen­day period during this investigation. (3)

1. overall trend increases ;


2. rapid increase in visiting over first 2 / 3 / 5 days ;
3. after this the increase in visiting slows down ;
4. comment on lower percentage on day 4 ;
5. comment on levels off from day 5 / 9 ;
6. the rats did not visit all the floors on each day e.g. 100% of the floors never
achieved ;
7. manipulation of figures ;

(c) In a second experiment, the two groups of rats were placed in a maze containing
hidden food.

The percentage of rats from each group that found the food in a short period of time 
was recorded. The results are shown in the table below.
Explain the effect of the first experiment on the ability of rats to find food in a short 
period of time. (2)

1. exploration encouraged in group P ;


2. due to enrichment / hidden food ;
3. they are more intrepid e.g. they visit more of the maze ;
4. better / more adept at looking for food / learnt to look for food ;

(d) The brains of both groups of rats were examined.

The mean spine density per neurone for each group was calculated. Spine density 
represents a measure of the number of synapses per neurone. The results are shown in
the table below.

Suggest how these results explain the effect of the first experiment on the ability of rats 
to find food using the cage. (2)

1. more synapses;
2. moreconnections between neurons / neurones connected together ;
3. better learning capacity ;

4 *(a) A spirometer can be used to measure tidal volumes and breathing rates. The 
diagram below shows a spirometer.
Explain how you would use the traces from this spirometer to compare the tidal volumes
and breathing rates of male and female human subjects. (6)

1. calibration for volume ;


2. calibration for time ;
3. description of how to calculate tidal volume from trace ;
4. one peak = one breath ;
5. reference to breathing rate is number of peaks per minute ;
6. idea of standardised group of males and females e.g. same age, non-smokers ;
7. idea that traces taken at rest ;
8. reference to replicates ;
9. description of how to calculate the mean from the trace ;

(b) The peak expiratory flow (PEF) is a measure of how fast a person can breathe out. 
This can indicate any obstruction in the airways of the lungs. It is measured using
a peak flow meter.
The graph below shows the expected PEF values for people aged 15 to 85 years of 
various heights.

(i) Using the information in the graph, describe the effect of age on PEF.(4)

1. PEF increases from 15 to when they are in their 30s and then decreases ;
2. reaches a peak at age 30 to 34 for women;
3. reaches a peak at age 36 to 39 for men ;
4. PEF falls below value at 15 later on in life ;
5. manipulation of figures to illustrate the points above ;

(ii) Using the information in the graph, give one reason for the difference in PEF values 
between ages 35 years and 85 years (1)

weakening of muscles / loss of elasticity of lungs ;


(iii) If a person with asthma has a PEF 30% below the expected value, it may indicate 
that their asthma is not under control. A 52­year old man with asthma has a PEF 
reading of 350 dm3 min1. 

Using the information in the graph, state whether or not his asthma is being kept under 
control. Give a reason for your answer. (2)

1. he is more than 30% below / must be less than 400 dm3 min-1/ he is 37 to 39 % below ;
2. therefore his asthma is not under control ;

(iv) Give one other piece of information that is needed before an accurate diagnosis of 
his asthma can be made. (1)

height ;

5 (a) The picture below shows the human eye with the black pupil in the centre. The 
pupil can change size to allow either more or less light into the eye. Its size is controlled 
by the iris muscles surrounding it.

(i) Suggest why the pupil appears black. (1)

pigment at back of eye absorbs light / no light is reflected out from the choroid ;

(ii) There are two sets of iris muscles, the radial muscles and the circular muscles. They
work antagonistically to alter the size of the pupil.
Explain why these two sets of muscles need to be antagonistic. (3)

1. circular muscles contract and radial musclesrelax to constrictpupil ;


2. radial muscles contract and circular musclesrelax to dilate pupil ;
3. need for fine control of aperture to allow pupilto be reset to a different size / allow
changingto take account of varying light intensity ;
4. these muscles can only shorten ;
5. antagonistic muscles have opposite effects;
6. contraction of one muscle setstretches the other ;

(iii) The pupil increases in diameter in dim light.Explain how neurones enable this 
response to occur.(3)

1. details of impulse e.g. depolarisation;


2. reference to bipolar neurone / cell ;
3. reference to sensory neurone ;
4. reference to optic nerve ;
5. reference to motorneurone connected toradial muscles ;
6. reference to contraction of radial muscle ;
(b) Tropicamide is a drug used in eye drops.Tropicamide has an effect on the diameter 
of the pupil in the eye.This makes it easier for the doctor to examine the retina or lens in
the eye of a
patient.
Suggest how tropicamide in the eye drops makes it easier to examine the retina.(3)

1. has an effect on nervous system of iris;


2. radial muscles contract;
3. prevention of pupil constriction ;
4. larger aperture / pupil dilates ;
5. letting more light in;
6. so can see more / all retina ;

(c) The diagrams below show the structure of two molecules, retinal and retinol.

Retinol is the most common form of dietary vitamin A and retinal is part of thestructure 
of rhodopsin.
Suggest how a deficiency of vitamin A would adversely affect a person’s vision.(3)

1. retinol and retinal are very similar in structure ;


2. retinol is needed to make retinal ;
3. shortage of retinol in diet leads to lessretinal ;
4. in rods ;
5. this leads to reduced vision in lowlight / at night ;

6 The table below shows some statements relating to photoreceptors (phytochromes)
in plants.
Complete the table with a tick (_) if the statement is correct or a cross (×) if the
statement is not correct.
21 January 2013/ 6BI05/ 06

1 (a) The graph below shows the changes in potential difference across the membrane 
of a neurone after stimulation.

(i) Using the information in the graph, state the maximum change in potential difference 
across the membrane of this neurone during depolarisation. (1)

100 (mV) ;

(ii) The table below describes three of the stages shown in the graph.

Place a cross in the box below the letter that correctly links the description to one of the 
labels on the graph above. (3)

*(b) When a nerve impulse reaches a synapse, calcium ions enter the neurone through 
the pre­synaptic membrane. This causes a neurotransmitter, such as acetylcholine, to 
be released.
Describe and explain the sequence of events that occurs at the synapse, after a 
neurotransmitter has been released. (5)

1. diffuses across gap;


2. binds to receptors onpost-synaptic membrane;
3. gated-channels opening or Na+ travels through postsynapticmembrane ;
4. causing a depolarisation ;
5. if sufficient present) an action potential is set up in postsynapticmembrane/adjacent cell
6. details such as temporal or spatial summation ;
7. idea that allows coordination / one way flow of information ;
8. it allows integration in post-synaptic cell ;
9. neurotransmitter broken down by enzyme;
10. so that do not get {prolonged /eq} action potential in posts synapticmembrane /
makereceptors available again ;

11. credit reference to fate of products e.g. reabsorbed throughpre-synaptic membrane OR to


be re-synthesised intoneurotransmitter substance ;

2 Respiration is a vital process in living organisms. All organisms carry out glycolysis. 
The Krebs cycle also occurs in some organisms.

(a) The diagram below shows some of the stages in glycolysis, using the hexose sugar 
glucose.

Name the molecules R and S shown in the diagram. (2)

molecule R - ATP / adenosine triphosphate ;


molecule S - ADP / adenosine diphosphate ;
(b) The diagram below shows some of the stages in the Krebs cycle.

(i) Name molecule T and use the information in the Krebs cycle diagram to give a 
reason for your answer. (2)

1. carbon dioxide / CO2 ;


2. idea that the C has been removed from C6 or C5 ;

(ii) Using information in the diagram, suggest what would happen in the Krebs cycle if 
acetyl CoA became unavailable. (3)

1. cycle would stop ;


2. 4 carbon compound would accumulate;
3. 6 carbon compound would run short / not be synthesised
5 carbon compound would run short ;
4. molecule T / Hreduce ;

(c) The hydrogen (H) from the Krebs cycle enters the electron transport chain and 
oxidative phosphorylation occurs.
Explain what is meant by the term oxidative phosphorylation. (3)

1. electrons being passed along the electrontransport chain ;


2. losing energy ;
3. used toadd a phosphate to ADP to make ATP ;
4. reference to ATPase ;
5. chemiosmosis ;
6. oxygen as the final acceptor ;

3 Phytochromes are photoreceptors found in many plants.
(a) The diagram below shows the interconversion of inactive phytochrome (Pr/ P660) and 
active phytochrome (Pfr/ P730).
State one way in which the active form of phytochrome can be converted back to the 
inactive form, other than by exposing it to far red light.(1)

leave it in the dark;

(b) A study was carried out to investigate the effect of red light and far red light on 
sunflower plants.

One group of sunflower seedlings, group A, was grown under a lamp that emittedred 
light and far red light of the same intensity.

Another group of sunflower seedlings, group B, was grown in the same way, except that
the lamp emitted a lower intensity of red light. The intensity of far red light was 
unchanged.

When the plants were fully grown, the mean dry mass of the flowers producedand the 
meanlength of the plant stems were recorded.This study was repeated using new 
groups of sunflower seedlings.The results are shown in the table below.
(i) Using the mean dry mass of the flowers shown in the table, compare the results of 
group A with group B for both the original and repeat studies. (3)

1. mass higher in A compared with Bfor both studies ;


2. the difference is less in repeat study ;
3. comparative manipulation of data e.g. 13g decrease for A to Bfor original and 5 g for
repeat ;
4. mass lower in repeats of both A and B;

(ii) The light conditions experienced by group B were similar to those found near ground
level in woodland.
Using the mean stem lengths shown in the table, suggest the importance of these light 
conditions for a young seedling in the woodland.(3)

1.increase in stem length ;


2. correct manipulation of the data e.g. by 23cm / 18.4% ;
3. reference totaller / faster growing seedling ;
4. to receive more light / higher red light/ to maximizephotosynthesis ;
5. idea of allows active phytochrome to be made ;

(iii) A statistical analysis of the data for mean stem length was carried out. The analysis 
showed that there was a significant difference between the mean  stem length data for 
groups A and B. However, there was no significant difference between the data from the
original study and the repeat study.
Suggest a conclusion for the effect of light on mean stem length and use the results of 
this statistical analysis to comment on the reliability of the data. (3)

1. less red light increases mean stem length / more farred light increases stem length;
2. the significant difference in mean stem length is not due tochance ;
3. the mean length for repeat was close to the original ;
4. suggesting it is likely to be reliable ;

4 Physiological changes occur when a person carries out a period of exercise, such as 
running 800 metres.
(a) One physiological change will be an increase in cardiac output. Describe the 
changes in the heart that bring about an increase in cardiac output. (4)

1. heart rate increases / eq ;


2. {stroke volume / eq} increases / eq ;
3. {SAN /eq} activity increases / ;
4. AVN time delay decreases / eq ;
5. idea that more blood returning (to the heart) causes {heart /
muscle} to stretch ;
6. idea that ventricles contract with greater force ;

(b) The respiratory system will also undergo physiological changes during a period of
exercise.
The spirometer trace shown below was recorded when an adult was at rest.This trace 
can be used to calculate the resting breathing rate and tidal volume of the adult.

(i) Place a cross in the box that correctly identifies the approximate value for resting 
breathing rate and tidal volume for this adult.(2)

(ii) Describe how a spirometer trace recorded immediately after a short period of 
exercise would differ from this trace. (2)

1. more peaks in the same time / higher frequency /distance between consecutive peaks
would decrease ;
2. idea of distance from peak to trough would increase ;

(c) A student used a spirometer to compare the resting breathing rate of musicianswho 
play trumpets with musicians who play violins.
Suggest two variables the student should have considered when selecting the 
musicians, to make the study valid. (2)

1. how often they play


2. age
3. body size / BMI
4. gender
5. fitness level
6. health status
7. lifestyle e.g. smoker or swimmer ;
5 The photograph shows a female gymnast on a narrow beam.

(a) The table below refers to two regions of the brain.
Complete the table by describing one role of each region of the brain, while she is on 
the beam. 

(b) This gymnast will generate a lot of heat while she is on the beam.

Describe and explain how changes in blood flow in the skin will help her to control her 
body temperature. (4)

1. more blood flows near the skin surface;


2. due to vasodilation / dilation of arterioles;
3. vasoconstrictionof shunt vessels;
4. more blood to capillaries;
5. idea of more heat lost ;
6. via radiation ;

(c) Gymnasts can damage their cruciate ligaments. This is an injury that can be repaired
using keyhole surgery.

(i) Explain what is meant by the term cruciate ligament. (2)

1. in the knee / behind the knee cap /cross- shaped / twoligaments ;


2. connective tissue that connects bone to bone / eq ;
(ii) A gymnast was offered keyhole surgery to repair her damaged cruciate
ligament.
Suggest and explain two reasons why she might choose this type of surgery. (2)

1. smaller incision reduces chance of infection / eq ;


2. smaller incision reduces recovery time ;
3. smaller incision reduces likelihood of osteoarthritis /knee joint replacement later / eq ;
4. smaller incision so less scar tissue ;
5. smaller incision so less blood loss;
6. smaller incision so less pain;
7. use of local anaesthetic means less associated risk;
8.idea of cheaper related to fewer staff needed ;

6 Some organisms have been genetically modified to produce proteins including 
hormones and vaccines.
The flow diagram below shows part of a process to produce a protein, using genetically 
modified plants

(a) Describe and explain the role of the enzymes involved in stage 1. (5)

1. restriction enzyme / endonuclease ;


2. to cut gene out of animal DNA ;
3. amplification using DNA polymerase in PCR ;
4. enzymes open plasmid ;
5. same endonuclease to produce ‘sticky ends’ /description / atselected base sequence ;
6. H bonds formed between bases at ‘sticky ends’ ;
7. ligase ;
8. to join gene to plasmid ;
9. phosphodiester bond ;
(b) Describe the structure of the modified plasmid used in stage 2. (2)

1. smallcircleof DNA ;
2. containing bacterial survival genes and protein / animalgene ;
3. marker gene / description given ;

(c) Suggest why plants rather than bacteria are used to produce the protein in stage 3. 
(2)

1. idea of easier to manage growth e.g. do not need sterileconditions ;


2. it is safer than bacteria ;
3. more protein can be made ;
4. bacteria may not have correct amino acids to make protein ;
5. it could produce edible drugs ;
6. plants have introns/bacteria do not so gene doesnot need modifying ;
7. it is cheaper ;

(d) Describe two risks associated with the use of genetically modified organisms. (2)

1. gene transfer to other species ;


2. consequence of transfer e.g. resistance to pesticide /antibiotics, superweeds ;
3. possible harmful effects from genese.g. biochemical changes to substances that couldactas
allergens, long term effects of consuming ;
4. benefit focused on developed countries / converse ;
5. risk related to use of viral vectors ;
6. effect on organic farmers ;
17 June 2013/ 6BI05/ 07

1 Rod cells in the eye are linked to the brain by neurones.

(a) Place a cross in the box to identify the answer that correctly completes each 
statement.

(i) The pigment in a rod cell is made of opsin and (1)
B retinal

(ii) When light stimulates a rod cell the pigment changes. This pigment is (1)
D rhodopsin

(iii) Once the pigment has changed, the concentration of sodium ions inside the rod cell 
(1)
A decreases

(iv) After changing, the pigment takes time to become functional again. This is because
D two components have to be rejoined

(v) The cell that links a rod cell to a sensory neurone is (1)
A a bipolar neurone

(b) Decreasing the intensity of light entering the eye causes pupil dilation. Describe the 
roles of the circular and radial muscles in pupil dilation. (2)

1. muscleswork antagonistically ;
2. circular muscle relaxes ;
3. radial muscle contracts;

2 There are various ways of investigating brain structure and function.
(a) Compare the use of computed tomography (CT) with magnetic resonance imaging 
(MRI) for studying brain structure. (3)

1. comparative image clarity / image resolution higher in MRI & lower in CT / MRI offers more
detail ;

2. CT therefore can only identify larger / mainstructures &MRI can identify smaller structures
;

3. Reference to tissue identified ;


4. MRI uses radio waves / magnetic field, CT usesX-rays;
5.both give 2D / 3D images ;
6. limitation of MRI or CT / MRI-noisy, need to keep still, not so good for people with metal
implants, pacemakers & CT ref to safety aspects of X-rays;

7. images for both are at one point in time ;


8. comparative cost of use/ MRI more expensive than CT ;
(b) Suggest why functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is considered better
than CT for studying brain function. (2)

1. view brain activity directly / MRI identifies active areas by greater blood flow, greater
oxygen uptake, presence of more oxyhaemoglobin in these areas ;

2. see brain activity over a period of time / see in real time such as fMRI takes up to 4 images
a second or moving image, CT is still image ;

3. safer as does not use X rays ;


4. no need to use special dyes ;

(c) The diagrams below show two MRI scans of the brain of a patient with a tumour. 
Scan 1 was taken before treatment was carried out, and scan 2 after treatment

(i) Suggest why the tumour appeared white in the scans. (2)

1. tumour tissue differs from brain tissue / relative densities, tumour


growing / dividing / mutated cells ;
2. detail of effect on scan e.g. energy source / magnetic field / radio waves absorbed /
blocked ;

3. difference in blood supply ;

(ii) Using the information in the diagrams, describe the effect of the treatment on this 
tumour. (2)
1. Idea that treatment has been partially successful ;
2. tumour reduced ;
3. reduction qualified e.g. in contact with less brain tissue or affecting less brain tissue
halved in size;
(iii) Using the information in the diagrams, suggest two brain functions that may have 
improved after treatment. Give a reason for your answer. (3)

1&2. functions e.g. think, learn, show emotions, memory, personality, reasoning
decision making, problem solving, planning, intelligence, controls voluntary behaviour,
forming associations (combining information from rest of cortex)

3. Because tumour is situated in the frontal lobe / cerebral hemispheres / cerebrum / frontal
cortex

3 Respiration is a metabolic process which consists of many steps.
(a) The diagram below shows a metabolic process consisting of three steps. Each letter 
represents a different substance and each number a different enzyme.

Describe and explain the functions of enzymes in this metabolic process. (4)

1.an enzyme converts a named substrate into named product e.g. enzyme 1 converts
P to Q ;
2. this product becomes the substrate of next step ;
3. idea of specificity ; e.g. active site of enzyme 1 only accepts substance P or in context of
named respiratory intermediate
4. controls / regulates the conversion ;
5. speeds up/ catalysis the conversion ;
6. by reducing activation energy ;
7. credit reference to control of whole process / end product inhibition ;

(b) The diagram below shows the electron transport chain, which is part of aerobic 
respiration.

(i) Using the information in the diagram, name substance W and explain how it is 
formed. (3) 

1. W = {NAD / NAD+ / NADox ;


2. due to reduced NAD releasing electrons / Releasing hydrogen atoms, H+/protons ;
3. electrons go to carrier A / ETC ;
4. H+ moved into inter-membranal space ;
(ii) Name substance X.
Explain the link between the formation of substance X and the H+ shown on the 
diagram. (3)

1. substance X is ATP ;
2. due to H+ pass through stalked particle / ATP synthase ;
3. H+ passes down an electrochemical gradient ;
4. sufficient energy is released ;
5. to join ADP and Pi / phosphorylation of ADP ;
6. chemiosmosis ;

(c) The diagram below shows a respirometer used to measure the rate of aerobic 
respiration in small organisms.

Potassium hydroxide absorbs carbon dioxide. The table below describes three different 
situations.
Place a cross in the box that correctly shows the movement of the coloured liquid in the 
U­shaped tube for each situation. (3)
4 Skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle have some of the same proteins.
(a) Some of these proteins found in cardiac muscle are shown in the chart below.

(i) Using the chart, name the protein that makes up each of the two types of filament. (2)

1. protein in thin filament - actin / G actin ;


2. protein in thick filament - myosin ;

(ii) Describe the interaction between troponin and tropomyosin when a skeletal muscle 
fibre contracts. (2)

1. Ca2+ / calcium ions} bind to troponin ;


2. troponin changes shape / moves ;
3. this displaces tropomyosin away from myosin;

(iii) In the chart, some of the other proteins are neurotransmitter receptors. These are 
found on the cell surface membrane of cardiac muscle cells in the sinoatrial node 
(SAN).
Suggest one neurotransmitter substance that might bind to these receptors. (1)

acetylcholine / noradrenaline / norepinephrine ;


(b) Troponin T is found in cardiac muscle cells. It can leak into the blood if the heart
is damaged as a result of cardiovascular disease.
Testing for troponin T in blood can be used to study patients with damaged
hearts.
The table below shows the concentration of troponin T in the blood of patients.
The table also shows the mean number of days in hospital and the range of stay.

Using the information in the table suggest what prediction a doctor could make
and comment on the reliability of this prediction for patients with damaged
hearts.(3)

1. the higher troponin T, the longer the stay ;


2. reliability of prediction decreases as troponin T concentration increases ;
3. because rangeincreases ;
4. least reliable for 6.0+ as range is largest ;
5. one range stated e.g. for 6.0+ it is 7 to 11 days ;
6. reference to range overlapping between 4.0-5.9and 6.0+ ;
7. 6.0+ is too wide a category for conc. Of troponin T ;
8. the higher the troponin T, the greater the damage to the heart ;

5 The diagram below shows a sensory neurone.

(a) Name the structures labelled A and B. (2)

A - cell body ;
B - axon ;

(b) Eugenol is a drug that inhibits the movement of sodium ions and calcium ions 
through the cell surface membranes of sensory neurones.
The graph below shows the effect of eugenol concentration on the percentage inhibition
of sodium ion movement.
(i) Describe the relationship between the concentration of eugenol and the percentage 
inhibition of sodium ion movement. (2)

1. increasing Eugenol concentration increasespercentage inhibition / positive correlation ;


2. description of non linear correlation ;
3. credit correct manipulation of the data e.g.between 0.1 and 1.0 mmol dm3
percentageinhibition to increase by 55% ;

*(ii) Eugenol can be used to reduce pain.
Suggest an explanation for how eugenol affects the movement of calcium ions and 
reduces pain. (6)

1. reduced Ca2+ enters presynapticmembrane / into sensory neurone ;


2. due to Ca2+ channel not opening / decreasedsensitivity of membrane to Ca2+ ;
3. fewer vesicles move towards / fuse withpresynaptic membrane ;
4. less neurotransmitter released into / lessdiffuses across synaptic gap;
5. less neurotransmitter binds to receptors onpost‐synaptic membrane / adjacentneurone;
6. reduced depolarisation / less Na+ orcation channels open ;
7. threshold intensity / actionpotential / impulseless likely to occur ;
8. pain not being sensed as impulsestopped before entering CNS / leaving thesensoryneurone;

6 IAA (auxin) is a plant growth substance.
(a) A student investigated the effect of natural IAA and artificial IAA on shoot growth. 
The diagram below shows how she set up her investigation.

(i) The student also set up a control. Describe a suitable control for this investigation. (1)

cut shoot without IAA present / without agar blocks ;


agar block with no IAA, empty agar block, agar block with water ;

(ii) After 48 hours, the student recorded her observations of the growth of the
shoots.
From her observations, she concluded that both natural and artificial IAA affected 
growth. She also concluded that the artificial IAA had a greater effect than the natural 
IAA.

Suggest what she recorded and explain how the IAA in the agar affected the growth of 
the shoot. (5)

1. both sides of shoot taller ;


2. than the control ;
3. both IAA’s diffuse down / out of agar / to zone of elongation;
4. reference to cell elongation;
5. details of cell elongation;
6. shoot bends to the right;
7. due to more growth on left side of shoot / side with artificial IAA;

(b) IAA is known to bind to transcription factors.
Suggest how IAA can stimulate cells to synthesise proteins. (4)

1. IAA enters the cell ;


2. reference to movement within cell / IAA in cytoplasm to nucleus ;
3. effect when binds to transcription factor e.g. forms a transcription initiation complex or
countering an inhibitor ;
4. reference to switching on gene ;
5. activity at promoter region ;
6. allows formation of (m)RNA ;
7. translation produces protein ;
17 January 2014/ WBI05/ 08

1 Muscles, tendons and the skeleton all interact when the leg of a human moves.

(a) Place a cross in the box that completes each statement about skeletal muscles.

(i) The diagram below shows part of a muscle fibre. (1)

The label that shows a sarcomere is
C

(ii) When a muscle contracts, the length of a sarcomere  (1)
B decreases

(iii) In the diagram below, tropomyosin is found in (1)

(iv) The sarcoplasmic reticulum releases ions that bind to troponin. These ions are (1)
A calcium ;

(v) The thin filament in a muscle fibre is (1)
A actin ;

(vi) Slow twitch muscle fibres have (1)

B more myoglobin than fast twitch fibres

(b) Explain why tendons need to be inelastic. (3)
1. tendons attach muscle to bone ;
2. do not stretch when muscle contracts / all force transferred to bone ;
3. so bone/ skeleton is moved ;

2 The zebrafish is a tropical freshwater fish that has been genetically modified. The 
photograph below shows a zebrafish.

(a) The transcription factor known as Sp2 has been studied. In this study, a gene from 
red coral cells was added to the genome of the zebrafish.

The gene from red coral cells produces a red protein when the synthesis of Sp2 also 
occurs.

(i) Explain what is meant by the term transcription factor. (2)

1. protein / hormone ;
2. regulates / switch on / activates / binds to promoter region ;
3. a gene / allele / mRNA synthesis ;

(ii) Suggest how this gene is removed from the red coral cells and then added to the 
zebrafish genome. (3)

1. reference to restriction enzyme ;


2. gene is removed from DNA ;
3. a vector is needed e.g. virus used / micro pipetteinjection, gene gun,microprojectile,
liposome, plasmid ;
4. gene incorporated into DNA /genome of zebrafish ;
5. credit named enzyme used to incorporate gene e.g. ligase ;

(b) Genetically modified zebrafish, in a variety of bright colours, can be bought from
some pet shops.

The colour of the zebrafish depends on which gene has been added to its genome.

Suggest one potential risk to other organisms in a river ecosystem if a genetically 
modified zebrafish escaped into this river. (1)

effect on native populations of zebrafish e.g. transfer of added gene, competition, reduction
of population ;

(c) The optimum temperature range for zebrafish to survive is 17–29°C.
An investigation was carried out to study the effect of water temperature on the survival 
of both genetically modified zebrafish and non­genetically modified zebrafish. The 
results are shown in the table below.

(i) These results suggest that there would be less risk to the environment if zebrafish 
with the gene for the red protein escaped into a cold water river compared with non­
genetically modified zebrafish.
Using the information in the table, give the evidence for this. (1)

GM fish / fish with gene for red protein less likely to survive at lower temperature ;

(ii) These results also suggest that there may be no difference in the lowest temperature
for survival of the zebrafish with the gene for the green protein and the non­genetically 
modified zebrafish.
Using the information in the table, give the evidence for this. (2)

1.difference between the mean / lowest temperatures of the two types is small ;
2. the SD shows an overlap ;
3. credit manipulation of figures e.g. difference in means is 1.10C /SD based on using non‐GM
0 to 6.6 0C and green 5.1 to 7.70C / some of the greens can survive0.20C below the mean for
non‐GM

3 Activities such as exercise can affect both the heart rate and breathing rate of 
humans.
(a) Heart rate can be measured using an electrocardiogram (ECG).

Explain what is meant by the term electrocardiogram. (2)

1. it shows waves / heart rate / heart rhythm ;


2. these are waves of electrical activity in the heart / skin ;
3. over a period of time / during cardiac cycle ;

(b) A spirometer trace can be used to find the resting breathing rate in humans.
Explain how a spirometer trace can be used to calculate the mean resting breathing rate
of a person. (3)
1. one breath is peak to peak or trough to trough ;
2. count the number of peaks or troughs in a set time ;
3. number per minute ;
4. repetition to obtain a mean or improve reliability ;

(c) The atmosphere near a volcano has a high concentration of carbon dioxide. This can
lead to an increase in the breathing rate of people walking near a volcano. The 
photograph below shows two people walking near a volcano.

*(i) Explain how the atmosphere near a volcano can lead to an increase in breathing 
rate. (5)

1. concentration of carbon dioxide in the alveoli / lung is higher ;


2. concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood is higher ;
3. pH of blood falls due to increased CO2) ;
4. CO2 / pH levels in blood detected by chemoreceptors ;
5. in carotid body / carotid artery / aortic body / aorta ;
6. reference to ventilation / respiratory centre ;
7. control is in medulla ;
8. sends more impulses along neurones / nerves ;
9. to intercostals muscles / diaphragm ;

(ii) Suggest how an increase in breathing rate can help to reduce the concentration of 
carbon dioxide in a person walking away from a volcano. (3)

1. inhaled air has a lower CO2 ;


2. the CO2 concentration in blood is higher than in the alveoli / lungs ;
3. so CO2 moving down concentration gradient / out of blood ;
4. CO2 lost to atmosphere through exhaling / breathing / ventilation ;

4 Weisel and Hubel studied the development of vision during the critical window
(critical period) of various mammals.

(a) In one investigation, kittens were used.
(i) Suggest why kittens were used to study the development of vision in humans. (1)

kittens visual system / visual cortex / vision development / brain is similar to humans
OR
{less / un} ethical to use human babies ;

(ii) Suggest why the kittens used were all from one set of parents. (1)
reducing genetic variation ;
(b) A kitten had its right eye covered for the first seven weeks after birth. The right eye 
was then uncovered. The left eye was not covered. After seven weeks the visual cortex 
of this kitten was studied.
(i) Describe what happens to the visual pigment in a rod cell when stimulated by light. 
(2)

1. rhodopsin splits / bleaches / breakdown ;


2. into opsin and trans‐retinal ;
3. a change in shape of retinal / cis‐retinal into transretinal ;

(ii) Explain what happens to the visual cortex when the right eye of this kitten is covered 
for the first seven weeks after birth. (3)

1.lack of stimulus/light in right eye meant that fewer impulses / less firing to visual cortex /
target cells / ocular columns ;

2. less neurotransmitter released ;


3. synapses weakened / lost / destroyed / inactive ;
4. neurones for right eye lost ;
5. neurones for left eye develop ;
6. cell / ocular columns smaller for right eye / larger for left eye ;

(c) Give one reason why some people believe that it is ethically unacceptable to use 
kittens in medical research. (1)

will feel pain / cruel / animals have rights / not given their consent / causes {damage / harm /
blindness / stress ;

5 A neurone is a cell that has a potential difference across its cell surface membrane. 
This potential difference changes when a neurone is stimulated.

(a) The potential difference across the membrane of a neurone was investigated
before and after stimulation. The table below shows the results of this investigation.

(i) Place a cross in the box that completes the following statement.
The resting potential for this neurone is (1)
B ‐ 70 mV ;
(ii) Using the information in the table, describe the changes in the potential difference 
from 1.00 ms to 1.50 ms.(2)

1. idea that pd changes from negative to positive ;


2. by 100 mV ;

(iii) Suggest an explanation for the change in potential difference across the membrane 
between 1.00 ms and 1.50 ms.(5)

1. permeability of membrane to Na+ increases ;


2. Na+ channels / gates open ;
3. detail of channels e.g. voltage‐gated / voltage‐dependent channels, activation gate opened
4. Na+ move into neurone ;
5. through diffusion / down the concentration gradient ;
6. stimulates more Na+ channels to open / ref to positive feedback ;
7. pd is positive because of excess Na+ inside neurone ;

(b) This neurone was given a second stimulus at 1.50 ms.
This had no effect on the changes in the potential difference shown in the table.

Suggest reasons why the second stimulus had no effect on the changes in the potential 
difference. (2)

1. second stimulus is occurring during the action potential ;


2. the neurone has not reached the resting potential ;
3. sodium ion channels closed ;

6 Serotonin is a neurotransmitter found in the human brain. A reduced level of this 
neurotransmitter has been linked to depression.

(a) Explain what is meant by the term neurotransmitter. (2)

1. it comes from pre‐synaptic neurone e.g. from vesicles that bind to pre‐synaptic membrane
2. it diffuses across the synaptic gap ;
3. it affects post‐synaptic neurone / membrane ;

 (b) A serotonin selective reabsorption inhibitor (SSRI) may be given to patients to
reduce depression.
Suggest how this helps to reduce depression. (2)

1. serotonin not reabsorbed OR SSRI binds to reuptake proteins ;


2. reference to synapse / synaptic cleft ;
3. there is a high level of serotonin ;
4. serotonin continues to have an effect e.g. serotonin continues to bind to receptors in post‐
synaptic membrane ;
(c) An investigation was carried out to study habituation in a group of people. Each 
person wore a pair of headphones through which a short sound was played once. This 
sound made each person blink their eyes.

The degree of contraction of one muscle involved in blinking was recorded. The mean 
degree of muscle contraction was calculated for the group.

This was repeated with the sound played 5 times, 10 times, 15 times and 20 times. The 
mean results for the group were recorded. The results are shown in the graph below.

(i) Suggest an explanation for the change in the mean degree of muscle contraction. (3)

1. mean degree of muscle contraction decreases ;


2. Calcium ion channels are less responsive ;
3. in sensory neurone ;
4. fewer Ca2+ taken up ;
5. less neurotransmitter released ;
6. fewer impulses in motor neurone or to muscle ;

(ii) Describe how this investigation could be extended to obtain valid and reliable data 
on how the volume of the sound could affect habituation. (4)

1. different volume(s) used ;


2. muscle contraction is measured for each number of times the volume was repeated ;
3. same type of sound ;
4. control of one other abiotic variable e.g other noise , temperature, rest period, interval
between trials ;
5. control of volunteers e.g. same age, gender, hearing ability ;

20 June 2014/ WBI05/ 09


1 Muscles are important in the movement of the body.
(a) Place a cross in the box that completes each of the following statements.

(i) Muscles are attached to bones by (1)
D tendons

(ii) The diagram below shows a cross section through a muscle containing
fast twitch and slow twitch fibres. The fast twitch fibres have been stained darker than 
the slow twitch fibres.

The ratio of fast twitch fibres to slow twitch fibres in this section of muscle is (1)
D 3:1

(iii) Fast twitch muscle fibres have (1)
A few mitochondria and few capillaries

(iv) The electron micrograph below shows a section through muscle tissue.

The number of myofibrils in this section is (1)
B three

(v) The diagram below shows a sarcomere with regions labelled P, Q and R.

Actin is found in the region labelled (1)
C P and Q

(b) Explain how the size of the pupil is changed when the eye is exposed to dim light. 
(3)
1. radial muscles of iris contract ;
2. circular muscles of irisrelax ;
3. pupil increases / widens / dilates ;

2 The diagram below shows the apparatus that could be used to measure the 
respiration rate of a rat.

*(a) Describe how this apparatus could be used to make a valid comparison of the 
respiration rates of male and female rats. (6)

1. several / lots / manymale and female rats / same male and female rat used more than
once, calculation of mean for male and female rats

2. rats are same age / same mass / same species / same health / same pretreatment ;

3. measuring change in volume / height / level / distance movedof coloured water


4. left for set stated time ;

5. description of how rate is obtained e.g. volume / height / distance moved ÷ time / per
minute ;

6. carbon dioxide absorber named e.g. sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, soda lime ;

7. syringe used to reset coloured water for repeats ;


8. controlling temperature e.g. use of waterbath ;

(b) A systematic error would occur if the substance used to absorb carbon dioxide failed
to work. Explain how this would affect the results obtained. (2)

1. cannot measure volume of oxygen used / rate of respiration / uptake of oxygen / no


movement of coloured water ;

2. because volume of oxygen used = volume of carbon dioxide produced / no change in


volume / pressure ;
3 The brain is a part of the nervous system involved in the control and coordination of
the body.
(a) Place a cross in the box that completes the following statement. The part of the brain
that has nervous control of the heartbeat is the (1)
D medulla oblongata

(b) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to study brain structure. The MRI 
scan below shows a human brain with a tumour.

(i) State the part of the brain in which the tumour has grown. (1)

cerebral hemisphere / cerebrum / frontal lobe / frontal cortex / forebrain / temporal lobe ;

(ii) Suggest the advantages of using MRI scanning to identify tumours, compared with 
using CT scanning. (3)

1. better resolution ;
2. more / greater detail seen e.g. smaller parts seen, finer detail ;
3. no use of X rays ;
4. idea of safer e.g. less risk of cell damage, mutation ;
5. therefore can use more often / less harmful, less dangerous, use on pregnant women ;

(c) Dopamine is a neurotransmitter in the brain. The function of dopamine is affected by 
caffeine. Caffeine slows down the rate of dopamine reabsorption.
Suggest how caffeine might slow down the rate of dopamine reabsorption. (3)

1. caffeine binds / blocks ;


2. channel / reuptake proteins ;
3. reference to presynaptic membrane / knob ;

(d) A selective serotonin re­uptake inhibitor (SSRI) is a drug that reduces depression
by inhibiting the reabsorption of serotonin.

Extracts of the plant St John’s wort have been used to treat depression.
A double blind trial compared the effectiveness of treating depression using a SSRI, an 
extract of St John’s wort, and a placebo.
Depression was measured using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD).
The higher the HRSD score the greater the depression. The table below shows the 
results of this trial.

(i) State what is meant by the term double blind. (1)

neither patients nor {doctors / scientists / eq} know which treatment the patients were given
/ eq ;

(ii) Using the information in the table, compare the effectiveness of these three 
treatments for depression. (2)

1. idea that SSRI works best / e.g. St. John’s wort and placebo less effective, St John’s
wort and placebo work but not as well SSRI ; ;
2. placebo works faster than SJW / SJW and placebo effect {wear off
/ level / end at 12 / same final score / fall then rise / eq} ;
3. credit comparative manipulation of figures to support Mp1 / e.g. for SSRI HRSD score
decrease 6 units more than SJW ;

(iii) Double blind trials give scientists confidence in the results collected.
Suggest two other ways in which this trial should have been designed, in order to 
increase confidence in the results. (2)

1. idea of more patients e.g. increase sample size, large number of


patients, repeat the trial / eq ;
2. idea of use of statistical analysis ;
3. (sample selection) same age / gender / ethnicity / lifestyle /
health / eq ;
4. idea of extending time of trial e.g. beyond 8 weeks ;

4 Exercise and training programmes affect athletic performance and health.
(a) The table below shows cardiovascular measurements for a person before and after 
training and for a marathon runner.
(i) Calculate the cardiac output in dm3 per minute of the marathon runner at rest. Show 
your working. (2)

36 x 128 OR 4608 ;
4.608 / 4.6 / 4.61 ;

(ii) Training improves the performance of marathon runners.
Explain how the information in the table supports this statement. (2)

1. lower resting heart rate means more potential to reach maximum heart rate ;
2. higher stroke volume / cardiac output means more blood / oxygen / glucose delivered ;
3. aerobic respiration / less anaerobic respiration / less lactate produced / less
oxygen debt ;

(iii) Using the data in the table and your own knowledge, explain how training would 
increase the rate of oxidative phosphorylation in muscle cells during exercise. (5)

1. increased oxygen supply ;


2. oxygen is electron / hydrogen ion / proton acceptor ;
3. to form water ;
4. increased glucose supply ;
5. reduced coenzyme produced e.g. reduced NAD, reduced FAD ;
6. electron transport chain eg. idea of electrons passed along carriers ;

7. proton gradient electrochemical gradient / concentration gradient / chemiosmosis


produced e.g. hydrogen ions moved to intermembrane space ;

8. phosphorylation of ADP e.g. ADP combines with P(i) ;

(b) The development of type 2 diabetes may be linked to lack of exercise.The graph 
below shows the effect of exercise on the incidence of type 2 diabetesin two groups of 
men.

Men at low risk had no family history of developing type 2 diabetes. Men at highrisk had 
a family history of developing type 2 diabetes.The men were grouped according to their 
level of exercise per week.
Using the information in the graph and your knowledge of correlation and causation, 
discuss the relationship between the incidence of type 2 diabetes and the level of 
weekly exercise. (4)

1. for high risk an increase in exercise reduces incidence of type 2 diabetes / high risk
= family history low risk = no family history ;

2. for low risk an increase in exercise has no effect on incidence of type 2 diabetes;
3. reference to correlation ;

4. a causal relationship is shown by the high risk group and level of exercise / not shown by
the low risk group and level of exercise;

5.other factors may cause type 2 diabetes e.g. genes, obesity, diet, age, ethnicity;

5 The nervous system contains myelinated and unmyelinated neurones.
(a) The diagram below shows a myelinated sensory neurone.

Give one feature, shown in the diagram, that identifies this cell as a sensory neurone. 
(1)
cell body / centron in middle ;dendrites at both ends

(b) The table below shows the conduction velocity of a nerve impulse along myelinated 
and unmyelinated neurones of different diameters.

Using the information in the table, compare the axon diameter and conduction velocity 
of these neurones. (3)

1. it increases with increasing axon diameter ;


2. at 1 µm the conduction velocity is the same ;
3. greater change in velocity with myelinated neurones / eq ;
4. correct manipulation of comparative figures e.g. at 5 µm velocity is 5 times faster
with myelinated increase with myelinated is 22.8 ms-1 and 2.8 ms-1 in unmyelinated ;

(c) Explain why myelination affects the conduction velocity of a nerve impulse along an 
axon.(5)

1. Schwann cells cover the axon ;


2. myelin / Schwann cells provide insulation ;
3. action potential / depolarisationat nodes of Ranvier;
4. local currents occur over a longer distance ;
5. reference to saltatory conduction;
6. impulse jumps from node to node;

(d) Acetylcholine is broken down by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Sarin is a 
chemical that inhibits this enzyme. 
Suggest the effect that sarin has on the transmission of nerve impulses. (3)

1. acetylcholine not broken down / remains / accumulates ;


2. acetylcholine binds to receptor ;
3. in post-synaptic membrane ;
4. action potential described e.g. opening of voltage gated channels, sodium ion channels,
sodium ions move into post- synaptic neurone, depolarisation of post-synaptic
membrane then excitatory post-synaptic potential ;

5. action potentials / impulses / transmission increase / continue increase frequency


of action potentials ;
6 Plants are able to detect light and respond to environmental cues.
(a) In an investigation, plants were exposed to five different periods of light and dark. 
The production of flowers by these plants was recorded. The table below shows the 
results of this investigation.

(i) Place a cross in the box that completes the following statement.
Flower production in these plants is stimulated when there is (1)
A less than 9 hours of light

(ii) Suggest how different periods of light and dark could stimulate these plants to flower.
(3)

1. reference to photoreceptors;
2. light / red light converts PR to PFR & dark / far red converts PFR to PR ;
3. flower when P in low concentration / flower when P in high concentration / these
FR R

plants are short day plants ;


4. reference to plant growth substances / produce florigen, named PGS ;

(b) When a plant shoot is illuminated from one side, it grows towards the light.
Place a cross in the box that completes each of the following statements.

(i) The substance involved in this response is (1)
B IAA

(ii) The substance produced in this response (1)
C moves away from the illuminated side
15 January 2015/ WBI05/ 10

1 Organisms need to coordinate responses to changes in their environment.The 
mechanism of coordination in animals can be nervous or hormonal.

(a) Place a cross in the box next to the answer that correctly compares nervous 
coordination with hormonal coordination. (1)
B nervous coordination is faster and lasts for a shorter time

(b) The response to light in humans involves rod cells as receptors.

(i) Place a cross in the box below the diagram that shows the direction light takes when 
it stimulates a rod cell. (1)

D
(ii) Place a cross in the box next to the part of the rod cell that contains rhodopsin. (1)

A
(iii) Place a cross in the box next to the description of what happens when a molecule of
rhodopsin is bleached by light. (1)
D cis-retinal changes to trans-retinal

(iv) Bleaching of rhodopsin leads to hyperpolarisation of the rod cell membrane.
Place a cross in the box next to the description of what happens during 
hyperpolarisation. (1)
B sodium ion channels close while the sodium ion pump continues to work

(c) Coordination in plants involves IAA (auxin). In an experiment, 25 mm lengths of stem
were cut and placed in five dishes.
A different concentration of IAA was added to each dish. The dishes were left for 24 
hours and the mean increase in stem length was recorded. The results are shown in the
table below.

(i) Use the information in the table to describe the effect of IAA concentration on the 
mean increase in stem length. (2)

1. increased elongation as IAA concentration increases ;


2. elongation with no IAA more than 0.01 IAA / IAA inhibits at 0.01 concentration ;

(ii) Suggest one other variable that needs to be controlled in this experiment. (1)

1. temperature ;
2. light ;
3. species of stem / age of stem /plant / seedling / variety ;
4. volume of IAA solution ;
5. pH ;

(iii) It is important that the calculated means are reliable.
Using the information in the table, state the mean result that is the least reliable. Give a 
reason for your answer. (1)

dish 4 because it has the greatest range / standard deviation / ± 4.0 is larger than others ;

2 The diagram below shows a spirometer that can be used to measure lung volumes.
A spirometer can also be used to measure the volume of oxygen a person uses.
(a) A student used a spirometer to measure the volume of oxygen he used at rest and 
during exercise.
The spirometer trace below shows the results he obtained during exercise.

(i) The line P to Q slopes downwards because oxygen is being used.
Use the line, labelled P to Q on the trace, to calculate the volume of oxygen used during
one minute of exercise. (1)

0.40 to 0.42 dm3 (min-1) ;

(ii) The student had a body mass of 70 kg. Calculate the rate of oxygen used by this 
student in dm3 kg−1 h−1.
Show your working. (2)

1. ÷ 70 x 60 / x 60 ÷ 70 ;
2. 0.34 to 0.36 ;

(iii) Suggest two differences between this spirometer trace and the one the student 
obtained at rest. (2)

1. more peaks / peaks closer together ;


2. higher / longer peaks ;
3. steeper slope / more oxygen used ;

(b) (i) The air the student exhaled passed through the carbon dioxide absorber in
the spirometer. Name a carbon dioxide absorber. (1)

soda lime / sodium hydroxide / NaOH / potassium hydroxide / KOH ;


(ii) Explain why the spirometer trace would be different if the carbon dioxide had not 
been absorbed. (2)

1. no downward slope / no change in volume ;


2. exhaled carbon dioxide equals consumed oxygen ;
OR
3. tidal volumes / breathing rate / height of peaks increase ;
4. due to increase in carbon dioxide concentration ;

(c) Explain how carbon dioxide is involved in the control of breathing rate during 
exercise. (4)

1. carbon dioxide increase in blood / plasma;


2. fall in blood / plasma pH ;
3. chemoreceptors ;
4. reference to medulla / carotid bodies / aortic bodies ;
5. impulses sent ;
6. reference to ventilation centre / respiratory centre ;
7. intercostal muscles / diaphragm ;
8. increased breathing rate / increased depth of breathing;

3 Nerve impulses are transmitted along the axon of a neurone.
(a) The diagram below shows the structure of a motor neurone.

(i) Place a cross in the box next to the part of the neurone labelled T. (1)
B node of Ranvier

(ii) The graph below shows changes in the membrane potential during the transmission 
of an impulse along the axon of a motor neurone.
Place a cross in the box next to the description of the membrane potential at 0.75 ms on
the graph. (1)
A depolarized

(iii) Explain how the structure of this motor neurone affects the speed of the impulse 
along the axon. (2)

1. reference to myelination ;
2. saltatory conduction / impulse jumps from node to node ;
3. this increases speed / conduction velocity of the impulse ;

(b) The photograph shows a golden poison frog (Phyllobatesterribilis).

The skin of this frog produces a poison that affects sodium ion channels in the axon 
membrane of a neurone. The poison causes these channels to stay open.

(i) Explain the effect the poison has on the ability of a neurone to transmit impulses. (4)

1. impulses cannot be transmitted / action potentials not possible ;


2. sodium ions move / diffuse into axon / neurone ;
3. down a concentration gradient ;
4. neurone is depolarised ;
5. epolarisation is permanent ;
6. resting potential cannot be re-established ;

(ii) Suggest why the neurones of the golden poison frog are not affected if they come 
into contact with the poison. (2)

1. ion channel / channel protein is different ;


2. poison cannot bind ;
3. poison metabolised / broken down ;
4 Exercise is important for human health.
The graph below shows how level of exercise changes the risk of death in young and 
old people.

(a) Use the information in the graph to describe the effect of level of exercise on the 
percentage risk of death. (3)

1. risk of death decreases with increasing exercise for old and young until 70;
2. greater decrease with old people ;
3. old at more risk at each leveluntil 80;
4. risk of death is the same at 80 / highest level of exercise ;
5. at more than 70 / 70 to 80 of exercise no change in the risk of death in the young ;
6. at very high levels of exercise older are at less risk than less active young ones ;

(b) State the effect of exercise on each of the following.
(i) The risk of having diabetes and being obese. (1)

exercise decreases the risk / eq ;

(ii) The immune system. (1)

1. low intensity reduces immunity ;


2. moderate intensity increases immunity ;
3. high intensity reduces immunity ;

(c) Exercise has an effect on the risk of having coronary heart disease (CHD). In people
with CHD the heart muscle cells receive less oxygen.
*(i) Describe how heart muscle cells make ATP when less oxygen is available. (6)

1. anaerobic respiration ;
2. glycolysis ;
3. glucose is phosphorylated ;
4. reference to {NAD / NADH} ;
5. formation of pyruvate ;
6. net gain of 2 ATP molecules per glucose molecule ;
7. need to regenerate oxidised NAD ;
8. pyruvate converted to lactate ;

(ii) A person will suffer a pain called angina if heart muscle cells receive less oxygen.
Suggest how lack of oxygen in heart muscle cells can cause angina. (2)

1. lactate produced / lactic acid produced ;


2. stimulates pain receptors / lowers pH / damage muscle cells / fatigue in muscle cells /
enzymes inhibited / enzymes denatured ;

5 Some animals, such as spiders, bite and inject venom into their prey. The venom 
affects the transmission of nerve impulses and paralyses the prey.

In an investigation, scientists estimated the toxicity of the venom by measuring the dose
that can kill 50% of prey after injection. This dose is called the LD50.

The graph below shows the relationship between the percentage of prey killed and the 
dose of venom A and venom B.

(a) (i) Use the information in the graph to compare the toxicity of venom A and venom B.
(2)

1. venom A more toxic ;


2. LD50 value for {A / 3.6 to 3.8} is lower than LD50 value for {B / 7.2 to 7.4} / same
percentage killed at lower dose / at each dose more killed / comparative use of data ;

(ii) Place a cross in the box next to the independent variable in this investigation.
A dose of venom

(b) Two scientists, P and Q, investigated the LD50 values for the venom produced by four
species of spider. Their results are shown in the table below.
Scientist P measured the toxicity in mg kg−1 and scientist Q measured the toxicity in μg 
kg−1. One μg is equal to 0.001mg.
Name the species with the most toxic venom. (1)
P. bahiensis ;

(c) The venom from L. mactans(black widow spider) causes constant impulses to be 
sent along motor neurones. This results in cramps (constant muscle contractions), a 
symptom of a black widow spider bite.
Suggest how constant impulses along motor neurones cause cramps. (4)

1. release of calcium ions ;


2. calcium ions from sarcoplasmic reticulum ;
3. continued stimulation means high concentration of calcium ions / calcium ions remain ;
4. calcium ions bind to troponin ;
5. tropomyosin / myosin / actin / actomyosin involved in muscle contraction ;

6 The electron transport chain is involved in the synthesis of ATP.
(a) The diagram below shows part of the electron transport chain.

(i) Name the molecules P, Q and R. (3)

P – NAD+ / NAD / oxidised NAD ;


Q – oxygen / O2 / ½ O2 / O ;
R – water / H2O ;

(ii) Place a cross in the box next to the description of where the electron transport chain 
occurs. 

B inner mitochondrial membrane


(b) In 2013, poachers killed over 80 elephants in Zimbabwe by poisoning theirdrinking 
water with cyanide. Cyanide inhibits cytochrome oxidase, the last carrier in the electron 
transport chain.
Suggest how inhibiting cytochrome oxidase would kill an elephant. (4)

1. reduced carrier cannot be oxidised / oxygen cannot be used to make water / electrons
cannot be passed to oxygen / oxygen cannot be used as electron acceptor
2. transport of electrons prevented / ETC stops ;
3. ATP not made ;
4. oxidative phosphorylation ;
5. ATP only from glycolysis / anaerobic respiration ;
6. respiratory / heart muscles cannot contract ;
17 June 2015/ 6BI05/ 11

1 Humans have a nervous system that has a variety of neurones.
(a) The human brain is made up of a number of areas containing many millions of 
neurones.
Place a cross in the box that identifies the areas of the brain associated with riding a 
bicycle uphill.

(i) the decision to ride the bicycle (1)
A cerebrum

(ii) initiating an increase in sweating during the ride (1)
C hypothalamus

(b) Voltage­gated K+ and Na+ channels are involved in the transmission of impulses in
sensory and motor neurones.
(i) The table below identifies two stages in the transmission of an impulse in a sensory 
neurone.

Place a tick (9 ) in each box that correctly identifies whether the channels are open or 
closed during these two stages. (2)

(ii) The diagram below shows a myelinated motor neurone.

Place a cross in the box that labels the site where neurotransmitters bindand initiate 
depolarisation.(1)
A
(iii) Describe the differences in the structure of a myelinated sensory neurone and a 
myelinated motor neurone. (3)

In sensory neurone:

1. dendron longer;
2. dendron myelinated ;
3. axon shorter ;
4.cell body not at the end / towards the middle / to the side ;
5. reference to no motor end plate ;

2 A human heart can work effectively for over a hundred years but many people
throughout the world have heart problems.
(a) Explain how the sinoatrial node (SAN) ensures that oxygenated blood enters the 
aorta. (4)

1. initiates electrical activity over atria ;


2. causes atria to contract ;
3. forcing the oxygenated blood into the left ventricle ;
4. electrical activity from SAN {received by AVN / travels through {bundle of His /
Purkynefibres ;
5. causing left ventricle to contract forcing blood into aorta ;

*(b) The treadmill test can be used to diagnose heart problems. This test requires a 
person to walk on a treadmill whilst an electrocardiogram (ECG) is recorded.
The angle of the treadmill is raised to increase the level of exercise. The photograph 
below shows a person carrying out the treadmill test.

Explain how the heart rate of this person is controlled as the level of exercise increases 
during this test. (6)

1. increase in respiration rate in muscle cells ;


2. more CO2/carbonic acid in blood ;
3. more lactate / lactic acid in blood ;
4. chemoreceptors in medulla stimulated ;
5. ref to cardiovascular control centre in medulla ;
6. ref to autonomic nervous system /sympathetic nerve ;
7. more impulses from medulla / cardiovascular control centre to SAN ;
8. More noradrenaline / norepinephrine released onto SAN ;
9. SAN excitation rate increased ;
10.causing an increased heart rate ;
11.Comment on other mechanism e.g. presence of adrenaline, stretch receptor role;

(c) The ECG below was recorded at rest.

(i) This person had a resting heart rate of 74 beats per minute. Calculate the time taken 
for this ECG. Show your working. (2)

1 beat = 0.81 sec / 60 ÷ 74 / eq ;


8.1 seconds ;

(ii) Suggest suitable units for the vertical axis (y­axis) of this ECG. (1)
mV / millivolts ;

3 An investigation was carried out to study the effect of positive and negative physical
and emotional experiences on humans. The positive physical experience was a warm 
object placed on the arm of a person for  five seconds. The negative physical 
experience was a hot object placed on the arm of a person for five seconds. All other 
variables were kept constant.
Two groups of people were used in this investigation. In the first group, the warm object 
was used before the hot object. In the second group, the hot object was used before the
warm object.
After each experience, the individuals were asked to rate their feelings using the
scoring system below.

(a) Suggest why one group had the warm object placed on their arm before the hot 
object and the other group had the hot object placed on their arm first. (2)

1. there was no bias /sequence of procedure has no effect / to see if positive then negative
gives a different outcome to negative then positive ;
2. idea of contributes to validity ;
3. hot object desensitises / thermoreceptors not harmed /overstimulated / habituated due to
high temp;
(b) These two groups were then exposed to a positive emotional experience and a
negative emotional experience.
The mean results for the investigation are shown in the table below.

A student concluded that the physical experiences and emotional experiences
were similar.
Using information in the table, comment on the validity of this conclusion. (4)

1. conclusion is valid ;
2. because mean feelings scores similar for both ;
3. difference between positive and negative mean feelings scores are similar ;
4. SD as a measure of variation from the mean ;
5. SD similar for physical and emotional when experience is positive ;
6. overlap for positive / negative ;
7. figures used to support Mp6 e.g. for positive minimum is 4.0 for physical and maximum is
4.6 for emotional ;

(c) This investigation then used a scanning technique to study whether the same
areas of the brain were involved in both physical experiences and emotional 
experiences.

(i) Suggest the scanning technique required to study the brain in this investigation. Give 
reasons for your choice. (3)

1. fMRI ;
2. fMRI operates in real time / live images, 4 images per second ;
3. as experience will be short lived ;
4. Active areas will light up / be coloured on the image as active areas require more
oxygen/oxygenated blood ;

5. high resolution / more pixels, image is more detailed as areas involved may be small ;
6. Safer / not using X rays ;

(ii) It was found that an area of the brain called the insula was involved in both physical 
experiences and emotional experiences. The insula is found just above the 
hypothalamus.
Using the diagram below, place a cross in the box that identifies the area of the insula. 
(1)

4 An investigation was carried out to study the effect of light on the mammalian retina. 
Part of the retina of a young rat was removed and kept in the dark for two hours. This 
allowed the pigment in the rod cells to recover from bleaching caused by exposure to 
light.

(a) Suggest what happens in the rod cells during this two hours of darkness. (5)

1. opsin uncouples from the rod cell surface membrane ;


2. trans retinal converts to cis retinal ;
3. rhodopsin is reformed ;
4. from opsin and retinal ;
5. this results in dark adaptation ;
6. permeability of the cell surface membrane to Na+ increases ;
7. hyperpolarisation of cell decreases ;
8. more neurotransmitter is released ;

(b) When the retina had recovered from bleaching, the resting potential of the bipolar 
neurones in the retina was found to be –43 mV.

The retina was then exposed to a range of light intensities. Each light intensity caused 
the bipolar neurones to depolarise. The peak voltage of the depolarisation for each light 
intensity was recorded. All other variables were kept constant.

The investigation used retinas from an additional 14 rats. The mean results are shown 
in the table below.
(i) Using the information in the table, describe the effect of light intensity on the mean 
peak voltage of depolarisation. (2)

1. mean peak voltage increases as light intensity increases up to 9 AU ;


2. non linear increase / increase decreases / greatest change is mean peak voltage is
when light intensity increases from 1 to 3 ;
3. no further increase in change in mean peak voltage as light intensity increases from 9AU ;

(ii) Suggest an explanation for the effect of light intensity on the mean peak voltage of 
depolarisation in these neurones. (4)

As light intensity increases up to 9AU 
1. the greater the light intensity, the less neurotransmitter so there is binding to the neurone
present ;
2. inhibition removed e.g. more Na+ channels open, more Na+ diffuses into neurone;
3. so peak voltage of depolarisation becomes more positive ;

At high light intensities (from 9AU) : 
4. no neurotransmitter binding ;
5. sufficient Na+ enters ;
6. so action potential achieved ;

(c) Suggest two reasons why some people might have objections to the use of rats in 
this investigation. (2)

1. rats have rights ;


2. rats made blind ;
3. 15 samples may not be sufficient for a reliable investigation ;
4. rat retina may not behave like human retina so investigation has no potential medical
application ;

5 The tissues of some animals can carry out anaerobic and aerobic respiration.

(a) Three investigations were carried out to study respiration in an animal tissue,
using the apparatus shown below. The tissue used glucose as the respiratory substrate.
All other variables were kept constant.
The table below shows the three investigations that were carried out and the result for 
investigation 1.

(i) Complete the table by placing a cross in one box for each of investigations2 and 3 to 
show the response of the coloured liquid. (2)

(ii) Explain why the coloured liquid did not move in investigation 1. (3)

1. as anaerobic no O2 absorbed ;
2. no CO2 produced ;
3. so no change in volume/pressure so liquid does not move ;
4. since for each 6C glucose respired, 2x3C lactate formed ;

(iii) Reduced NAD (NADH + H+) would be formed in investigations 2 and 3. Describe the
fate of reduced NAD in aerobic respiration. (4)

1.reduced NAD from glycolysis enters mitochondria/ moves through outer mitochondrial
membrane ;
2. moves to inner membrane of mitochondrion ;
3. becomes oxidised /NAD / NAD+ ;
4. as electrons transferred to electron transport chain ;
5. fate of hydrogen ions described e.g. pumped into membrane space ;
6. NAD returns to Krebs cycle/ matrix ;

(b) Explain how investigation 3, shown in the table, could be used to compare the rate 
of respiration of two different tissues. (2)

1. same mass of each tissue ;


2. time being recorded for a set distance travelled by coloured liquid OR distance coloured
liquid travelled in a set time ;

6 A number of drugs, including EPO, have been used by athletes. EPO is a drug that 
stimulates the formation of red blood cells. EPO has been used to enhance the 
performance of certain types of athlete.
(a) Sprinters usually have more fast twitch fibres in their leg muscles than long distance 
runners.
Suggest why EPO may have less of an effect on the performance of a sprinter than on a
long distance runner. (3)

1. reduced NAD from glycolysis enters mitochondria/ moves through outer mitochondrial
membrane ;
2. moves to inner membrane of mitochondrion ;
3. becomes oxidised /NAD / NAD+ ;
4. as electrons transferred to electron transport chain ;
5. fate of hydrogen ions described e.g. pumped into membrane space ;
6. NAD returns to Krebs cycle/ matrix ;

(b) Suggest two ethical reasons why the use of drugs, such as EPO, should be banned 
from sport. (2)

1. idea of not being fair ;


2. idea of being a poor role model for youngsters ;
3. health risk to athletes / raised blood clotting risk, harmful side effects ;
4. cost to NHS / medical services of health implications ;
17 June 2015/ WBI05/ 12

1 Movement at a joint involves muscle contraction that requires a supply of ATP.
(a) The diagram below shows muscles that cause movement of bones in the leg.

Place a cross in the box next to the description of the muscles in this diagram. (1)
C the extensor muscle is relaxed and the flexor muscle is contracted

(b) The ATP needed for muscle contraction is produced by glycolysis, the Krebs cycle
and oxidative phosphorylation.
(i) Place a cross in the box next to the final product of glycolysis. (1)
D pyruvate

(ii) Place a cross in the box next to products of the Krebs cycle. (1)
D ATP, reduced NAD and reduced FAD

(iii) Place a cross in the box next to the coenzyme involved in the Krebs cycle. (1)
C NAD

(iv) Place a cross in the box next to the location of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle in a 
muscle cell. 

(v) Place a cross in the box next to the number of carbon dioxide molecules formed in 
the Krebs cycle from the oxidation of one glucose molecule. (1)
C four

(c) Muscle contraction is stimulated by neurones. The axon of a neurone requires a 
supply of ATP to maintain the resting potential.

In an investigation, the rate at which sodium ions leave a resting axon was
measured for a period of 200 minutes. At 100 minutes, a metabolic poison was added. 
This poison inhibits oxidative phosphorylation.
The graph below shows the rate at which sodium ions (Na+) left the axon during this 
investigation.

(i) Suggest how sodium ions leave the axon between 0 and 100 minutes. (2)

1. reference to active transport ;


2. using pump / carrier protein / sodium pump / sodium potassium pump ;

(ii) Suggest an explanation for the effect of the metabolic poison on the rate at which 
sodium ions leave the axon. (3)

1. rate falls ;
2. less ATP production / less phosphorylation of ADP ;
3. sodium pump inhibited ;

2 Heart rate and body temperature are controlled in mammals.
The photograph below shows a wood mouse, Apodemussylvaticus, which is a small 
mammal.

(a) (i) Place a cross in the box next to the tissue in the heart that controls resting heart 
rate. (1
D sinoatrial node

(ii) Place a cross in the box next to the term that describes what is measured by an 
electrocardiogram (ECG). (1)
C electrical activity
(iii) Name the part of the brain that controls heart rate. (1)
medulla (oblongata) / cardiovascular centre ;

(b) Suggest how the wood mouse maintains a constant body temperature when in a 
cold environment. (6)

1. receptors in the skin / hypothalamus ;


2. nerve impulses to hypothalamus / heat gain centre / thermoregulatory centre ;
3. arterioles constrict / vasoconstriction so less blood to skin / superficial capillaries or shunt
vessels dilate / widen so less blood to skin / superficial capillaries ;

4. hair erector muscles contract to trap air / insulate ;


5. less heat loss by radiation / convection ;
6. heat generated by shivering / muscle contraction / increase in metabolic rate / increase
in respiration ;

7. less sweating / inhibition of sweat glands ;


8. less heat loss by evaporation ;

3 Dopamine is a neurotransmitter involved in the stimulation of the ‘pleasure centre’ in
the brain.
The diagram below shows the release and uptake of dopamine by the presynaptic 
neurone.

*(a) Describe the events that take place at the synapse that enable transmission of a 
nerve impulse. (6)

1. impulse / action potential / wave of depolarisation arrives ;


2. calcium ion channels open / calcium ions enter neurone / knob ;
3. vesicles {fuse / bind with presynaptic membrane ;
4. neurotransmitter released into synaptic cleft by exocytosis ;
5. reference to diffusion of neurotransmitter ;
6. neurotransmitter binds to receptors in post synaptic membrane ;
7. sodium ion channels open / sodium ions enter ;

8. post synaptic membrane is depolarised / action potential initiated / impulse initiated /


wave of depolarisation initiated;
(b) Cocaine is a drug that inhibits the uptake of dopamine by the presynaptic
neurone. Suggest how cocaine can help a person to have an increased sense of 
pleasure. (3)

1. cocaine binds / attaches to the re-uptake channel / re-uptake protein / protein channel ;

2. dopamine remains / accumulates / stays / not reabsorbed in synaptic cleft ;


3. dopamine binds / attaches to receptors in postsynaptic membrane ;

4. depolarisation / action potentials / impulses in postsynaptic neurone / in the pleasure


centre ;

4 Scientists investigated the effect of age on pupil dilation of the eye. They measuredthe
pupil diameter in the dark from samples of people in different age ranges.The table 
below shows the results of this investigation.

(a) (i) Calculate the percentage difference in mean pupil diameter between the age 
ranges 20 to 29 years and 80 to 89 years. Show your working. (2)

1. 2.48 ÷ 7.33 ;
2. (x 100 =) 33.8 (%) ;

(ii) Compare the reliability of the data obtained for the age ranges 20 to 29 years and 80
to 89 years. (2)

1. more reliable for 20 to 29 years ;


2. larger sample size / comparison of numbers to indicate difference in sample size;

(iii) Explain how the standard deviation can be used to interpret data. (2)

1. SD provides information of the spread / range / variance / variation of data ;


2. small SD increases confidence in the mean / large SD decreases confidence in the mean ;
3. small SD can indicate reliability / large SD can indicate less reliability ;
4. overlap allows comparison of samples for significant difference ;

(b) Doctors use atropine drops to help diagnose problems inside the human eye. 
Atropine is a drug that dilates the pupil. Atropine works by preventing the 
neurotransmitter acetylcholine stimulating some of the muscles of the iris of the eye.
The photograph below shows a person who has had atropine drops put into one eye.

(i) Suggest why the pupil dilates when atropine is added to the eye. (3)

1. acetylcholine cannot bind to receptors ; 
2. circular muscles do not contract / circular muscles relax ; 
3. radial muscles contract ; 

(ii) Explain why drugs, such as atropine, are tested on animals before being used on 
humans. (2)

1. to find out if it worked ;


2. to find out if it was safe / check for side effects / make sure it is not toxic / establish toxic
level ;
3. to find out the best concentration / dose to use ;

5 A respirometer can be used to measure the uptake of oxygen by living organisms.
The diagram below shows a respirometer used by a student to investigate the effect of 
temperature on the rate of oxygen consumption of maggots (blowfly larvae).

(a) (i) Place a cross in the box next to the reason why oxygen consumption by maggots 
can be measured using this respirometer. (1)

D the carbon dioxide produced by the maggots is absorbed


(ii) Explain the purpose of the syringe in this investigation. (2)

1. reset / move the coloured oil ; 
2. allows collection of several measurements / repeated results / reliable results / 
valid results ; 
3. measure volume of oxygen consumed ; 

(b) The student placed the respirometer in a water bath at different temperatures. The 
table below shows the results of this investigation.

(i) During this investigation, the student found that 2.0 g of maggots consumed 4.5 cm3 
of oxygen in 20 minutes.
Use this information to calculate the temperature of the water bath most likely to 
produce this result. Show your working. (2)

1. 6.75 ;
2. 15 (oC) ;

(ii) Suggest how this investigation could be modified to find a more accurate optimum 
temperature for respiration in maggots. (1)

intervals less than 5 oC / smaller intervals between 25 oC and 35 oC ;

(c) The student did not use temperatures higher than 35°C because of the effect this 
would have on enzyme­controlled respiratory processes such as chemiosmosis. 
Explain the effect that a high temperature has on chemiosmosis. (3)

1. less ATP produced ;


2. reference to denaturation ;
3. ATPase / proton channel / stalked particles involved ;
4. less {hydrogen ion / H+ / proton transport ;
6 The photograph below shows a sea slug, Aplysia californica.

A sea slug uses a tube called a siphon to help with gas exchange. When the siphon is 
touched, it is withdrawn into the body of the sea slug. 

An investigation was carried out to compare the behaviour of a sea slug living in calm  
water with a sea slug living in rough water. A squirt of seawater from a syringe was 
directed towards the siphon of each sea slug.The time that the siphon remained 
withdrawn in the body was recorded. Ten successive trials were carried out for each 
sea slug. The graph below shows the results of this investigation.

(a) Using the information in the graph, compare the behaviour of these two sea slugs. 
(4)

1. reference to habituation ;
2. both show decrease in time siphon withdrawn with repeated trials;
3. sea slug from rough water withdrawal time is lower ;
4. decrease in time siphon withdrawn is greater / steeper / fasterin sea slug from calm water
5. correct use of figures for decrease as 21.5 to 3 / 18.5 for slug from calm water / 2.5 to 1.0
/ 1.5 for slug from rough water / 17.0
(b) Explain the advantage of this behaviour to the sea slug living in rough water. (2)
1. stimulus / squirt of water / rough water is harmless / ignored ;
2. less withdrawal of siphon saves energy / less waste of energy / has more energy for
another activity ;
3. allows gas exchange ;

(c) Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to observe theactivity of 
the human brain in response to repeated stimuli.
Explain how fMRI can be used to observe activity in the human brain in response to 
repeated stimuli. (5)

1. fMRI involves brain activity in real time ;


2. fMRI measures oxygen uptake ;
3. active area of brain gets more blood / oxygenated blood / uses oxygen ;
4.oxyhaemoglobin / deoxyhaemoglobin involved ;
5. fMRI uses radio waves / signal / energy ;
6. active brain emits less energy ;
7. more active area appears lighter / less active area appears darker ;
8. brain activity falls with habituation / repeated stimulus ;

17 January 2016/ WBI05/ 13


1 Asthma occurs when the airways in the lungs become narrowed, which makes 
breathing difficult. It is thought that the caffeine contained in coffee might help people 
with asthma by
increasing their breathing rate.

(a) The traces below show the breathing rate of a resting person before and after 
drinking coffee.

(i) Place a cross in the box next to the apparatus used to obtain these traces. (1)
D a spirometer

(ii) Place a cross in the box next to the tidal volume before drinking coffee. (1)
A 0.5 dm3

(iii) Place a cross in the box next to the difference in breathing rate before and after 
drinking coffee. (1)
A 3 breaths min–1

(iv) The traces suggest that caffeine affects the sensitivity of the brain to carbon dioxide.
Place a cross in the box next to the statement that describes this sensitivity. (1)
D ventilation centre more sensitive to carbon dioxide

(b) The formula below shows Fick’s law.
Use the information in the formula to explain how the rate of diffusion is affected by 
asthma. 2

1. rate of diffusion reduced ;


2. difference in concentration / concentration gradient is reduced ;
3. smaller surface / area of aveoli ;

(c) Suggest how drinking hot coffee can cause a change in the production of sweat. (2)

1.core / blood / body temperature increases ;


2. reference to hypothalamus / heat loss centre / thermoregulation centre /
thermoreceptors / temperature receptors ;

3. nerves send impulses / action potentials to sweat glands ;

2 The young shoot of a germinating wheat grain is enclosed in a structure called a
coleoptile. Scientists use coleoptiles to investigate the role of IAA (auxin) in the growth 
responses of plants to light.
The photograph below shows a germinating wheat grain.

In one investigation, a coleoptile was exposed to light from one direction. The diagram 
below shows the appearance of the coleoptile before and after exposure to light from 
one direction.

(a) Place a cross in the box next to the correct description of the response of this 
coleoptile after exposure to light from one direction. (1)
C positive phototropism to light shining from the left

(b) The response of the coleoptile occurs because IAA (auxin) binds to membrane 
receptors. This promotes the active transport of hydrogen ions out of the cell cytoplasm.
(i) Explain what is meant by the term active transport. (2)

1. movement against a concentration gradient ;


2.ATP / energy / pumps needed ;
(ii) Hydrogen ions provide the optimum pH for enzymes that break the bonds between 
adjacent cellulose microfibrils.
Name the bonds that are broken by these enzymes. (1)
hydrogen ;

(iii) Suggest what happens to cells in the coleoptile, after the breaking of these bonds, 
that allows the response to light from one direction. (2)

1. cells absorb water ; 
2. by osmosis ; 
3. cells  elongate / grow / stretch / expand; 

(c) Scientists also investigated the effect of IAA concentration on the elongation of
coleoptiles. Coleoptile sections of the same length were placed in Petri dishes 
containing IAA solutions of different concentrations. The change in length was 
measured. 
The graph below shows the percentage change in length when compared to control 
coleoptile sections placed in water.

(i) Use the information in the graph to describe the effect of IAA concentration on the 
elongation of coleoptiles. (3)

1. no change between 10-6 and 10-4 ppm


2. optimum at 1 ppm / increase to 1 ppm / decrease after 1 ppm;
3. inhibition between 102 and 103 ppm / at 103 ;

(ii) The method used by the scientists made sure that a valid comparison could be made
from the data collected.
Suggest a method the scientists could use to make a valid comparison of the elongation
of coleoptiles at each IAA concentration. (4)

1. repeat / use many sections / more than one coleoptile / finding mean / finding average ;
2. sections must be left for the same time ;
3. sections must be from same age / source / species ;
4. light intensity is controlled ;
5. temperature is controlled ;
6. same volume of IAA ;

3 Parasitic worms are a major cause of disease and disability worldwide. The 
photograph below shows the head of a hookworm, Ancylostoma duodenale. This is a 
parasite of the human gut.

Drugs can be used to treat people with gut parasites. These drugs are often highly toxic.
Parasites resistant to these drugs have evolved.

(a) Place a cross in the box next to the statement that explains how parasites resistant 
to these drugs have evolved. (1)
A drugs affect selection of mutations in parasites

(b) An alternative to these drugs could be a protein called Cry5B, normally produced by 
the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Cry5B has been shown to kill parasitic worms in 
animals. It works by forming protein channels in cell membranes.

In the space below, draw a diagram of a fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane that 
includes a labelled protein channel. (2)

1. phospholipid bilayer drawn correctly ;


2. protein channel spanning whole membrane and correctly indicated ;

(c) Scientists have developed genetically modified (GM) bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, 
containing the gene for Cry5B. In an investigation, hamsters were infected with 
hookworms. The hamsters were then given the GM bacteria in their food.
The investigation showed that Cry5B protein released by the GM bacteria reduced the 
number of hookworms in hamsters by 93%.

(i) Suggest a suitable control for this investigation. (2)

1. infected with hookworms ;


2. given non GM bacteria ;
(ii) Describe the steps taken by the scientists to enable them to calculate a 93% 
reduction in the number of hookworms. (2)

1. difference in original number of hookworms and number of hookworms in treated hamsters


2. divided by original number of hookworms and multiply by 100 ;

(d) GM bacteria would have to undergo clinical trials before they could be used to treat 
hookworm infections in humans.
Suggest two reasons why these trials are needed. (2)

1. testing for safety / non-toxicity / side effects;


2. testing for efficacy ;

4 Aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration produce ATP in cells.
(a) It is thought that 38 ATP molecules are produced from one molecule of glucose in 
aerobic respiration.

Place a cross in the box next to the description of where most of these ATP molecules 
are produced. (1)
D oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria

(b) During anaerobic respiration lactate is produced.
The table below shows the lactate concentration in the blood of a person who is an 
athlete and in a person who is not an athlete (non­athlete), at increasing levels of 
exercise.

(i) Explain the change in blood lactate concentration with an increasing level of exercise 
in the non­athlete. (3)

1. insufficient oxygen supply ; 
2. glycolysis ; 
3. reduced NAD is produced ; 
4. pyruvate is converted to lactate ; 
5. conversion of pyruvate involves oxidation of reduced NAD ; 
(ii) Suggest an explanation for the difference between the blood lactate concentration of 
the athlete and the non­athlete. (2)

1. increased oxygen supply / more aerobic respiration / less anaerobic respiration ;


2. increased stroke volume / cardiac output / capillarisation;
3. increased ventilation / gas exchange / vital capacity ;

(c) The diagram below shows the fate of lactate after exercise.

(i) Name molecule X. (1)

NADH / reduced NAD ; 

(ii) Describe what happens to molecule Y. (2)

1. molecule Y is pyruvate ;
2. converted to acetyl CoA / enters link reaction / enters Krebs cycle / converted to carbon
dioxide and water ;
3. converted to glucose ;

5 Endurance training changes the number and size of mitochondria in muscle tissue.
The graph below shows the percentage change in the number of mitochondria found in 
muscle tissue during 25 weeks of endurance training.

(a) Use the graph to describe the changes in the number of mitochondria in muscle 
tissue during this 25 week training period. (2)

1. increase in number of mitochondria ; 
2. increase is greater with more weeks of training ; 
(b) The electron micrographs below show a typical mitochondrion in muscle before and 
after training.

(i) The width of each mitochondrion is shown by the line A to B. Calculate the 
percentage change in the width of the mitochondrion after training. Show your working. 
(2)

1. difference between high and low value divided by low value ;


2. answer between 36.36 and 47.61 ;

*(ii) An increase in the width of mitochondria increases the surface area of membranes 
inside mitochondria.
Explain how an increase in the surface area of these membranes will affect the 
synthesis of ATP in the muscle tissue of an athlete. (6)

1. cristae ;
2. oxidative phosphorylation ;
3. electron transport chain ;
4. electrons passed along carriers ;
5. hydrogen ions / H+ / protons moved to intermembrane space ;
6. hydrogen ions / H+ / proton / electrochemical / concentration gradient produced
7. reference to chemiosmosis / stalked particles / ATPase ;
8. more ATP synthesised ;

6 The anterior cruciate ligament helps to keep the knee joint stable.

(a) (i) Place a cross in the box next to the name of the structure to which the anterior 
cruciate ligament is attached. (1)
A bone

(ii) Place a cross in the box next to the statement that explains why ligaments are 
effective at keeping the knee joint stable. (1)
B they contain collagen making them inelastic

(c) A surgeon can use keyhole surgery when repairing a torn cruciate ligament. The torn
ligament is repaired by grafting (attaching) new tissue. The repair often uses tissue from
the patient (autograft) or from a donor (allograft).
The table below shows the failure rate of each type of repair carried out by one surgeon.
(i) Using the information in the table, compare the failure rates of these types of graft. 
Suggest explanations for the difference. (3)

1. failure rate allograft / donor / different person  is higher ; 
2. immune response / rejection / antibody production  with allografts  
3. non­self / foreign antigens / different antigens; 
4. disease transmission likely with allografts ; 

(ii) Suggest what additional information would be needed to increase the confidence in a
conclusion drawn from these results. (2)

1. age of patients ;
2. ethnicity of patients ;
3. idea of sample size ;
4. severity of torn ligaments ;
5. statistical analysis ;

(iii) Give two advantages of using keyhole surgery to repair torn ligaments compared 
with other types of surgery. (2)

1. procedure is less invasive ;


2. less pain after operation ;
3. faster healing / recovery ;
4. there will be less scarring / better aesthetics ;
5. reduced risk of infection ;
23 June 2016/ WBI05/ 14

1 The heart rate at rest changes during exercise. The diagram below shows different 
stages in the passage of electrical activity through the heart during one heartbeat. The 
arrows and numbers represent the different stages.

(a) Place a cross in the box next to the correct number or word to complete each
of the following statements.
(i) The number in the diagram that represents the bundle of His is (1)
C4

(ii) There is a delay of 0.13 s between atrial systole and ventricular systole. The number 
in the diagram that represents where this delay occurs is (1)
C3

(iii) The arrows in the diagram represent a wave of (1)
A depolarisation

(iv) A normal electrocardiogram (ECG) is shown below.

The letter on the ECG that represents stage 2 in the diagram is (1)
AP

(b) Nervous and hormonal control can increase the heart rate during exercise.
(i) Describe how the heart rate can be increased by nervous control during exercise. (4)

1. change in CO2 / pH / lactate / O2 level /temperature ;


2. chemoreceptors / thermoreceptors / stretch receptors ;
3. aortic body / carotid body / hypothalamus / skin /atria / heart muscle walls / skeletal
muscles / tendons ;
4. medulla / cardiovascular centre ;
5. sympathetic / accelerator nerve / autonomic nervous system ;
6. SAN ;

(ii) Give one similarity and one difference between hormonal and nervous control of the 
heart rate. (2)

1. Similarity:
both affect the SAN / can increase heart rate / involuntary ;

2. Difference:
hormonal is slower / nervous is faster
hormonal lasts longer / nervous is shorter
hormonal is chemical but nervous is electrical or by impulse
hormonal uses blood but nervous uses neurones ;

2 A scarecrow is a model of a human dressed in old clothes. The photograph below 
shows some scarecrows in the middle of a field of crops.

Some farmers believe that a scarecrow will frighten birds and the crops will not be 
eaten. However, some scientists believe that habituation by the birds will occur and the 
crops will be eaten.
(a) Explain what is meant by the term habituation. (2)

1. a reduced response to / ignoring a stimulus ;


2. that is repeated / harmless / unimportant ;
3. habituation is a form of learning ;

(b) (i) Describe an investigation to determine whether habituation by the birds occurs in 
the presence of a scarecrow. (5)

1. use of a scarecrow ;
2. idea of measuring or counting seeds eaten / number of birds / time taken to fly away / eg.
release birds and count how many fly away ;

3. more than one trial / repeats over time ;


4. control of biotic or abiotic variable ;
5. replication of the investigation ;
6. reference to expected result if habituation occurs ;
(ii) In the space below, draw a sketch graph to show the data obtained if habituation by 
the birds occurs. (2)

1. axes labelled number of birds / seeds eaten on y axis and trial / time / days / weeks on x
axis ;

2. line / plotted points showing upward slope ;

3 Pain is felt when nerve impulses travel along neurones to the pain centre in the brain. 
Dentists inject an anaesthetic drug into a patient’s gum to provide pain relief.
(a) The diagram below shows the structure of an anaesthetic drug.

(i) Draw a circle around the part of this drug that is an amine group. (1)
circle drawn around H2N only;

(ii) This anaesthetic drug works by binding to channel proteins in the axons of neurones.
These neurones normally transmit impulses that the brain interprets as pain.
Explain how this anaesthetic drug prevents the patient feeling pain. (4)

1. sodium ion channels ;


2. less influx of sodium ions into neurone / axon ;
3. there is less / no depolarisation ;
4. there are fewer / no action potentials generated ;
5. fewer / no impulses to brain ;

(iii) The injection for pain relief contains the anaesthetic drug and a chemical that 
causes vasoconstriction.
Suggest the advantage of including a chemical that causes vasoconstriction. (2)

1. blood vessels are narrowed / blood flow is reduced ;


2. the drug is not removed / pain relief lasts longer / bleeding is reduced ;

(b) A different anaesthetic drug works by binding to calcium ion channels when an 
impulse arrives at a synapse.
Suggest how this anaesthetic drug reduces pain. (4)

1. calcium ion channels blocked / closed;


2. fewer / no calcium ions enter presynaptic knob;
3. vesicles do not fuse with / move to presynaptic membrane ;
4. less neurotransmitter release ;
5. reduced binding / movement to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane / postsynaptic
neurone ;
6. reduced depolarisation / action potentials / entry of sodium ions / impulses to brain ;

(c) The graph below shows the pain relief provided by two different anaesthetic drugs, A
and B.

Suggest how a dentist could use this data when deciding which anaesthetic drug to use.
(3)

1. drug A provides pain relief for less time ;


2. drug A provides faster / quicker pain relief ;
3. drug A provides more pain relief ;
4. reference to application of drug A to dental treatment / e.g. drug A is better for brief
dental treatment ;

4 A pupilometer is a device used to measure the pupil diameter in the eye. Doctors use 
a pupilometer to assess brain damage in unconscious patients who have had accidents.

(a) The table below shows the pupil diameter, during one second, when bright light was 
shone into the eye of an unconscious patient and a conscious patient.

(i) Explain the conclusion doctors should make about possible brain damage of this 
unconscious patient. (2)

1. no damage / or there could be brain damage to parts of the brain not involved with the
pupil reflex ;
2. pupil diameter decreases / small difference in pupil diameter for each patient ;
(ii) Place a cross in the box next to the correct phrase that completes the following 
statement.
The change in the pupil diameter of this unconscious patient occurs because (1)
C radial muscles relax and circular muscles contract

*(b) Explain how bright light shone into the eye is detected by cells in the retina leading 
to nerve impulses being sent to the brain. (5)

1. photoreceptor / rod / cone cells ;


2.rhodopsin conversion into retinal and opsin / conversion of cis-retinal to trans-retinal ;
3. sodium / cation channels close and sodium ions cannot enter / are pumped out ;
4. hyperpolarisation/ generator potential / inside more negative ;
5. reduced release of glutamate / neurotransmitter ;
6. depolarisation of bipolar cell ;
7. action potential / impulse in sensory neurone / optic nerve ;

5 The photograph below shows the African cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus.

The cheetah is the fastest land mammal. The cheetah needs to be within 50 m of its 
prey before starting to chase it. A cheetah runs at 27 m s–1 in an attempt to catch its 
prey.

(a) Calculate the time it would take a cheetah to run 50 m at a speed of 27 m s–1. Show 
your working. (2)

1. 1.85 ;
2. units as s / seconds / secs ;

(b) Table 1 below shows the activity of four different enzymes in the cells of two different
leg muscles of a cheetah.
Place a cross in the box next to the correct phrase that completes each of the following 
statements.

(i) The enzyme that has the fastest activity is (1)
D an anaerobic enzyme in the vastus lateralis

(ii) Following anaerobic respiration, lactate dehydrogenase converts lactate to (1)
C pyruvate and oxidised NAD to reduced NAD

(c) Conservationists are concerned that keeping cheetahs in captivity may affect the 
percentage of slow twitch and fast twitch fibres in their muscles. In an investigation, 
scientists analysed samples from the leg muscles of wild and captive cheetahs. The 
results are shown in Table 2 below.

(i) Suggest the null hypothesis the scientists were testing. (1)

that there is no significant difference in the proportion of fast and slow twitch fibres in wild
and captive cheetahs ;

(ii) Using the data in Table 2, suggest a conclusion that can be drawn about the effect of
captivity on the composition of muscle. Give a reason for your answer. (2)

1. there is no difference in percentage of muscle fibre type / the difference is not significant
2. overlap between standard deviation of muscle fibre type in vastus lateralis ;

(d) Explain why the muscle composition of a cheetah causes it to stop running if it fails 
to catch its prey within 50 m. (5)

1. muscles have more fast twitch fibres ;


2. fewer capillaries / less myoglobin ;
3. less oxygen supply ;
4. less aerobic respiration / more anaerobic respiration ;
5. fewer mitochondria / less ATP made ;
6. lactate produced / low pH produced ;
6 The human brain controls many functions.
(a) The diagram below shows a section through the human brain.

Place a cross in the box next to the correct structure that completes each of the 
following statements.
(i) The part of the brain involved with the ability to see is the (1)
B cerebral hemispheres

(ii) The part of the brain involved with the ability to coordinate movement and to control 
balance is the (1)
A cerebellum

(b) The brain can be scanned for medical diagnosis. The table below lists statements 
about three different methods of scanning that provide information for use in medical 
diagnosis.

In the table below, place a tick () in the box if the statement applies to the method of 
scanning or a cross (×) in the box if the statement does not apply to the method of 
scanning.

(c) New drugs are needed to treat patients with imbalances in some brain chemicals. 
Describe how cells could be genetically modified to produce these new drugs. (3)

1. restriction enzyme / ligase ;
2. gene / allele / DNA for the drug ;
3. vector ;
4. liposome / virus / plasmid / gene gun ;
23 June 2016/ 6BI05/ 15

1 Skeletal muscles contain muscle fibres and are arranged in antagonistic pairs.

(a) Place a cross in the box to complete the statement about skeletal muscles. (1)

When a muscle fibre contracts, the number of myosin heads
D stays the same

(b) The diagram below shows part of a muscle fibre.

(i) When a muscle fibre contracts, the labelled part that becomes shorter is (1)
D

(ii) The number of sarcomeres shown in the diagram is (1)
A 1

(iii) The binding of calcium ions to troponin causes (1)
B myosin binding sites to be exposed

(iv) An enzyme that can break down ATP is found in (1)
B myosin

(v) Slow twitch muscle fibres contain (1)
A more mitochondria than fast twitch fibres

(c) Suggest how tendons and antagonistic muscles cause the lower leg to move in the 
direction shown by the arrow in the diagram below. (4)
1. extensor muscles contract / shorten ;
2. leg is straightened ;
3. flexor muscle relaxes ;
4. description of antagonistic action e.g. these muscles working in opposition, when
one contracts the other relaxes ;

5. flexor is stretched  ;
6. tendons attach muscles to bones ;

2 Carrots are root vegetables that are eaten by many organisms. An investigation was 
carried out to study the respiration rate of carrots. 100 g of carrot cubes were placed in 
a plastic bag containing air. The bag containing the carrot cubes was stored at 1  C for 
three days. All other variables were kept constant. The percentages of oxygen and 
carbon dioxide in the bag were measured at the start of the investigation and at the end.
The results are shown in the table below.

(a) (i) Suggest two variables, other than temperature, that need to be kept constant in 
this investigation so that valid results can be collected. (2)

1. size of cube ;
2. same species of carrot ;
3. same age / source of carrot ;

(ii) Explain the role of oxygen in the cells of the carrot cubes. (3)

1. oxygen is electron acceptor ;


2. also oxygen binds with protons / H+ /hydrogens ;
3. electrons from electron transport chain / ETC ;
4. to form metabolic water ;

(b) Explain how the carrots produce carbon dioxide at the start of this investigation. (4)

1. aerobic respiration ;
2. ref. to decarboxylation ;
3. when pyruvate broken down ;
4.decarboxylation occursin Krebs cycle
5. details of where in Krebs cycle e.g. removed from C6 / C5 compound ;

(c) The investigation was repeated at storage temperatures of 5  C and 10  C. The 


table below shows the change in percentage of carbon dioxide in the bag at the end of 
the investigation compared with the start of the investigation for all three storage 
temperatures.
Explain the effect of temperature on the change in the percentage of carbon dioxide in 
the bag. 

1. as temperature increases, percentage of CO2 in bag increases ;


2. as temperature increase reactants gain more kinetic energy / collide more often;
3. increased enzyme activity / more E-S complexes form ;

4. smaller increase between 5 and 10 because more active sites occupied / some other factor
is limiting / e.g. O2 concentration could be limiting, high CO2 levels inhibit enzymes ;

(d) Suggest why the carrot tissue could survive when no oxygen was left in the bag. (1)

anaerobic respiration ;
3 Human hearts contain muscle that is myogenic. Exercise and other activities can 
affect heart rate.
(a) Explain what is meant by the term myogenic. (2)

1. stimulation generated from within muscle ;


2. this results in depolarisation ;

(b) Explain how an electrocardiogram (ECG) can be used to calculate a person’s heart 
rate. (3)

1. it shows electrical activity of the heart ;

2. how to identify one heart beat / time for one heart beat / from one P wave / QRS
complex / T wave to the next;

3. count the number of these / peaks in a set time / stated time or how long from one set
of electrical activity to the next ;

4. description of how to obtain heart rate e.g. beats divided by time ;

*(c) Workers in the brewing industry may be at risk due to the carbon dioxide released 
by yeast fermentation. Atmospheric air contains between 0.03% and 0.04% carbon 
dioxide. A concentration of 5% carbon dioxide in the air causes a change in the heart 
rate of people exposed to this concentration.
Explain why a carbon dioxide concentration of 5% causes a change in heart rate. (5)

1. the concentration of carbon dioxide in the alveoli is higher /diffusion /


Concentration gradient increased ;
2. the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood is higher / pH of blood is lower ;
3. detected by chemoreceptors in medulla /carotid artery / aorta ;
4. reference to cardiovascular / cardiac control centre in medulla ;
5. reference to autonomic nervous system / sympathetic nerve;
6. more impulses to SAN ;
7. noradrenaline / norepinephrine released onto SAN ;
8. SAN excitation rate increased

4 A number of investigations have been carried out to study the effect of nature and
nurture on human development.
(a) Explain how twin studies could be used to compare the effects of nature and nurture 
on human development. (4)

1. identical / monozygotic twins are genetically identical ;


2. derived from one egg and one sperm /one zygote / embryo ;
3. so any phenotypic difference is due to nurture / environmental ;
4. non-identical twins / dizygotic twins are genetically different ;
5. any phenotype that is different when the environment is the same is likely to be {nature /
genetic ;

(b) (i) Facial expressions can show different emotions.
Explain how a cross‑cultural study could be used to investigate whether recognising 
different emotions through facial expression is due to nature or nurture. (2)

1. study groups from different cultures ;
2. if outcome is the same then likely to be nature ;
3. if outcome is different in the groups then likely to be nurture ;

(ii) Suggest how this cross‑cultural study could be carried out to make sure that the 
results are valid. (2)

1. large sample size ;
2. standardised sampling technique e.g. age, gender ;
3. same range of emotions used / standard methodology e.g. same photos ;

5 Neurones are cells involved in coordination and control within an animal.
(a) The table below shows the concentration of sodium ions and potassium ions inthe 
cytoplasm of a neurone and in the fluid outside the neurone.
(i) Using the information in the table, comment on the concentration gradientsof these 
ions.(2)

1. potassium ion gradient is greater/ steeper / higher than sodiumion gradient ;

2. Credit correct comparative manipulation of the data / e.g K+ gradient is
greater than gradient for Na+ by10 mmol dm­3, ratio e.g. 1:10and 30:1;
3. concentration gradients act in different directions ;

(ii) During an action potential the distribution of sodium and potassium ionschanges.
Explain how proteins in the cell surface membrane of this neurone enable 
theconcentrations of these ions to return to those shown in the table.(4)

1. proteins act as channels ;

Repolarising:
2.most voltage­dependentsodium / Na+ channels closed ;
3. sodium ions cannot continue to enter neurone / cytoplasm ;

Resetting after hyperpolarisation:
4. voltage­dependentpotassium / K+ channels close ;
5. sodium­potassium pump imports twopotassium ions andexports three sodium 
ions ;

(b) Describe how the arrival of a nerve impulse at a synapse causes the release 
ofneurotransmitters.(3)

1. Ca2+ enters synaptic bouton / knob;
2. vesicles containing neurotransmitter;
3. move towards / fuse with presynaptic membrane/reference to exocytosis of 
neurotransmitter / neurotransmitterreleased into synaptic gap /cleft ;

6 Humans and sea anemones have nervous systems with synapses.

(a) L‑Dopa is a drug used to treat people with Parkinson’s disease.An investigation was 
carried out to study the uptake of L‑Dopa from the gut intothe blood plasma of people 
with Parkinson’s disease.

A number of people with Parkinson’s disease were each given a tablet containing200 
mg of L‑Dopa. The concentration of L‑Dopa in the blood plasma of eachperson was 
then recorded over a period of four hours.
The mean results are shown in the graph below.
(i) Using the information in the graph, calculate the mean rate of uptake ofL‑Dopa from 
0 to 90 minutes.Show your working.(2)

1. 5 ÷ 90 ;
2. = { 0.056 / 0.06 } au min-1 ;
OR
3 [(0.3÷ 30) + (3.7 ÷ 30) + (1 ÷ 30) ÷ 3] ;
4 = {0.054 / 0.05} au min-1 ;

(ii) Suggest an explanation for the decrease in the mean concentration of L‑Dopain the 
blood plasma after 90 minutes.(4)

1. rate of use is greater than uptake from gut ;


2. L-Dopa leaves the blood into tissues ;
3. L-Dopa crosses the blood-brain barrier;
4. converted to dopamine / L-Dopa is a precursorto dopamine;
5. L-Dopa is broken down /metabolised forbroken down;

(b) The sea anemone, shown in the diagram below, is a marine animal with tentacles.

A student investigated habituation in a sea anemone. He gently touched a sea 
anemone, causing it to withdraw its tentacles into its body. He waited and recorded the 
time for the tentacles to fully re‑emerge. He repeated the process until the sea anemone
was fully habituated.

(i) Suggest what the student would observe when the sea anemone was fully 
habituated. (1)

when touched the tentacles not pulled into body /remain outside body / no response
whentouched / no reaction to stimulus;
(ii) The student investigated the length of time it took sea anemones to lose 
theirhabituation.
Suggest how the student carried out this investigation.(3)

1. use habituated sea anemone;
2. stimulate after leaving for different lengths of time ;
3. repetition at each different time ;
4. note time when anemone responds to being touched ;
17 January 2017/ WBI05/ 16

1 Mitochondria are organelles involved in the production of ATP. The 
electronmicrograph below shows a section through part of a cell.

(a) (i) Place a cross in the box next to the part of a mitochondrion where most ATP 
synthesis takes place. (1)
A inner mitochondrial membrane

(ii) Nucleic acid is involved in the synthesis of proteins in mitochondria. These proteins 
are needed to make ATP. 
Place a cross in the box that shows the nucleic acid found in mitochondria. (1)
C DNA and RNA

(iii) Place a cross in the box next to the part of the mitochondrion in which protein 
synthesis takes place. (1)
C ribosomes

(iv) Place a cross in the box next to the actual length of the mitochondrion. (1)
B 0.005 mm

(v) Place a cross in the box next to the name of the structure labelled Q in the 
electronmicrograph. (1)
C rough endoplasmic reticulum

(b) The Krebs cycle and chemiosmosis take place in mitochondria.
Explain how chemiosmosis and the production of ATP will be affected if the Krebs cycle 
is inhibited. (5)

1. no / reduced chemiosmosis / electron transport chain / oxidative phosphorylation ;


2. less production of reduced NAD / NADH ;
3. less active transport of hydrogen ions ;
4. fewer H+ / hydrogen ions / protons in intermembrane space ;
5. lower/less steep concentration / electrochemical / proton / H+ gradient ;
6. less diffusion of H+ / hydrogen ions / protons ;
7. reference to stalked particles / ATP synthase ;
8. the production of ATP will be reduced ;
2 The sound made by the siren of a police car needs to be heard. If the same sound is 
used repeatedly there is a risk that people will become habituated to this sound. The 
auditory cortex is the part of the brain that responds to the sound made by the police 
siren.

(a) Explain how fMRI scanning could be used to investigate if habituation occurs when 
the same sound is used. (5)

1. fMRI scan shows activity of auditory cortex / brain ;


2. fMRI measures uptake of oxygen ;
3. active area of brain gets more blood / oxygen / oxygenated blood / uses oxygen ;
4. oxyhaemoglobin / deoxyhaemoglobin involved ;
5. more active area appears light / white / bright / coloured ;
6. if habituation occurs then brain activity falls with repeated stimulus ;

(b) Place a cross in the box to complete the following sentence. Habituation will take 
place if calcium ion channels in the (1)
C presynaptic membrane become less responsive

3 The refractory period is the time it takes for a neurone to reach its resting potential 
after an action potential.
(a) Describe how the resting potential is maintained in a neurone. (3)

1. sodium ions moved out of axon AND potassium ions move into axon ;
2. reference to pump / active transport ;
sodium ions are pumped out and potassium ions are pumped in
3. reference to ATP / energy ;
4. potassium ions diffuse out down concentration gradient ;
5. sodium ions cannot diffuse back into axon ;

(b) The effect of temperature on the duration of the refractory period was investigated. 
The table below shows the results of this investigation.

Use the data in the table to describe the effect of temperature on the duration of the 
refractory period. (2)

1. an increase in temperature will reduce the duration ;


2. credit correct manipulation of data ;
3. overlapping of range / standard error / standard deviation ;
4. as temp increases { range / SD / SE decreases ;
(c) A severe head injury can damage the brain and lead to epilepsy. Epilepsy involves a
sudden increase in the electrical activity of neurones in the brain. This can cause 
uncontrolled shaking due to the repeated contraction of muscles.
Carbamazepine is a drug used to treat epilepsy.
In an investigation, scientists stimulated neurones in a control solution and immediately 
measured the potential difference across the axon membrane. They repeated this using
neurones in a solution containing carbamazepine. The table below shows the results of 
this investigation.

Use the information in the table to suggest how carbamazepine is able to treat epilepsy.
(4)

1. binds to / blocks sodium ion channels ;


2. no sodium ions diffuse in ;
3. no depolarisation ;
4. no action potential / impulse / electrical activity in motor neurones ;
5. reduced muscle contraction ;

4 Krabbe disease is an inherited condition caused by a mutation of the GALC gene. The
neurones in people with Krabbe disease gradually lose their myelin sheaths. 
Galactosylceramidase is an enzyme involved in maintaining the myelin sheath in 
neurones. The dominant allele of the GALC gene is involved in the synthesis of 
galactosylceramidase.

(a) Describe how the GALC gene is transcribed in the synthesis of 
galactosylceramidase. (4)

1. DNA strands separate / unwinds / unzips / hydrogen bonds broken ;


2. mononucleotides line up against their complementary bases ;
3. on the template strand of DNA ;
4. phosphodiester bonds form between adjacent mono nucleotides ;
5. reference to correctly named enzyme / e.g. RNA polymerase or DNA helicase ;
6. mRNA produced ;

(b) Suggest how the transmission of a nerve impulse is affected by Krabbe disease. (2)

1. slows speed of impulse ;


2. impulse cannot jump from node to node / no saltatory conduction ;
(c) Krabbe disease can affect the function of different parts of the brain. Complete the 
table by naming the part of the brain most likely to be affected by Krabbe disease. (2)

(d) Explain why two healthy parents can produce a child with Krabbe disease. (2)

1. both parents are heterozygous / carriers ;


2. child inherits one recessive allele from each parent / both parents OR child is homozygous
recessive ;

5 Ventilation of the lungs is controlled by homeostatic mechanisms. Six students carried
out an investigation to compare the longest time they could hold their breath at rest, 
after exercise and after breathing in and out deeply three times. The table below shows 
the mean results with standard deviations from the investigation.

(a) Comment on the reliability of this investigation and data. (2)

1. after exercise is least reliable because standard deviation is largest ;


2. anomalous results included in calculation of mean ;
3. not reliable because small sample size / only 6 tested ;
4. not reliable because no information about the 6 people / e.g. level of fitness / age /
gender / health ;

5. reliable because investigation was repeated ;


6. reliable because the ranges do not overlap ;
*(b) Use your knowledge of the control of ventilation to explain these results. (6)

1. less able to hold breath after exercise compared to deep breathing ;


2. exercise increases CO2 ;
3. deep breathing reduces CO2 ;
4. reference to change in pH / formation of carbonic acid / formation of hydrogen ions ;
5. reference to chemoreceptors ;
6. reference to { medulla / ventilation centre / carotid body / aortic body ;
7. reference to impulses ;
8. contraction of diaphragm / intercostal muscles ;

(c) An investigation was carried out into the effect of smoking on ventilation. A group of 
smokers and a group of non‑smokers were asked to breathe in as fully as possible and 
then breathe out as fully as possible into a spirometer. The graph below shows the 
results of this investigation.

(i) The FEV1 is the volume of air that can be forced out of the lungs in one second, after 
taking a deep breath in.
Place a cross in the box next to the FEV1 for non‑smokers. (1)
C 3.4 dm3

(ii) Use the information in the graph to compare the results of the non‑smokers with 
those of the smokers. (3)

1. the volume exhaled by non-smokers is higher than the volume exhaled by smokers ;
2. credit comparative use of data ;
3. non-smokers breathe out faster than smokers ;
4. non-smokers level out sooner / graph plateaus earlier than smokers ;

6 Insecticides are widely used to reduce populations of insect pests such as locusts. 
Pyrethrin is an insecticide produced naturally by chrysanthemum flowers found in East 
Africa.

(a) Scientists have genetically modified yeast cells to produce pyrethrin. Suggest how 
yeast cells could be genetically modified to produce pyrethrin. (4)
1. gene for pyrethrin synthesis removed from flowers ;
2. using restriction enzyme / endonuclease ;
3. use of vector / named vector / e.g. virus, liposome, plasmid ;
4. use of DNA ligase for joining gene to plasmid ;
5. culturing yeast cells to produce pyrethrin ;

(b) Pyrethrin is a neurotoxin that works by binding to protein channels in the membranes
of insect neurones and delaying their closure.
Suggest why pyrethrin does not affect mammalian neurones. (2)

1. protein channels are different ;


2. pyrethrin cannot bind ;
3. metabolised in mammals ;
4. dilution in mammals ;

(c) High concentrations of some insecticides can affect the contraction of muscles that 
control pupil diameter in the human eye.
Explain why people who absorb high concentrations of these insecticides have pupils 
with a small diameter. (2)

1. circular muscles contract ;


2. radial muscles relax ;

(d) Sand flies are insects that spread a disease called leishmaniasis. This disease 
causes ulcers to develop in the skin, mouth and nose. Scientists investigated the effect 
of the concentration of pyrethrin and of an organochlorine insecticide on the survival of 
two species of sand fly, species A and species B. The graphs below show the results.

Compare the effect of the insecticides on the survival of each species of sand fly. (3)

1. increasing concentration kills more flies ;


2. more of species A killed at a lower concentration than species B in pyrethrin ;
3. more species B killed at a lower concentration than species A in organochlorine ;
4. 100% / all killed at lower concentration / 4.4 in pyrethrin / at higher concentration / 5.2
with organochlorine ;
(e) Some insecticides also inhibit the synthesis of IAA (auxin) in plants. Suggest how 
this inhibition affects these plants. (2)

1. less / slower / poor / stunted / inhibited growth ;


2. less / no cell elongation / phototropism ;
20 June 2017/ 6BI05/ 17

1 A spirometer, filled with oxygen, was used to record the breathing of a student. The 
student was sitting at rest and was instructed to breathe normally. The spirometer trace 
is shown below.

(a) Put a cross in the box next to the correct description of the changes shown in this 
spirometer trace. (1)
A the breathing becomes faster and deeper

(b) Put a cross in the box next to the mean tidal volume during the first minute of this 
spirometer trace. (1)
B 0.45 dm3
(c) Put a cross in the box next to the mean breathing rate for the first two minutes of this
spirometer trace. (1)
B 9 breaths min- 1
(d) During this six­minute period, the volume of oxygen in the spirometer decreased 
from 4.0 dm3 to 1.0 dm3.
Put a cross in the box next to the mean rate of oxygen consumption by the student. (1)
A 0.5 dm3 min- 1
(e) Describe the role of oxygen in aerobic respiration. (4)

1. oxygen is {H+ / electron acceptor ;


2. at end of electron transport chain ;
3. oxygen is used to form water ;
4. reference to oxidative phosphorylation ;
5. production of ATP ;
2 Ptarmigan are birds that live in Arctic regions where the winters are long and cold and 
very little food is available. They move about by running and fly occasionally.

Just before the winter, these birds put on weight as stored fat. This increases their body 
mass by approximately 50%.
(a) The mean energy consumption per day for ptarmigan varies during the year. Give 
one reason for each of the following suggestions.
(i) The daily energy consumption of the birds might be higher in winter. (1)

1. generate heat energy / maintain core temperature / to store (excess energy as) fat /
insulation
2. moving about looking for food
3. the birds are heavier so they will need more energy to move;

(ii) The daily energy consumption of the birds might be lower in winter. (1)

1. less active / less food available / already have insulating fat layer ;

(b) The energy consumption of ptarmigan running at different speeds was investigated. 
Measurements were made at the start of the winter and then again during the summer. 
The graph below shows the energy consumption at different running speeds
(i) Explain why the energy consumption at each running speed on the graph is shown 
per kg of body mass. (2)

1. energy consumption per bird will be affected by mass of the bird ;


2. need to adjust values to per kg to make a valid comparison ;

(ii) Compare the effects of running speed on energy consumption, for winter and 
summer. (3)

1. winter energy consumption is lower than in summer ;


2. consumption increases with running speed for both seasons / positive correlation ;
3. same difference between seasons at each speed ;
4. calculated difference supporting MP1, MP2 or MP3/ 3.5 (Jkg-1s-1) greater in summer ;

(iii) Scientists suggested that ptarmigan muscles might have more slow twitch muscle 
fibres in the winter.
Describe the effect this might have on the behaviour of the ptarmigan. (2)

1. ptarmigan can run for longer distances / increased endurance ;


2. reduced running speeds ;

(iv) Scientists suggested that elastic tissue in the legs of the ptarmigan could help the 
birds conserve energy by running more efficiently.
Name a part of the leg joint that contains this elastic tissue. (1)
ligaments / tendons, cartilage ;

(c) When ptarmigan run fast, there is a temporary build­up of lactate (lactic acid) in their 
leg muscles.
Describe what happens to the lactate produced in these muscles. (3)

1. lactate moves into / transported in the blood ;


2. carried to the liver ;
3. lactate is converted to pyruvate / glucose ;
4. glucose is respired / stored / pyruvate is respired ;

3 IAA (auxin) is a chemical substance that occurs naturally in plant cells. IAA controls 
and coordinates the growth of plants. There are several pathways for synthesising IAA. 
One pathway involves the amino acid tryptophan.
(a) The diagram below shows the structure of tryptophan.

(i) Draw a circle around the parts of this molecule that are present in all amino acids. (1)
(ii) Proteins are formed from amino acids. A number of different types of bond are found
in proteins.
Put a cross in the box next to the phrase that correctly completes the following 
sentence.
The bonds found in proteins include (1)
B disulfide, hydrogen and ionic bonds

(b) The pathway for the synthesis of IAA from tryptophan is shown below.

Suggest how enzyme 2 is involved in the synthesis of IAA. (2)

1. substrate binds to complementary active site ;


2. bonds are broken in intermediate Or ketone group is removed ;

(c) The photograph below shows a plant that has been left near the window for a week.

(i) Put a cross in the box next to the response shown by this plant. (1)
D phototropism

(ii) Explain the role of IAA in the response shown by the plant in the photograph. (4)

1. IAA moves away from light / there is more IAA on the darker side of the stem ;
2. H bonds between cellulose molecules weakened / broken ;
3. the cells elongate due to uptake of water / turgor pressure ;
4. IAA causes more cell elongation on the dark side of the stem ;

4 The diameter of the pupil in the eye is controlled by a nerve pathway.

(a) This nerve pathway contains several neurones. The diagram below shows a motor 
neurone and a cell labelled T.

(i) Put a cross in the box next to the correct statement about motor neurons in this 
pathway.
C all motor neurones terminate on effector cells

(ii) Put a cross in the box next to the name of the main substance found in the part 
labelled Q. 1
B myelin

(iii) The membrane of the neurone is exposed at the point labelled R. Put a cross in the 
box next to the correct statement about this part of the membrane. (1)
A it can become depolarized

(iv) Explain the role of the part labelled S in the stimulation of cell T. (3)

1. action potential / impulse causes influx of Ca2+ ;


2. vesicles fuse with pre-synaptic membrane / Or reference to exocytosis ;
3. a neurotransmitter released and attaches to receptors on cell T causes an action potential
in cell T ;

(b) The table below shows the mean pupil diameter at two different light levels for 
people of different ages.

(i) Calculate the percentage difference in pupil diameter in bright light between people 
aged 20 years and people aged 80 years. Show your working. (2)

1. (4.7 - 2.3) ÷ 4.7 or / 2.4 ÷ 4.7 ;


2. multiplied by 100 = 51(%) ;
(ii) Some older people see less clearly in low light conditions.
Using the information in the table, suggest how age­related changes in the iris cause 
these visual problems. (2)

1. pupil size is smaller in older people in low light conditions ;


2. the radial fibres in the iris contract less in older people compared with younger people ;

5 Dogs have several ways of maintaining a stable body temperature. In warm conditions
or after exercise, a dog will often pant.
When a dog is panting, it breathes rapidly with its mouth open, as shown in the 
photograph below.

(a) Suggest how panting enables dogs to maintain a stable body temperature. (4)

1. panting causes heat loss ;


2. because water evaporates from mouth / tongue ;
3. using heat energy from blood ;
4. panting increases air movement over the tongue / through the mouth ;
5. increased air movement increases the rate of evaporation ;

(b) Body temperature in dogs is controlled by the thermoregulatory centre in the brain. 

(i) Name the part of the brain that contains the thermoregulatory centre. (1)
hypothalamus ; 

*( ii) The panting response in dogs keeps the body temperature within narrow limits. 
Explain the role of negative feedback in the control of the panting response. (5)

1. there is a normal temperature for the blood ;


2. thermoreceptors detect change in temperature ;
3. thermoreceptors send nerve impulses to TC / hypothalamus;
4. if the blood temperature increases the TC sends out nerve impulses to ventilation centre to
increase panting;

5. blood temperature falls due to panting ;


6. once normal blood temperature is reached, the impulses from the TC cease ;
7. panting stops ;
8. reference to homeostasis ;

(c) When a dog pants, it generates a small amount of heat in its body.
Explain why panting generates heat. (2)

1. panting involves muscle contraction ;


2. muscle contraction requires respiration ;
3. muscle contraction / respiration releases heat energy ;

6 The effect of day length on the eyes of rats was investigated. Some of the results are 
shown in the table below.

(a) Rhodopsin is a visual pigment found in rod cells.

(i) Rhodopsin molecules split into two substances when a rod cell is stimulated by light.
Name the two substances formed. (2)

1. opsin ;
2. retinal ;

(ii) Describe the relationship between day length and the amount of rhodopsin present 
in each eye. (2)

1. increasing day length reduces the amount of rhodopsin per eye ;


2. linear relationship ;

(b) Suggest why day length has little effect on the total amount of light entering the eye 
each day. (1)
the rats choose to avoid light areas when the day length is long
when the days are long the rats have their eyes shut / are asleep for part of the daylight
hours ;
rats are nocturnal

(c) The number of rod cells per eye increases when the day length is short. Explain the 
advantages to the rat of this increase. (3)

1. the rat will have more hours of darkness / longer nights ;


2. rod cells work well in low light levels ;
3. rats need to be able to see in dark to find food / avoid predators ;
20 June 2017/ WBI05/ 18

1 The human brain controls many functions. The diagram below shows a section 
through the human brain.

(a) (i) Put a cross in the box next to the part of the brain involved with thinking. (1)
C R

(ii) Put a cross in the box next to the part of the brain involved with the coordination of 
the movement needed when writing. (1)
C S

(iii) Put a cross in the box next to the part of the brain involved with the control of 
heartbeat. 1
D T

(b) Certain brain chemicals are essential for good health.
Explain how an imbalance of the brain chemical serotonin can contribute to ill health. (2)

1. serotonin is a neurotransmitter ;
2. low levels / lack of serotonin linked to depression ;

(c) Twin studies have helped scientists gain a better understanding of the contribution 
made by nature and by nurture to brain development.
Distinguish between nature and nurture. (2)

1. nature involves genes ;


2. nurture involves environment ;
2 Morphine is a drug used to reduce pain by affecting the brain. The diagram below 
shows part of a poppy plant that produces morphine. 

Poppy plants are grown in fields in some parts of the world. Scientists have recently 
genetically modified yeast cells to produce morphine in the controlled conditions of a 
laboratory.

(a) Suggest two biotic factors that could affect the production of morphine by poppy 
plants grown in fields.(2)

1. pests / herbivores / grazers / parasites / trampling ;


2. disease ;
3. competition ;
4. pollinating insects ;

(b) The genetic modification of a yeast cell involves creating an artificial chromosome 
made from several genes. The artificial chromosome is then placed into the yeast cell. 
Put a cross in the box to complete the following sentence.

In this process, the artificial chromosome is a (1)
D vector

(c) Morphine reduces the sensitivity of the brain to the concentration of carbon dioxide 
in the blood. This affects breathing rate and can cause death.
Suggest why a high dose of morphine can cause death. (4)

1. carbon dioxide is not removed from blood / level in blood increases / level in blood is high
2. carbonic acid increases / pH decreases due to increase in CO2 ;
3. change not detected by chemoreceptors ;
4. medulla / ventilation centre is not stimulated / receives fewer impulses ;
5. fewer / no impulses to muscles involved in breathing ;
6. no / decreased contractions / ventilation causes death ;

3 Plants detect light using photoreceptors. Phytochrome is a photoreceptor molecule 
found in plants. The diagram below shows how two forms of phytochrome (Pr and Pfr) 
are affected by light. Phytochrome Pfr reduces the levels of auxin (IAA) in the cells of 
plant shoots.
(a) Use this information, and the diagram, to explain why plant shoots grown in the dark 
are taller than plant shoots grown in the light. (4)

1. darkness converts Pfr to Pr / light converts Pr to Pfr ;


2. more Pr / less Pfr in dark ;
3. more IAA present in the dark ;
4. IAA softens cell walls ;
5. uptake of water by osmosis ;
6. causes cell elongation ;

*(b) The growth response of a plant shoot to light requires the synthesis of ATP. 
Describe the roles of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle in the synthesis of ATP. (6)

Glycolysis: 

1. produces phosphorylated compounds ;


2. substrate-level phosphorylation of ADP ;
3. produces reduced NAD / NADH / NADH+ / NADH2 ;

Krebs: 

4. produces reduced NAD and reduced FAD ;


5. reduced coenzymes supply electrons to ETC / electron carriers ;
6. substrate-level phosphorylation of ADP ;
7. in the process of oxidative phosphorylation / chemiosmosis ;
8. reference to ATP synthase / stalked particles ;

4 The calf muscle in the human leg is composed of two separate muscles, the 
gastrocnemius
and the soleus. The position of these two muscles is shown in the diagram below.
(a) (i) The soleus muscle has a higher proportion of slow twitch fibres than fast twitch 
fibres.

Put a cross in the box next to the row in the table that correctly identifies features  of 
slow and fast twitch muscle fibres.
C - high concentration of myoglobin low concentration of myoglobin

(ii) Put a cross in the box next to the event that occurs before muscles contract. (1)
B ‐ calcium ions are released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum

(b) Scientists investigated the change in the volume of muscle tissue in astronauts
after six months spent in space. The volume of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles 
was measured before going into space and after landing back on Earth. The percentage
decrease in volume of these muscles was calculated 4 days and 19 days after landing 
back on Earth. The graph below shows the results of this investigation.

(i) Using the information in the graph, describe the changes in the volume of the 
gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. (2)

1. both increase in volume / have a lower percentage decrease between 4 to 19 days ;


2. both muscles change by same / similar percentage ;
3. error bars suggest difference in S and G not significant ;
4. credit correct manipulation of figures / “both change by 6%” ;

(ii) The cellular levels of messenger RNA involved in the synthesis of actin change after 
landing on Earth. Suggest how this might explain the change in muscle volume between
4 days and 19 days after landing on Earth. (2)

1. gene for actin switched on ;


2. increased transcription / synthesis of mRNA ;
3. increased translation / synthesis of actin ;
(iii) Actin is a structural protein found in the sarcomeres of a muscle fibre. The diagram 
below shows one sarcomere. Draw a line, labelled A, to show the location of actin in this
sarcomere.1

(iv) Actin has a role in muscle contraction. Name two structural proteins present in a 
sarcomere, other than actin, that have a role in muscle contraction. (1)

myosin ;
troponin ;
tropomyosin ;

(c) The transcription of genes involved in making fast twitch and slow twitch muscle 
fibres is affected during six months in space. The mean percentage of slow twitch 
muscle fibres is reduced by 15%.
Explain how this reduction affects the ability of astronauts to carry out exercise. (3)

1. astronauts fatigue quickly / cannot exercise for long periods ;


2. less aerobic / more anaerobic respiration ;
3. less ATP produced ;
4. fewer mitochondria ;
5. lactic acid produced ;

5 The movement of ions into and out of neurones is involved in the transmission of
nerve impulses.

(a) The table below shows the concentration of some ions found inside and outside an 
axon in a resting neurone. Explain how the distribution of these ions is maintained. (3)

1. reference to pump / active transport ;


2. sodium ions move out of cell and potassium ions move into cell ;
3. membrane is permeable to potassium ions ;
4. membrane is not permeable to sodium ions ;
5. membrane is not permeable to organic anions ;

(b) Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) are common household pests in many parts of 
the world. The diagram below shows an Argentine ant.

Metaflumizone is a pesticide used to control the population of these ants by making 
them immobile. 
In an investigation, an ant neurone was placed in a solution containing metaflumizone 
and another ant neurone was placed in a control solution. The membrane potential of 
these neurones was measured before, during and after stimulation. The graphs below 
shows the results of this investigation.

(i) Using the information in the graphs, suggest how metaflumizone makes ants 
immobile. (3)

1. metaflumizone closes / blocks sodium ion channels ;


2. no influx of sodium ions ;
3. no depolarisation / action potential / impulses ;
4. no stimulation / contraction of muscles ;

(ii) Describe a valid laboratory investigation to find the minimum concentration of 
metaflumizone needed to make these ants immobile. (4)

1. use a range of five concentrations ;


2. standardisation of the ant / eg size, age, gender, species ;
3. method to assess mobility ;
4. large sample size ;
5. named variable controlled / eg time, temperature, volume / pH of solution, ;
6. repeat with a narrower range of concentrations ;

(iii) Some Argentine ants are resistant to metaflumizone. Suggest how these ants 
become resistant to metaflumizone. (3)

1. mutation in the DNA / gene / allele ;


2. different protein produced ;
3. enzyme that breaks down metaflumizone ;
4. metaflumizone no longer blocks / binds to channel;

6 Core body temperature in a person is kept constant by mechanisms of 
thermoregulation. 

(a) Put a cross in the box next to the part of the brain that controls body temperature. (1)
C hypothalamus

(b) In an investigation, the core body temperature, skin temperature and heat loss by
evaporation of a person was measured for 25 minutes. The person then ate some ice 
and the measurements were repeated for a further 10 minutes. The graphs below show 
the results of this investigation.

(i) Using the information given, compare the changes in the core temperature and the 
skin temperature. (2)

1. core body temperature higher than skin temperature before eating ice ;
2. core body temperature falls and skin temperature rises after eating ice ;
(ii) Explain the change in heat loss by evaporation after eating the ice. (4)

1. heat loss decreases after eating ice ;


2. ice reduces core body temperature ;
3. reduced temperature detected by hypothalamus / thermoregulatory centre / heat gain
centre ;

4. nerve impulses from hypothalamus ;


5. sweat glands inhibited / produce less sweat ;
6. less evaporation of water ;
7. reference to latent heat of vaporisation / evaporation ;

(c) Prolonged exposure to cold temperatures causes hypothermia. Hypothermia lowers 
the core body temperature which reduces the rate of metabolic processes, such as 
chemiosmosis, in cells.
Explain how hypothermia reduces the synthesis of ATP by chemiosmosis. (5)

1. reduction in activity of enzymes / kinetic energy ;


2. hypothermia affects active transport / pumping of protons / H+ / hydrogen ions ;
3. out of matrix / through inner membrane / to intermembrane space ;
4. chemiosmosis requires a concentration / electrochemical / pH / proton gradient ;
5. hypothermia reduces diffusion down this gradient ;
6. less energy released by movement of protons / eq ;
7. through ATP synthase / stalked particles ;
2 November 2017/ WBI05/ 19

1 (a) The photograph below shows a prairie dog.

Prairie dogs are well‑adapted to predators. If a prairie dog sees a predator, it will give 
an alarm call to warn other prairie dogs.
(i) Put a cross in the box next to the part of the brain involved with the ability to see. (1)
B cerebral hemispheres

(ii) Prairie dogs that live near trails used by humans have become habituated to the 
presence of humans. These prairie dogs do not give alarm calls when a human walks 
by.
Explain the importance of habituation to these prairie dogs. (2)

1. they do not waste energy running away from humans / unnecessary stimulus / harmless
stimulus ;
2. there will be more energy to run away from predators / use for another purpose;
3. the warning signal will not be ignored if there is a predator ;

(b) Some animals can become habituated to a particular smell. A study on rats indicated
that the part of the brain called the hippocampus could be involved in habituation to 
smell.

(i) The diagram below shows the position of the hippocampus in the brain.

Put a cross in the box next to the part of the brain labelled E. (1)
A cerebellum

(ii) Discuss the issues relating to the use of rats in such a study. (2)

1. rats are living organisms and using / harming / killing them is wrong/ rats feel pain ;
2. we need to carry out research and that this cannot be done on humans ;
3. the brain of a rat is similar to a human brain ;
4. rats are unable to give consent ;

(c) State two factors that determine how quickly an animal becomes habituated. (2)

1. time between each stimulus ;


2. duration of the stimulus ;
3. strength / type of the stimulus ;

2 The stifle joint in the hind leg of a dog has the same structure as the knee of a human.
(a) The diagram below shows a stifle joint.

Put a cross in the box next to the letter labelling a cruciate ligament. (1)
D M

(b) Damage to the cruciate ligament is the most common cause of hind limb
lameness in some breeds of dog. The graph below shows the incidence of hind limb 
lameness at different ages in four breeds of dog. Incidence is determined as the 
percentage of dogs presenting with signs of lameness.
(i) Put a cross in the box next to the breed of dog that shows an increase in the 
incidence of lameness at each age. (1)
C springer

(ii) Put a cross in the box next to the breed of dog that has the greatest change in 
incidence of lameness between 25–48 months and 49–72 months. (1)
B Rottweiler

(iii) Below are some statements about hind limb lameness in dogs:
• hind limb lameness is due to an interaction between genotype and the environment
• hind limb lameness is affected by the age of the dog
• all breeds of dog suffer from hind limb lameness
• dogs increase in mass as they get older and this increases the incidence of hind limb 
lameness.
Put a cross in the box next to the number of these statements that are supported by the 
data shown in the graph. (1)
A1

(c) Describe how cruciate ligaments can be repaired with minimum damage to the joint.
(2)

1. reference to keyhole surgery ;


2. this is done through small incisions / through small holes ;
3. surgeon watches procedure on a monitor using a camera ;
4. using tendon ( to replace ligament) ;

3 Some pesticides affect the nervous system of humans and insects. Genetically 
modified plants can be developed to limit damage caused by insects, reducing the use 
of pesticides.

(a) The diagrams below show three different types of neurone, P, Q and R.

(i) Put a cross in the box next to the row in the table that identifies the neurones P, Q 
and R. (1)

(ii) Put a cross in the box next to the row in the table where the arrows show the 
direction of flow of a nerve impulse through each of the neurones P and Q. (1)
(b) Acetylcholine is synthesised in neurones from choline and acetyl CoA.

(i) Explain the role of acetylcholine in the transmission of a nerve impulse.. (2)

1. to transmit the nerve impulse across the synapse ;


2. because the action potential cannot cross the gap ;
3. credit detail e.g. released from presynaptic neurone, diffusion across synapse, binding to
receptors on post-synaptic membrane, released from vesicles, released by exocytosis ;
4. initiates an action potential in the post synaptic cell / depolarisation of post synaptic
membrane ;

(ii) Pesticides are chemicals that are sprayed onto crop plants to protect them from 
being damaged by insects. Some pesticides are inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. 
Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine.

Suggest how these pesticides could affect the nervous system of the insects and the 
person spraying the plants. (2)

1. acetylcholinesterase is needed to release acetylcholine from receptors on post-


synaptic membrane / acetylcholinesterase is needed to break down acetylcholine /
acetylcholine concentrations in the synaptic cleft remain high / acetylcholine is not broken
down ;

2. continuous action potentials / stimulation in the post-synaptic cell ;


3. the pre-synaptic cell will run out of acetylcholine;

(c) Suggest how plants can be genetically modified to be resistant to damage by 
insects. (4)

1. using a gene that confers resistance to insects ;


2. credit indication of what gene could code for / insect enzymes inhibitor, toxin, tough
cell wall component ;
3. gene would have to be isolated from an insect-resistant plant / synthesised ;
4. use of a vector / gene gun to introduce gene into plant cell (Agrobacterium
tumefaciens, Ti plasmid, T-DNA, plasmid, liposome in place of vector) ;
5. testing {plants / cells } for presence of gene ;

4 The photograph below shows a 13‑lined ground squirrel.
This squirrel hibernates when the environmental temperature is very low for
several months. Every three weeks during hibernation, the squirrel moves slightly and 
shivers. During hibernation, its heart rate decreases, its body temperature falls and the 
proportion of muscle fibre types changes.

(a) (i) The heart rate of a non‑hibernating squirrel is 300 beats per minute. During 
hibernation, the heart rate decreases by 97%.
Calculate the heart rate of a hibernating squirrel. Show your working. (2)

1. indicating that 1% = 3 bpm ;


2. 9 bpm ;

(ii) Suggest how the heart rate could be decreased during hibernation. (3)

1. reference to cardiovascular control centre ;


2. nerve impulses transmitted down parasympathetic nerve ;
3. to the SAN / sinoatrial node ;
4. decreasing the frequency of signals / waves of excitation from the SAN ;

(b) Suggest the advantage to the squirrel of shivering at regular intervals during 
hibernation. (1)

to generate heat energy to raise the body temperature ; 

(c) The graph below shows the proportion of muscle fibre types in a non‑hibernating 
squirrel and in a hibernating squirrel.
(i) Using the information in the graph, describe the changes in muscle fibre types that 
take place when the squirrel hibernates. (2)

1. increase in slow twitch muscle fibres ;


2. increase in fast twitch type I but decrease in type II / total decrease in fast twitch ;

(ii) Distinguish between the structure of slow twitch muscle fibres and fast twitch muscle 
fibres.

(iii) Suggest why there is a change in the proportion of muscle fibre types when the 
squirrel hibernates. (2)

1. the supply of oxygen is low ;


2. fast twitch muscle cells respire anaerobically ;
3. shivering involves fast twitch fibres / is very rapid muscle contractions ;
4. more heat energy released when slow twitch contract ;

5 When a person is exercising, there is a change in the levels of hormones released 
into their bloodstream. Some of these changes are essential for homeostasis.

(a) State the meaning of the term homeostasis. (1)

maintenance of (steady) internal body conditions ;

(b) The table below shows the roles of some hormones and the change in level of these
hormones during exercise.
(i) Explain how glycogen is hydrolysed. (2)

1. breaking bonds between glucose molecules using water ;


2. reference to 1-4 and 1-6 glycosidic bonds ;

*(ii) Using the information in the table, explain the role of these hormones during 
exercise. (6)

1. during exercise the muscles need more ATP ;


2. during exercise water / sodium is lost by sweating ;
3. adrenaline more ATP produced / more pyruvate for the Krebs cycle ;
4. ACTH increases the glucose in the blood stream ;
5. glucagon increases the glucose in the blood stream ;
6. insulin decrease maintains the level of glucose in the blood stream / ensures glucose
reaches the muscles ;
7. aldosterone maintains sodium to compensate for sodium lost in sweat ;
8. ADH maintains water in body to compensate for water lost in sweat ;

(iii) Explain how transcription factors cause the changes in the levels of some of these 
hormones in the bloodstream. (4)

1. some hormones are proteins ;


2. genes need to be switched on before hormones can be synthesised ;
3. transcription factors bind to specific regions of DNA / promoter sequences;
4. so that RNA polymerase binding can be controlled / transcription can be controlled ;
5. synthesis of insulin needs to be stopped ;
6. transcription factors can switch off genes ;
6 Animals and plants use photoreceptors to detect light.
(a) Describe how light is detected in mammals. (5)

1. rhodopsin in the rod cells ;


2. rhodopsin absorbs light ;
3. cis-retinal is converted into trans-retinal ;
4. rhodopsin splits into opsin and retinal ;
5. rod cells become less permeable to sodium ions ;
6. resulting in hyperpolarisation / generator potential ;
7. if stimulus is large enough an action potential is formed in the bipolar cell ;
8. nerve impulse along optic nerve to brain ;

(b) The time of year that a plant flowers depends on the relative proportion of time the 
plant is exposed to light and dark. The diagram below shows how the hours of light and 
dark, during each 24‑hour period, affect the flowering of Hibiscus plants. 

Using your knowledge of plant photoreceptors, explain how the relative proportion of 
time the plant is exposed to light and dark determines flowering in Hibiscus plants. (5)

1. short dark period Hibiscus flowers / long dark period Hibiscus does not flower ;
2. reference to phytochrome ;
3. PR absorbs white / red / sun light and becomes PFR ;
4. in the dark PFR slowly converts to PR ;
5. when there is a larger proportion of light to dark there will be more PFR / less PR ;
6. PFR stimulates flowering ;
7. flash of light results in PR being converted quickly into PFR ;
8. so more PFR / less PR so flowering does occur ;
16 January 2018/ WBI05/ 20

1 Some mammalian hormones are synthesised from amino acids.

(a) (i) Put a cross in the box next to the structure where translation of messenger RNA 
and protein synthesis take place. (1)
C rough endoplasmic reticulum

(ii) Put a cross in the box next to the structure where modification of proteins to form 
glycoproteins takes place. (1)
A Golgi apparatus

(b) The diagram below shows the structure of thyroxine, a hormone involved in the 
regulation of respiration in cells. Thyroxine is synthesised from two amino acids and 
iodine.

(i) Draw a circle round the carboxyl group. (1)

(ii) Thyroxine increases the body´s sensitivity to hormones such as adrenaline. 
Thyroxine can also inhibit nerve impulses.
Compare the mechanisms used in hormonal and nervous coordination in mammals. (3)
(iii) Cell membranes contain transporter proteins that enable thyroxine to enter the cell. 
This results in a change in the activity of transcription factors. Suggest how thyroxine is 
able to increase the secretion of adrenaline from cells in the adrenal glands. (4)

1. thyroxine binds to receptors ;


2. enters / moves to the nucleus ;
3. activates transcription factors / stimulates transcription / as a transcription factor ;
4. increased protein / enzyme synthesis ;
5. synthesis of more adrenaline ;

2 Spirometry is a technique used to investigate lung function.
(a) The diagram below shows part of a spirometer trace of a person at rest and when 
breathing in and out as fully as possible.

(i) Put a cross in the box next to the letter that shows the tidal volume. (1)

AJ

K represents inspiratory reserve volume


L represents expiratory reserve volume
M represents the vital capacity

(ii) The minute volume is the volume of air breathed in or out by a person in one minute.
Put a cross in the box next to the minute volume of a person with a tidal volume of 450 
cm3 and a breathing rate of 18 breaths per minute. (1)
A 8.1 dm3 min–1
(iii) Explain how you would use a spirometer trace to find the breathing rate of a person. 
(2)

1. count the number of peaks ;


2. measure distance on the trace and convert to time ;
Or
3. measure the distance between two peaks ;
4. convert to a rate knowing the speed of rotation ;
Or
5. record time taken to form the trace
6. divide number of peaks by time taken to produce a trace ;
(b) The effect of exercise on the breathing of a person was investigated. The tidal 
volume and breathing rate of a person were measured at rest and then immediately 
after cycling for two minutes at increasing speeds. The table below shows the results of 
this investigation.

(i) Using the data in the table, describe the effect of exercise on tidal volume. (2)

1. as cycling speed increases, tidal volume also increases ;

2. credit an appropriate manipulated quantitative reference / e.g. tidal volume


increases by 2400 cm3 / tidal volume increases 5 fold / tidal volume shows a 400 % increase ;

(ii) Using the results of this investigation, explain the effect of exercise on the depth and 
rate of breathing. (5)

1. as cycling speed increases, both rate and depth of breathing increase ;


2.increase in cycling speed increases respiration / production of carbon dioxide ;
3. lactate may also be produced ;
4. fall in pH / increase in carbon dioxide / increase in H+ detected by chemoreceptors ;
5. stimulates respiratory centre located in the medulla oblongata ;
6. which sends more impulses to intercostal muscles / diaphragm;

7. the diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract more frequently / stimulating)


stronger contractions of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles ;

3 The photograph below shows a camel. Camels are large mammals adapted to a
desert environment.
(a) A desert environment has a wide temperature range. A camel maintains a nearly 
constant body temperature by the process of negative feedback.

Explain what is meant by the term negative feedback. (2)

1. a change in one direction causes a change in the opposite direction ;


2. to ensure a constant value / set point / narrow range of values ;

‘mechanism that returns a change away from normal value back to normal value ‘

(b) The table below shows the daily heat loss from a camel that had been given water to
drink and the daily heat loss from a camel that had not been given water to drink.

Using the data in the table, calculate the percentage increase in the heat loss of the 
camel given water to drink. Show your working. (2)

1. 20 920 – 8 368 = 12 552


2. (12 552 ÷ 8 368) x 100 = 150

*(c) Temperatures in the desert may rise above 50 q C. Suggest how the camel is able 
to maintain an internal body temperature within a range of 38 oC to 40 oC.(6) 

1. thermoreceptors in skin / hypothalamus ;


2. send impulses / action potentials to the hypothalamus / thermoregulatory centre / heat
loss centre ;

3. causes vasodilation / blood vessels to dilate so more blood flows to the skin / superficial
capillaries ;

4. hair arrector muscles relax so more heat loss by convection / radiation ;


5. increased sweating so more evaporation ;
6. inhibition of shivering / muscle contraction so less heat generated ;
7. decreased metabolism / metabolic rate / respiration so less heat generated ;
8. panting / salivation / decreased adrenaline production ;

4 The diagram below shows two muscles in the human arm, the biceps and the triceps.
(a) Explain how extension of the lower arm is brought about. (2)

1. muscles are an antagonistic pair ; 
2. triceps contracts and the biceps relaxes ; 

(b) Muscles contain structural proteins.
Put a cross in the box next to the row in the table that shows two structural proteins 
involved in muscle contraction. (1)

(c) The graph below shows the force of contraction of two muscles after a stimulus.

(i) Using the information in the graph, compare the response of these two muscles to a 
stimulus. (2)

1. eye and leg muscles contract with the same force ; 
2. eye muscles contract / relax / respond more quickly ; 
3. eye muscles contract and relax / respond  over a shorter period of time ; 
(ii) Eye muscles contain a higher proportion of fast twitch fibres to slow twitch fibres than
leg muscles.
Complete the table below to give three differences between fast twitch and slow twitch 
muscle fibres. (3)

(d) Some athletes use drugs to enhance the performance of their muscles. Suggest two
reasons why the use of such drugs should be banned. (2)

1. unfair advantage ;
2. unethical ;
3. health risks / named example ;
4. not being a good role model for young players ;
5. cost to health services ;

5 Neurones conduct impulses and synapses allow for the transmission of nerve 
impulses from one neurone to another.
(a) Put a cross in the box next to the words to complete each of the following 
statements.

(i) When an axon membrane is depolarised and the membrane potential rises from –70 
mV to +40 mV, (1)
C sodium channels open and sodium ions move into the axon

(ii) The sodium­potassium pump in the axon membrane actively transports (1)
A potassium ions into the axon and sodium ions out of the axon
(b) Explain how calcium ions are involved in synaptic transmission. (3)

1. the impulse reaches the presynaptic membrane / knob ;


2. calcium channels open / calcium ions diffuse in ;
3. causing vesicles to move towards / fuse with the membrane ;
4. release / exocytosis of neurotransmitter into synaptic cleft ;

(c) Suggest two reasons why impulses travel in only one direction across a synapse. (2)

1neurotransmitters / vesicles  are found only in the presynaptic knob; 
2. for neurotransmitters are found only on the postsynaptic membrane ; 

(d) The graphs below show the effect of acetylcholine on the membrane potential of the 
postsynaptic cell in an excitatory synapse and in an inhibitory synapse.

Using the information in the graphs, compare the effect of acetylcholine at these two 
synapses. 

1. acetylcholine depolarises postsynaptic cell at an excitatory synapse but hyperpolarises


postsynaptic cell at an inhibitory synapse ;

2. acetylcholine has a faster effect at an excitatory synapse / slower more sustained effect at
an inhibitory synapse ;
3. acetylcholine causes a greater change in membrane potential at an excitatory synapse ;
6 Plants and animals detect and respond to environmental cues, such as light.
(a) (i) Name the visual pigment present in rod cells. (1)
rhodopsin

(ii) Put a cross in the box next to the words to complete the following statement. (1)
B cation channels close and the rod cell becomes hyperpolarised

(b) Explain the role of auxin (IAA) in phototropism. (3)

1. IAA is produced in the growing tip ;


2. IAA moves laterally away from source of light / IAA accumulates on the shaded side of
shoot ;

3. causes cell elongation on this side ;


4. therefore shoot grows towards the light ;

(c) An investigation was carried out to study the effects of different periods of light and 
darkness on the flowering of cocklebur plants. The relative periods of light and darkness
and the results of this investigation are shown in the diagram below.

Using your knowledge of photoreceptors in plants, suggest an explanation for the 
results of this investigation. (4)

1. the results suggest that cocklebur is a short-day plant ;


2. reference to involvement of phytochrome ;
3. in the dark, PFR slowly reverts to PR ;
4. these plants need a sufficiently long dark period to allow PFR to reach critical low
concentration ;

5. high PR promotes flowering / high PFR inhibits flowering ;


6. short period of light during darkness converts PR back to PFR ;