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TUGAS SPA 5

NAMA : PUTRI
NABILA

NIM : H1B106019

1. Judul :

Manga(Komik) Center di Banjarmasin

2. Nama Dosen Pembimbing :

a) Indah Mutia ST, MUD

b) Anna Oktaviana ST, MT

c)

3. Alasan pemilihan judul :

Manga adalah sebutan untuk komik dalam bahasa Jepang. Seperti yang
kita ketahui, komik banyak diminati dari kalangan anak-anak hingga remaja.
Baik bertemakan horror hingga komedi.

Mungkin di kota besar seperti Banjarmasin, komik hanya bisa


diperjualbelikan atau disewakan di rental-rental buku.

Namun dengan adanya Manga Center, maka para peminat tidak hanya
sekedar membeli, membaca namun juga belajar bagaimana menciptakan
komik. Di Manga Center juga tidak hanya memperjualbelikan komik namun
juga memperjualbelikan barang-barang yang berhubungan dengan komik-
komik tersebut. Bahkan kini di Jepang terdapat sebuah Museum Internasional
Manga dan fakultas khusus untuk jurusan manga di sebuah univesitas di
Kyoto.

Minat para pembaca komik tidak hanya sampai disitu. Akhir-akhir ini
para remaja mengadakan event yang bertemakan manga. Yaitu Cosplay.
Sebuah event yang berasal dari Jepang, dimana para peserta yang mengikuti
event tersebut menggunakan kostum yang sama persis dengan tokoh yang
ada di komik.

4. Tema :
Manga Center adalah sebuah tempat untuk memfasilitasi aktivitas
pembelajaran, aktivitas ekonomi/jualbeli juga hiburan. Oleh karena itu, tema
yang akan saya ambil adalah tema: Education and Entertainment.

5. Studi banding / referensi :

a. Mengenai judul (Manga Center di Banjarmasin) :

• About Manga (sumber: www.wkipedia.com)

Manga ( 漫 画 ) (baca: man-ga, atau ma-ng-ga) merupakan


kata komik dalam bahasa Jepang; di luar Jepang, kata tersebut
digunakan khusus untuk membicarakan tentang komik Jepang.
Mangaka ( 漫 画 家 ) (baca: man-ga-ka, atau ma-ng-ga-ka) adalah
orang yang menggambar manga.

Manga di Jepang

Majalah-majalah manga di Jepang biasanya terdiri dari


beberapa judul komik yang masing-masing mengisi sekitar
30-40 halaman majalah itu (satu chapter/bab). Majalah-
majalah tersebut sendiri biasanya mempunyai tebal
berkisar antara 200 hingga 850 halaman. Sebuah judul
manga yang sukses dapat terbit hingga bertahun-tahun
seperti " ジ ョ ジ ョ の 奇 妙 な 冒 険 / Jojo no Kimyō na Bōken /
JoJo's Bizarre Adventure / Misi Rahasia". Umumnya,
judul-judul yang sukses dapat diangkat untuk dijadikan
dalam bentuk animasi (atau sekarang lebih dikenal dengan
istilah ANIME) contohnya adalah seperti Naruto, Bleach dan
One Piece.

Beberapa manga cerita aslinya bisa diangkat


berdasarkan dari novel / visual novel, contohnya adalah
"Basilisk" (tidak beredar di Indonesia) berdasarkan dari
novel " 甲 賀 忍 法 帖 , Kōga Ninpōchō" oleh Futaro Yamada,
yang menceritakan pertarungan antara klan ninja
Tsubagakure Iga dan klan ninja Manjidani Koga. Ada juga
yang mengangkat dari segi sejarah, seperti sejarah Tiga
Kerajaan (The Three Kingdom) seperti Legenda Naga
(Ryuuroden) dan sejarah-sejarah Jepang, kadang ada yang
memakai nama yang benar benar ada, ada juga yang
memakai tokoh fiktif

Setelah beberapa lama, cerita-cerita dari majalah itu


akan dikumpulkan dan dicetak dalam bentuk buku
berukuran biasa, yang disebut tankōbon (atau kadang
dikenal sebagai istilah volume). Komik dalam bentuk ini
biasanya dicetak di atas kertas berkualitas tinggi dan
berguna buat orang-orang yang tidak atau malas membeli
majalah-majalah manga yang terbit mingguan yang
memiliki beragam campuran cerita/judul. Dari bentuk
tankōbon inilah manga biasanya diterjemahkan ke dalam
bahasa-bahasa lain di negara-negara lain seperti Indonesia.

Untuk beberapa judul (yang sukses) bahkan telah/akan


dibuat versi manusia (Live Action, atau kadang disingkat
sebagai L.A. di jepang), beberapa judul yang telah diangkat
menjadi Live Action adalah Death Note, Detektif Conan,
GeGeGe no Kintaro, Cutie Honie, Casshern, DevilMan,
Saigake!! Otokojuku dan lain lain

Lebih lanjut sebagian judul juga akan dibuat remake


kembali secara internasional oleh produsen di luar negara
Jepang, seperti Amerika, yang membuat film Live Action
Dragon Ball versi Hollywood (20'th Century Fox), dan
kabarnya juga akan dibuat versi live action dari Death Note
oleh pihak produser barat.

Berdasarkan jenis pembaca

•Manga yang khusus ditujukan untuk anak-anak disebut


kodomo (子供) — untuk anak-anak.
•Manga yang khusus ditujukan untuk (Wanita) dewasa
disebut josei (女性) (atau redikomi) — wanita.
•Manga yang khusus ditujukan untuk dewasa disebut
seinen (青年) — pria.
•Manga yang khusus ditujukan untuk perempuan disebut
shōjo (少女) — remaja perempuan.
•Manga yang khusus ditujukan untuk laki-laki disebut
shōnen (少年) — remaja lelaki.

Dua penerbit manga terbesar di Jepang adalah


Shogakukan (小学館) dan Shueisha (集英社).

Gaya penggambaran

Rata-rata mangaka di Jepang menggunakan gaya/style


sederhana dalam menggambar manga. Tetapi, gambar
latar belakangnya hampir semua manga digambar
serealistis mungkin, biarpun gambar karakternya benar-
benar sederhana. Para mangaka menggambar sederhana
khususnya pada bagian muka, dengan ciri khas mata besar,
mulut kecil dan hidung sejumput. Ada juga gaya
menggambar Lolicon maupun Shotacon.

Tidak semua manga digambarkan dengan sederhana.


Beberapa mangaka menggunakan style yang realistis,
walaupun dalam beberapa elemen masih bisa
dikategorikan manga. Seperti contohnya Vagabond, karya
Takehiko Inoue yang menonjolkan penggunaan arsir,
proporsi seimbang dan setting yang realistis.[rujukan?] Tetap,
Vagabond dikategorikan manga karena gaya
penggambaran mata, serta beberapa bagian yang simpel.
Manga juga biasa digambar dalam monochrome dan
gradasinya yang biasa disebut tone.

Untuk komik jangka panjang atau yang memiliki ratusan


volume, umumnya seiring dengan perkembangan waktu,
para mangaka akan mengalami perubahan goresan yang
cukup signifikan. Contoh yang umum di Indonesia mungkin
karaya Hojo Tsukasa yang dari Cat Eyes berubah menjadi
seperti dalam City Hunter. Atau karya lain Ah ! My Goddess
yang dimulai sejak 1988 dan sampai sekarang masih terus
berjalan. One Piece and Naruto pun cukup berubah bila
dibandingkan pada goresan volume volume awal.

Doujinshi

Doujinshi adalah sebutan bagi manga yang dibuat oleh


fans manga tersebut yang memiliki alur cerita atau ending
yang berbeda dari manga aslinya. Para fans ini biasa
mendistribusikannya dari tangan ke tangan, dijual secara
indie di toko doujinshi, atau mengikuti konvensi akbar
doujinshi yang biasa disebut Comiket. Disini dijual ribuan
judul doujinshi tiap tahunnya. Pengunjungnya bisa
mencapai 400.000 orang.

Doujinshi sendiri kadang menjadi batu loncatan


seseorang/kelompok untuk menjadi mangaka. Ken
Akamatsu (Love Hina, Negima) juga sering membuat dojin
karyanya sendiri. Manga yang bertema hentai biasanya
adalah dojin dari manga tertentu yang sudah terkenal.
Biasanya karakter manga tersebut memang didesain untuk
jadi "sasaran" para dojin-ka (sebutan bagi para pembuat
dojin, sama seperi manga-ka).

Manga di Indonesia

Penerbit
Dua penerbit manga terbesar di Indonesia adalah Elex
Media Komputindo dan m&c Comics yang merupakan
bagian dari kelompok Gramedia. Sekitar tahun 2005,
kelompok Gramedia juga telah menghadirkan Level
Comics, yang lebih terfokus pada penerbitan manga-
manga bergenre Seinen (dewasa).

Tedapat beberapa penerbit ilegal di Indonesia, namun


tampaknya peredarannya hanya sebatas di wilayah kota
kota besar, karena untuk beberapa daerah tidak ditemukan
komik-komik jenis ini. Perbedaan yang mencolok dari
penerbit ilegal ini, mereka tampak lebih terbuka terhadap
sensor dibandingkan dengan manga terbitan Elex yang
jauh lebih ketat dalam hal sensor.

Format baca dan Kejanggalan

Aslinya bahasa Jepang biasanya ditulis dari kanan ke


kiri, sehingga penggambaran manga dan ditulis dengan
sistem seperti ini di Jepang, yang umum disebut sebagai
istilahnya "raw" (mentah). Hal ini berbeda dengan
kebiasaan masyarakat Indonesia yang biasa membaca dari
kiri (atau sebagai patokan cover depan ada di bagian kiri)
ke kanan. Sebelum tahun 2000-an, menyikapi masalah
perbedaan budaya ini, ketika diterjemahkan ke dalam
bahasa Indonesia gambar dan halamannya umumnya di-
flip sehingga dapat dibaca dari kiri ke kanan. Hal ini
menyebabkan sering terlihat tokoh tokoh dalam komik
terlihat kidal (penggunaan tangan kiri yang dominan) dan
sedikit aneh

Untuk beberapa manga yang tidak mempermasalahkan


keadaan terbalik ini, hal semacam ini tidak terlalu
dipermasalahkan, namun kerancuan menjadi sangat
mengganggu dalam terjemahan manga genre detektif
seperti Detektif Conan, Q.E.D atau Detektif Kindaichi yang
sering memberikan informasi/petunjuk yang sangat
menyesatkan pembaca karena pada bagian cerita di bab
depan tidak sesuai dengan hasil deduksi/kesimpulan dari
tokoh utama maupun fakta yang tergambar dalam cerita.
Bahkan dalam suatu buku cerita, kadangkala hanya satu
panel yang dibalik (pada bagian deduksi) yang semakin
memperparah inti cerita. (lihat gambar di samping)

Manga pertama yang mepertahankan format seperti


format Jepang asli (raw) adalah Rurouni Kenshin. Selain itu,
beberapa penulis komik seperti Takehiko Inoue yang
menciptakan komik Slam Dunk tidak setuju karya mereka
diubah begitu saja dan minta agar karya mereka dibiarkan
dalam format aslinya (raw). Kini, manga-manga yang terbit
di Indonesia biasanya sudah diterbitkan dalam format
aslinya, terutama untuk pernerbit terbitan "LEVEL COMICS"
semuannya sudah mengikuti format asli RAW Jepang,
kecuali untuk beberapa judul dari penerbit "Elex Media
Komputindo" yang sebagian ada yang telah mulai
diterbitkan sebelum tahun 2000-an.

• Kyoto Manga International Museum (sumber:


http://www.ginkgraph.net/ )

Kyoto is the mecca of cartoon? All manga


fans must go to the great manga museum!:
Kyoto International Manga Museum

(c) Tezuka Production. The


large wooden statue of
Phoenix was made by sculptor
of Buddha statues in Kyoto.

Many people enjoy a huge number of comics freely, and see


autographs and original drawings of famous cartoon artists in
the museum. It must be a heaven for all manga fans, isn’t it?
ThereThere are many autographs of famous comic artists in the museum
cafe.

Kyoto International Manga Museum was established 3 years


ago. Since then, it has played an important role in the research
of manga. Kyoto city and Kyoto Seika university, which is the
leading authority of manga research, run the museum

together. Hundreds of people visit the museum everyday.

Wall of Manga.

Rows of tall bookshelves of comics line the building which is a


renovated elementary school. These bookshelves are called
the “Wall of Manga”. Visitors can read 50,000 comics freely.
Once you enter the first basement, you will feel overwhelmed
by a large stock room. Many important comics and magazines
are archived in it. A small exhibition which shows the history of
manga is at the side of the room. It starts with Hokusai Manga,
you will learn all about the history of manga. A day is not
enough to enjoy this great museum.
The museum collects 300,000 items for manga research.
The collection contains comics from countries outside of
Japan. Some Kyoto Seika university researchers work in
the museum. They study energetically with other
agencies in the world, visitors can see their research
achievements in exhibitions. They have several
exhibitions everyday. You can check them on the
museum website.

You
can
not
only enjoy comics, but learn a lot about manga and
cartoon culture. It is certainly a bastion of manga. The
spokesperson, Ms.NAKAMURA said “Japanese manga have
various themes, so all generations can enjoy them. Some
visitors enjoy the museum with family. You can enjoy the
various aspects of manga. Please learn about manga and
culture in your own way”.

Kyoto International
Manga Museum

• Japan's manga culture is famous around the world.


Kyoto Seika University's pioneering Faculty of
Manga systematically teaches its essence. (Sumber :
ksuinted@kyoto-seika.ac.jp)

Our Faculty of Manga opened in April 2006, based on the


former Faculty of Art's departments of Cartoon Art, and
Comic Art (Story Manga) . New courses were added in
Manga Production, and Animation. KSU has also
established a world-class Manga research center, the
Kyoto International Manga Museum (see below).

Japanese manga and anime have become firmly


established as dynamic new art forms, and are the focus
of attention from all around the world. Despite their great
popularity, until recently there was hardly any
opportunity to study these popular media on a systematic
basis.

Kyoto Seika University, which pioneered Japan's first


university Manga program, continues to lead all other
institutions in Japan with its full-scale Faculty of Manga.

This development realizes the ultimate in systematic and


comprehensive study of this exciting field, fostering
young artists and producers capable of original
expression and creativity, and promoting the further
development of manga culture in the world.

Graduation exhibitions: Online catalogs 1998-2008 (click


through to individual images of work by every graduating
student in each department...)

Statistics, Faculty of Manga (May 2009):


Total undergraduate enrollment: 852
(M: 284; F: 568)
Overseas undergraduate students: 57

Undergraduate Students
Details of undergraduate (B.A.) courses are available on
our Japanese website. (In Japanese – please note that all
KSU classes are taught in Japanese, and the application
process is also all in Japanese).

Graduate Students
Master's level (and in some cases, Ph.D level) courses
may be available through our Graduate School of Art. A
high level of Japanese language ability (speaking,
reading, writing) is required.

Research Students
The Faculty of Art accepts a certain number of kenkyusei
(Research Students) every semester (according to
availability of space), providing opportunities for
graduates to work at KSU on semi-independent study
themes.
Exchange Students
Exchange students are welcomed from universities with
which Kyoto Seika University has official reciprocal
agreements (listed in the order in which these links were
established). Please note however that Animation and
Manga Production are new departments, and are not yet
ready to accept exchange students:

• ANU School of Art, National Institute of the


Arts,Canberra, Australia
• School of Art & Design, University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, USA
• Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-
Arc), Los Angeles USA
• Rhode Island School of Design (RISD), Providence
USA
Glasgow School of Art, Scotland, UK
• Hong Ik University, Korea
• The Arts Academy, Turku University of Applied
Arts, Finland
• Cooper Union, New York, USA
• California College of the Arts, San Francisco, USA
• Alto University School of Art & Design, Helsinki,
Finland
• Utrecht School of the Arts (HKU), Utrecht, the
Netherlands
• Gerrit Rietveld Academie (GRA), Amsterdam, the
Netherlands
• Kassel School of Arts & Design, Kassel, Germany
• Edinburgh College of Art, Scotland, UK
• L'Ecole de Design Nantes Atlantique, France
• L'Ecole Speciale d'Architecture, Paris, France
• Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture. Paris
Malaquais, Paris, France

In collaboration with Kyoto City, KSU has established the


Kyoto International Manga Museum, the world's largest
manga collection, in a converted school building in
downtown Kyoto, as a museum, library, and research
facility.
b. Mengenai tema(Education dan Entertainment) :

• Art education (Sumber : www.wkipedia.com)

Art education is the area of learning that is based upon


the visual, tangible arts—drawing, painting, sculpture,
and design in jewelry, pottery, weaving, fabrics, etc. and
design applied to more practical fields such as
commercial graphics and home furnishings. Latest trends
also include photography, video, film, design, computer
art, etc.

Historically art was taught in Europe via the atelier


Method system where artists' took on apprentices who
learned their trade in much the same way as any guild
such as the Masons (stonemasons or goldsmiths etc.).
The first art schools were established in 400 BC Greece as
mentioned by Plato. During the Renaissance formal
training took place in art studios. Historically, design has
had some precedence over the fine arts with schools of
design being established all over Europe in the 18th
century. Education in art takes place across the life-span.
Children, youth, and adults learn about art in community
based institutions and organizations such as museums,
local arts agencies, recreation centers, places of worship,
social service agencies, and prisons among many other
possible venues.

Within art schools "visual arts education" encompasses all


the visual and performing arts delivered in a standards-
based, sequential approach by a qualified instructor as
part of the core curriculum. Its core is the study of
inseparable artistic and aesthetic experience and learning

Approaches
There are thousands of arts education curricular models
or models for arts or arts-based professional development
for teachers that schools and community organizations
use. Some assert that the core discipline of Western art
education is the practice of drawing, a model which has
existed since the Renaissance. This is an empirical
activity which involves seeing, interpreting and
discovering appropriate marks to reproduce an observed
phenomena. It can be asserted that other art activities
involve imaginative interpretation.[citation needed] Others would
assert though, that issue based approaches, such as a
visual culture approach to art education, define K-12 art
learning today.

Prominent models include:

• A sixfold model divided into "Creative-Productive, Cultural-


Historical and Critical-Responsive” components in Canada
• Discipline Based Art Education (DBAE) came to favor in the
United States during the 1980s and 1990s, and it focused on
specific skills including techniques, art criticism and art history.
• Current literature in the United states has shifted away from
DBAE but many classrooms still use this model. Others have
shifted to visual culture and diversity models.
• Teaching for Artistic Behavior (TAB) is a theory that began in
the 1970s in the United States. TAB suggests that students
should be the artists and so guided on their own individual
artistic interests through technique lessons and critiques, while
being exposed to art history as it relates to their own work.
• In the UK the art curriculum is prescribed by the
government's National Curriculum except in public or fee
paying schools.

In most systems, “criticism” is understood to be criteria-


based-analysis established on acknowledged elements of
composition and principles of design which often vary in
their verbal articulation, between the different art
discipline forms (applied, fine, performing, & etc.) and
their many schools. Other art educational systems include
the study of Aesthetics, ontology, semantics, studio praxis
(empirical investigation) and phenomenology. There is no
set art education curriculum content - it is a process of
continual often acrimonious cultural negotiation.

Some studies show that strong art education programs


have demonstrated increased student performance in
other academic areas, due to art activities' exercising
their brains' right hemispheres and delateralizing their
thinking. Also see Betty Edwards' Drawing on the Right
Side of the Brain. Support for art education, however,
varies greatly between communities and between schools
in various cultures.

Art education is not limited to formal educational


institutions. Some professional artists specialize in private
or semi-private instruction in their own studios. One form
of this teaching style is the Atelier Method as exemplified
by Gustave Moreau who taught Picasso, Braque and many
other artists. Another is an artist apprenticeship in which
the student learns from a professional artist while
assisting the artist with their work.

United Kingdom
Prince Albert was particularly influential in the creation of
schools of Art in the UK. Prince Charles has created The
Prince's Drawing School in Hoxton to preserve the
teaching of academic drawing.

The Netherlands
Art education in schools is in The Netherlands strongly
improved by the founding of the Dutch Art Teachers
Association in 1880 and their Magazine (in 1881). In the
seventies of last century were national examinations
common in almost all secondary schools. Over the years
struggles and problems, discussions about the right way
and fights for equal qualification supposedly coloured the
history of art education in the Netherlands as in other
countries. The details however are of great interest for
who will compare these developments with those in his
own country. The painter Maarten Krabbé (1908–2005)
changed the whole approach towards children drawing
and painting. With his books on how to educate children
in their free expression (Hidden possibilities | Verborgen
Mogelijkheden (8 volumes | delen),
uitbeeldingsmogelijkheden voor jonge handen (Sijthoff,
Leiden 1961)) he changed the entire educational
landscape. He showed how to handle the very delicate
talents of children and how to treasure these.

United States
Main article: Art education in the United States
The study of art appreciation in America began with the
Picture Study Movement in the late 19th century and
began to fade at the end of the 1920s. Picture study was
an important part of the art education curriculum.
Attention to the aesthetics in classrooms led to public
interest in beautifying the school, home, and community,
which was known as “Art in Daily Living”. The idea was to
bring culture to the child to change the parents. The
picture study movement died out at the end of the 1920s
as a result of new ideas regarding learning art
appreciation through studio work became more popular in
the United States.

American educational philosopher and school reformer


John Dewey was influential in broadening access to art
education in the United States in the late 19th and early
20th century.

Since World War II, there has been an increasing in the


academic and intellectual focus of artist training through
colleges and universities displacing quaintly bohemian,
craft-intensive schools like the Art Students League of
New York (Jackson Pollock and Mark Rothko) or Black
Mountain College (Robert Rauschenberg) or the Hans
Hofmann School of Art in Greenwich Village. By the 60's,
Yale had emerged as the leading American art academy
(Chuck Close, Brice Marden, Richard Serra, Jennifer
Bartlett and Robert Mangold)

Enrollment in art classes at the high school level peaked


in the late 1960s—early 1970s, but with No Child Left
Behind (NCLB) (which retains the arts as part of the "core
curriculum", but does not require reporting or assessment
data on this area) there has been decline of arts
education in American public schools. The United States
Department of Education now awards Arts in Education
Model Development and Dissemination grants to support
organizations with art expertise in their development of
artistic curricula. After 2010, an estimate of 25% of the
nation's public high schools will end all art programs.[citation
needed]

National organizations promoting arts education include


Americans for the Artsincluding Art. Ask For More., its
national arts education public awareness campaign;
Association for the Advancement of Arts Education; Arts
Education Partnership ;
Professional organizations for art educators include the
National Art Education Association, which publishes the
practitioner's magazine Art Education and the research
journal Studies in Art Education; USSEA (the United States
Society for Education through Art) and InSEA (the
International Society for Education through Art).

Current Trends in Theory and


Scholarship
The domain of art education is broadening to include a
wider range of visual and popular culture. Current trends
in scholarship employ postmodern and visual culture
approaches to art education, consider effects of globalism
on the production and interpretation of images and focus
renewed interest on issues of creativity. Within the NAEA,
research and publications are being geared toward issues
of learning, community, advocacy, research and
knowledge.

Art education programs at major research institutions that


are addressing these trends in the United States include
Florida State University, Ohio State University, Northern
Illinois University, Pennsylvania State University, Indiana
University, Bloomington and the University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign.

• ENTERTAINMENT (Sumber: www.wkipedia.com)

Animation

Some people find animation to be entertaining. Similarly,


some people find cartoons to be entertaining.[2]

Cinema and theater

Many people find cinema /or theatre and other live


performance such as circus, plays, musicals, farces,
monologues and pantomimes to be entertaining.

Comedy

Comedy provides laughter and amusement. The audience


is taken by surprise, by the parody or satire of an
unexpected effect or an opposite expectations of their
cultural beliefs. Slapstick film, one-liner joke,
observational humor are forms of comedy which have
developed since the early days of jesters and traveling
minstrels.[3]

Comics

Felix the Cat comic strip

Comics contain text and drawings which convey an


entertaining narrative.[4] Several famous comics revolve
around super heroes such as Superman and Batman.
Marvel Comics and DC Comics are two publishers of
comic books. Manga is the Japanese word for comic and
print cartoons.

Caricature is a graphical entertainment. The purpose may


vary from merely putting smile on the viewers face, to
raising social awareness, to highlighting the moral vices
of a person being caricatured.

Dance and music

Many people find involvement in social dance to be


entertaining. Some people listen to or watch musical
entertainment.

Games
Bingo

Games provide relaxation and diversion. Games may be


played by one person for their own entertainment, or by a
group of people. Games may be played for achievement
or money such as gambling or bingo. Racing, chess or
checkers may develop physical or mental prowess.
Games may be geared for children, or may be played
outdoors such as lawn bowling. Equipment may be
necessary to play the game such as a deck of cards for
card games, or a board and markers for board games
such as Monopoly, or backgammon.[5] This can include
ball games, Blind man's bluff, board games, card games,
children's games, croquet, Frisbee, hide and seek,
number games, paintball and video games.

Other forms of entertainment

Sporting events are a popular form of entertainment.

• Concert
• Lecture
• Magic
• Mass media
• Radio
• Sports
• Storytelling
• Television
Footnotes
1. ^ "Entertainment". Dictionary.com. Lexi-co Publishing
Group. 2007.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/entertainment.
Retrieved 2007-11-30.
2. ^ "cartoon - Definitions from Dictionary.com". Lexi-co
Publishing Group, LLC.. 2003.
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• MAJORING IN MANGA:
University Teaches Students
How to Produce Comics
August 14, 2002

(Sumber : http://web-
japan.org/)

Kyoto Seika University is the only four-year institution in


Japan that offers courses
on creating manga A work by Shizuko Amano, a student at
Kyoto Seika University School of
(comics), and it has Manga. (Shizuko Amano)
recently been garnering
attention for some of its unique undertakings in the area
of manga education. The university invited a popular
manga artist to be a professor, and the courses focus on
practical instruction. The entire program is quite forward-
looking and offers new possibilities for artistic education
in the era of broadband Internet access, as a system has
been developed that allows the teacher to correct
students' work using the Internet, something that will
facilitate distance learning. In addition, the school is
playing a leading role in the study of fields related to
manga, as both a manga society and a research institute
devoted to manga culture have been created. The
program will send its first graduates out into the world in
two years, and many people are interested to see what
kind of work these fledgling artists will produce.

Learning to Draw, Learning to Think


The Kyoto Seika University School of Manga was created
in April 2000, as the manga major formerly belonging to
the School of Design in the Faculty of Arts was upgraded.
The school holds the view that both a sharp eye for the
quirks of human behavior and polished artistic technique
are necessary to create good work. With this in mind, the
school aims not only to train students in drawing
techniques but also to provide them with a firm grounding
in the history of manga, together with a modern
perspective.

The School of Manga, which accepts 50 new students


each year, offers courses in both "cartoon manga"
(manga usually composed of one picture) and "story
manga" (manga that tell a story through a series of
frames). "Cartoon manga" rely on such techniques as
omission and embellishment, and they fall into categories
like satire, humor, and exaggeration. They generally
stand alone as a single picture. The school hopes to
produce artists who can create cartoons that are both
humorous and artistic. Creating a "story manga,"
meanwhile, requires a variety of skills, such as the ability
to construct a story and the ablility to draw. The focus of
this course is not only on how well-drawn a work may be
but also on its imaginative power and the message it
conveys. The school aims to produce both artists who can
think, and editors and writers who can draw.

Kyoto Seika University is also continuing to study the


various effects that manga has on society. As a result, the
importance of manga has been reexamined, and the
Institute for Manga Culture was established in July 2001.
At the end of that month, the institute played a leading
role in creating the Japan Society for Studies in Cartoons
and Comics (site is Japanese only) as a place where
researchers, manga artists, critics, and others can gather
to research and debate different aspects of manga.

Making Use of High-Tech Correction System


A manga-correction system was recently developed
jointly by Kyoto Seika University and a private-sector
research institute. Renowned manga artist Keiko
Takemiya (site is Japanese only), a professor at Kyoto
Seika's Faculty of Arts, School of Manga, plays a leading
role on the development team, which has been
researching the idea since the spring of 2001.

When correcting manga by computer up to now, it was


necessary for students to first input their work - which can
range from a few pages to several dozen - into a scanner
page by page. Making corrections was a cumbersome
task, as only one page at a time could be displayed, and
they had to be flipped through in order. Through the
development of this new system, however, all of the
pages can be placed onscreen at the same time, and the
virtual pages can even be "turned" in the same way as
those of web comics. Every stage of the work, including
the production process and the introduction of characters,
can be corrected onscreen and returned to the student.
As the information can also be provided to other teachers
and students and their opinions solicited, this new system
has been well-received.

This system was made public in January at showrooms in


Tokyo's Chiyoda and Shinjuku Wards connected by fiber
optics. Takemiya explained the improvements that were
made after students' suggestions were proposed to the
engineers, such as being able to flip through pages as
though the work were a book. She then used the system
to correct a manga created by a student, saying, "By
using the Net, private instruction can be given, and
students can voice their opinions. This kind of give and
take is itself a form of educational material." Also at the
demonstration was a separate experiment, in which two
students were at each of the demonstration locations.
The four of them worked together using the system to
design an IT device.

Popular Manga Artist Plays Key Role


Takemiya, a resident of Kamakura City, is well-known for
her work on such science-fiction manga as Terra e (To
earth). Takemiya became a professor of manga at Kyoto
Seika University in 2000. University President Hajime
Nakao expressed his hopes for the program, saying, "The
quality of manga has improved as manga has become
more popular. Takemiya has tried to tell us something
new in each of her works, so she will be able to teach the
students what is important in creating manga."

Takemiya was born in Tokushima Prefecture in 1950, and


she began to draw manga while she was in middle school.
She first had her work published in magazines when she
was still attending the University of Tokushima. She is
presently continuing her work while offering instruction
and lecturing on such things as scenarios and the
production of manga. Takemiya says, "Give and take
between the heavens and the earth is the ideal in artistic
education. I would like to work with foreigners as well."