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Title: Tensile Testing of Metals

Objective: To determine the tensile strength of metals

Introduction:

Tensile testing is one of the most fundamental tests for engineering which provides valuable
information about a material and its associated properties. These properties can be used for design
and analysis of engineering structures, and for developing new materials that better suit a specified
use.

Mechanical properties are of interest to engineers utilizing materials where forces are applied,
dimensions are critical, or failure is undesirable. Three fundamental mechanical properties of
metals are the elastic modulus (E), the yield point (σ y), and the ultimate strength (σTS). This
report contains the results of an experiment to determine the elastic modulus, yield point, and
ultimate strength of medium carbon steel.

Uniaxial tensile test is known as a basic and universal engineering test to achieve the above
material parameters.

Theory:

The tensile testing is carried out by applying longitudinal or axial load at a specific extension rate
to a standard tensile specimen with known dimensions (gauge length and cross sectional area
perpendicular to the load direction) till failure. The applied tensile load and extension are recorded
during the test for the calculation of stress and strain

During a typical tensile experiment, a dog-bone shaped specimen is gripped at its two ends and is
pulled to elongate at a determined rate to its breakpoint; a highly ductile polymer may not reach its
breakpoint. For analytical purposes, a plot of stress (σ) versus strain (ε) is constructed during a
tensile test experiment, which is automatically done on the software.
Stress and strain relationship
When a specimen is subjected to an external tensile loading, the metal will undergo elastic and
plastic deformation. Initially, the metal will elastically deform giving a linear relationship of load
and extension. These two parameters are then used for the calculation of the engineering stress and
engineering strain.

𝐹 ∆𝑙
σ = 𝐴 units- Pascal (Pa) or N/m2 𝜀= 𝐿

where,

σ is the engineering stress ε is the engineering strain


F is the external axial tensile load A is the original cross-sectional area of the specimen
L is the original length of the specimen ΔL change in length (final - original length)

Young's modulus, E
During elastic deformation, the engineering stress-strain relationship follows the Hook's Law and
the slope of the curve (σ-ε) indicates the Young's modulus (E)

𝜎
E= 𝜖

Young's modulus is of importance where deflection of materials is critical for the required
engineering applications, which also says the stiffness of the material. Hooke's Law (Equation 3)
predicts a linear relationship between the strain and the stress and describes the elastic response of
a material. In materials where Hook's Law describes the stress-strain relationship, the elastic
response is the dominant deformation mechanism

Yield strength, σy
By considering the stress-strain curve beyond the elastic portion, if the tensile loading continues,
yielding occurs at the beginning of plastic deformation.

𝐹𝑦
σy = Fy- load at yielding
𝐴
Ultimate Tensile Strength, σTS
If the load is continuously applied, the stress-strain curve will reach the maximum point, which is
the ultimate tensile strength (UTS, σTS). At this point, the specimen can withstand the highest
stress before necking takes place.

𝐹𝑚𝑎𝑥
σts = 𝐴

Fracture Strength, σf
After necking, plastic deformation is not uniform and the stress decreases accordingly until
fracture.

𝐹 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒
σ fracture = 𝐴

Tensile ductility
Tensile ductility of the specimen can be represented as % elongation or % reduction in area as
expressed in the equations given below after the fracture.

∆𝑙
% Elongation = 𝐿 × 100

∆𝐴
% Reduction area = 𝐴 × 100

Apparatus used:

 Mild carbon steel


 Tensometer
 Universal elongation gauge
 Reduction area gauge
Methodology:

 The prepared sample according to figure 1 was obtained and gauge length and the diameter
was measured.
 Sample was fixed horizontally and a uniaxial tensile force of speed 20mm/min was applied.
 The lever used to give this loading and was rotated with a constant speed without stopping.
 Graph of stress- strain was generated by the machine with the fed input of gauge length,
diameter, load, extension.
 Reduction in area and percentage elongation of sample was measured after fracture
 From the generated graph followings were noted
Young's Modulus
Upper- and lower yield stress
The ultimate tensile strength (UTS)

Figure 1 : Metallic specimen used for the tensile test

A- Length of reduced section D- Diameter


G- Gage length R- Radius of fillet

Observation:

As load was continuously applied the specimen started to elongate and necking was observed.
When force was continuously applied at one point the sample fractured giving a cup and cone
surface.

Figure 2 cup and cone fracture surface


Conclusion:

The elastic modulus, yield point, and ultimate stress of 1018 steel were determined in uniaxial
tension. The "dog bone" specimen geometry was used. The cross section of the specimen reduced
by 15% and it was elongated to 30%. At high forces, deformation of the sample was the dominant
response. The elastic modulus is around 1141Nmm-2 and ultimate strength is 570.5Nmm-2.

Bibliography
Anon., 2010. Tensile Report. [Online] Available at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18004147/Tensile-Test
[Accessed 5 September 2014].

Callister Jr W.D., R.D.G., 2007. Failiure. In Materials science and engineering. 8th ed. versallies, USA:
Willey. pp.236-42.

shenya, 2002. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF 1018 STEEL IN TENSION. [Online] Available at:
http://www.uwyo.edu/ceas/classes/meref/example_long_report.pdf [Accessed 11 September 2014].

Udomphol, T., 2010. Tensile testing. [Online] Available at:


http://eng.sut.ac.th/metal/images/stories/pdf/Lab_3Tensile_Eng.pdf [Accessed 10 September 2014].