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Chapter 5

Prof. Christy Zhou Koval


2017 Spring
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Reminder
Initial Group Member List available on
Canvas. See who your teammates are!

Coordinate a face-to-face meeting


with your group members as soon as
you can!
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Learning objectives
MARS model of individual
behavior
Values
Values in the workplace
Values across cultures
Ethical values
Personality

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MARS model of
individual behavior
Role
Perceptions
Values
Personality Motivation
Individual
Perceptions Behavior
Emotions and Results
Ability
Attitudes
Stress Situational
Factors

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Motivation
Internal forces that affect a person’s
voluntary choice of behavior
Direction
Intensity
Persistence

R
M
B&R
A S

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Ability
Natural and learned aptitudes, skills,
knowledge, and other personal
characteristics required for task
completion and performance

R
M
B&R
A S
Ability
Is a person’s ability (e.g., intelligence)
fixed?

Fixed vs. Growth mindset:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KUWn_TJTrnU

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Role Perceptions

What tasks to perform

Relative importance of tasks

Preferred behaviors to accomplish tasks


R
M
B&R
A S
Situational Factors
Environmental conditions beyond the
individual’s short-term control that constrain
or facilitate behavior. For example:
Time
People
Budget
R
Work facilities M
Consumer preferences B&R
A S
Learning objectives
MARS model of individual
behavior
Values
Values in the workplace
Values across cultures
Ethical values
Personality

11
MARS model of
individual behavior
Role
Perceptions
Values
Personality Motivation
Individual
Perceptions Behavior
Emotions and Results
Ability
Attitudes
Stress Situational
Factors

12
Learning objectives
MARS model of individual
behavior
Values
Values in the workplace
Values across cultures
Ethical values
Personality

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Values in the Workplace
Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences
Define right or wrong, good or bad (in our eyes)
Value system: hierarchy of values
Values are important because:
Ethical values (define good and bad)
Guide employee behavior (in ambiguous situations)
Globalization raises awareness of values differences
An example of value system
Independence
Status Leisure

Peace
Justice Love Friendship

Honesty
Trust
Health Family
Happiness Excitement
Knowledge
Wealth Freedom
Customs

Responsibility Equality
Espoused vs. Enacted Values
Espoused: values that the organization states that it
believes in (e.g., in mission statements, presentations,
etc.) – the “desired”

Enacted: values that organization members perceive


to be valued by the organization – the “reality”
Values Congruence
Compatibility of value systems
Person-organization
Espouse-enacted values congruence
Organization-society values congruence
Problems of incongruence
Incompatible decisions
Lower satisfaction and commitment
Increased stress and turnover
Learning objectives
MARS model of individual
behavior
Values
Values in the workplace
Values across cultures
Ethical values
Personality

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Values across Cultures
Individualism and collectivism
Power distance
Uncertainty avoidance
Achievement-nurturing orientation
Individualism vs. Collectivism

The degree to which people prefer


to act as individuals versus as
members of groups
Individualism Collectivism
Personal freedom, self- Group interest, duty to
sufficiency, control, groups
private space
Independence, personal Harmony with others
uniqueness
Power Distance
The degree to which people accept an
unequal distribution of power in society

High Low
Accept and value Expect relatively
unequal power equal power sharing
Value obedience to Value consultation
authority
Uncertainty avoidance
The degree that people tolerate ambiguity (low)
or feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty
(high uncertainty avoidance)

High Low
Value structured Prefer unstructured
situations, clearly situations
documented conduct
Prefer direct Prefer indirect
communications communications

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Achievement vs. Nurturing
Competitive versus cooperative
view of relations with other people
Achievement Nurturing
Value assertiveness, Value relationships
competitiveness, and well-being of
and materialism others
Quantity (money Quality of life
and material goods) (welfare)
Values in Selected Countries
Sample Countries/Regions
Country/region Power Individualism Achievement/ Uncertainty
Distance Nurturing Avoidance
Mainland China High Low Moderate Moderate

Hong Kong High Moderate* High Low


France High High Moderate High

Indonesia High Low Moderate Low

Japan Moderate Low High High

Mexico High Low High High

U.S. Low High High Low

High=top third; moderate=medium third; low=bottom third (among 53 countries)


Power Distance & Airline Crashes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bk51T8X2lXA
(1:02 to 3:22)

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Learning objectives
MARS model of individual
behavior
Values
Personality

27
MARS model of
individual behavior
Role
Perceptions
Values
Personality Motivation
Individual
Perceptions Behavior
Emotions and Results
Ability
Attitudes
Stress Situational
Factors

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What is Personality?
Personality
The pattern of relatively enduring (or the
sum total of) ways in which an individual
reacts to and interacts with others.

Why study personality?


-It affects our behaviors.
-It affects our choices of jobs and
occupations.
-It affects the attraction, selection,
and retention of employees.

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Personality Determinants

Situation

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Big Five personality
dimensions - CANOE
Conscientiousness Careful, dependable

Agreeableness Courteous, caring

Neuroticism Anxious, hostile

Openness to Experience Sensitive, flexible

Extroversion Outgoing, talkative


CANOE and Performance
Conscientiousness
Strongest personality predictor of performance
Agreeableness
Cooperation and helpfulness
Teams, customer relations, conflict-handling situations
Neuroticism
Relates to life satisfaction, job satisfaction, and low stress
levels
Openness to experience
Adaptability to change and comfort with ambiguity
Extroversion
Social interaction and persuasion
Sales and management performance
CANOE and Performance
Personality tests in organizations:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o
sd1FELf8Cs

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Other Important Personality Traits
Core self-evaluations (CSEs)
Conclusions individuals have about their capabilities,
competence, and worth as a person
Individuals with positive CSEs tend to perform better
Locus of control
Internals believe in their effort and ability
Externals believe events are mainly due to external causes.
Self-monitoring
An individual’s ability to adjust behavior to external,
situational factors
High self-monitors pay closer attention to the behavior of
others, more capable of conforming to norms
Preparation of Next Class
Read Chapter 6