Anda di halaman 1dari 32

Chapters 12, 13

Leadership, Power, & Influence I

Prof. Christy Zhou Koval


Spring 2017
Learning Objectives
 Leadership:
 Basic concepts of leadership
 Five perspectives of leadership

 Power in organizations:
 Definition of power
 Sources of power
 Contingencies of power
Leadership Defined

 Leadership is the ability to influence,


motivate, and enable others to contribute
toward the effectiveness of the organizations
of which they are members
Leadership vs. Management

Leader Manager
Do the right things Do things right

Formal or informal power Formal power

Vision, Monitor operation,


change, create order,
future maintain consistency
Learning Objectives
 Leadership:
 Basic concepts of leadership
 Five perspectives of leadership

 Power in organizations:
 Definition of power
 Sources of power
 Contingencies of power
5 Perspectives of Leadership
Competency
Perspective

Implicit Behavioral
Leadership Leadership Perspective
Perspective
Perspectives

Transformational Contingency
Perspective Perspective
1. Competency Perspective
 Early research
 Competencies
 Characteristics that lead to superior performance
 Knowledge, skills, abilities, values
 Competency-based practices
 Competency-based rewards
 Leadership competency development programs
Required Leadership Competencies

Emotional
Intelligence
Integrity

Drive Leadership
Motivation Self
Confidence
Knowledge of
the Business Intelligence
Competency Perspective Limitations
 Implies a universal approach
 Some competencies might not be necessary in all
situations
 Alternative combinations of competencies might
work just as well
 Competencies indicate leadership potential,
not actual leadership
2. Behavioral Perspective
 People-oriented leadership behaviors
 Showing mutual trust and respect
 Concern for employee needs
 Desire to look out for employee welfare
 Task-oriented leadership behaviors
 Assign specific tasks
 Ensure employees follow rules
 Set “stretch goals” to achieve performance
capacity
People-oriented vs. Task-oriented
Leadership Behaviors

People-oriented Task-oriented

Job satisfaction  

Attendance/
Tenure
 

Performance  
3. Contingency Perspective
 Most appropriate leadership behaviors or
styles depend on the situation

 Effective leaders consider employee and


environmental contingencies and adapt to the
situation
4. Transformational Perspective
Creating
Communicating
a Strategic
the Vision
Vision

Transformational
Leadership

Building Modeling
Commitment the Vision
Transformational versus Transactional
leaders
Transformational leaders Transactional leaders
Leading Managing
Changing the Achieve current
organization to fit objectives more
environment efficiently
Linking job performance
Change agents
to rewards

Energize and direct Ensure employees


change have necessary
resources
Evaluating Transformational
Leadership
 Advantages
 Higher employee satisfaction, loyalty,
performance, organizational citizenship, creativity
 Limitations
 Transformational leaders identified by their
success
 Universal approach, need to recognize
contingencies such as cross-cultural differences
5. Implicit Leadership Perspective

 Follower perceptions of characteristics of


effective leaders

 Leadership prototypes
 Preconceived image of effective leader, used to
evaluate leader effectiveness

 Romance of leadership effect


 Amplify effect of leaders on organizational results
Recap of the Leadership
Perspectives
Competency
Perspective

Implicit Behavioral
Leadership Perspective
Perspective Leadership
Perspectives

Transformational Contingency
Perspective Perspective
 What is the role of followers?

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fW8amM
CVAJQ
Learning Objectives
 Leadership:
 Basic concepts of leadership
 Five perspectives of leadership

 Power in organizations:
 Definition of power
 Sources of power
 Contingencies of power
What is power?
 Power: The capacity of a person, team, or
organization to influence others

 People have power they don’t use and may not


know they possess

 Power requires one person’s perception of


dependence on another person
Learning Objectives
 Leadership:
 Basic concepts of leadership
 Five perspectives of leadership
 Power in organizations:
 Definition of power
 Sources of power
 Contingencies of power
Model of power in organizations

Sources Power
Of Power over Others

Legitimate Contingencies
Reward Of Power
Coercive Substitutability
Expert Centrality
Referent Discretion
Visibility
Sources of Power
Legitimate Power

Reward Power Formal sources of power

Coercive Power

Expert Power
Personal sources of power

Referent Power
Formal sources of power
 Legitimate power
 The power a person receives as a result of his or her

position in the formal hierarchy of an organization.


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JJsH8JYsfgQ

 Reward power
 Through control of the allocation of rewards

 Example: promotion, salary increase, acceptance, praise

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M1YS06tOUTw

 Coercive power
 Through application of punishment

 Example: “If you don’t obey me, you will be fired”

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P1SQI-ztodA
Personal sources of power
 Expert power
 Through possessing knowledge or skills
 Example: a consultant
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bqbrZ2jtqro

 Referent power
 Through identification and respect
 Being liked and respected
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iuyOlW07u-k&t=3s
Learning Objectives
 Leadership:
 Basic concepts of leadership
 Five perspectives of leadership

 Power in organizations:
 Definition of power
 Sources of power
 Contingencies of power
Model of power in organizations

Sources Power
Of Power over Others

Legitimate Contingencies
Reward Of Power
Coercive Substitutability
Expert Centrality
Referent Discretion
Visibility
Contingencies of power
 Substitutability
 Availability of alternatives
 E.g., Medical professional
Contingencies of power
 Centrality
 Degree and nature of interdependence
between power-holder and others
 Centrality is a function of:
 How many others are affected by you

 How quickly others are affected by you

 E.g., Airline pilots


Contingencies of power
 Discretion
 Freedom to exercise judgment
 E.g., middle managers
 Power limited by senior mangers
Contingencies of power
 Visibility
 Being seen as possessing valued knowledge or
higher authority
 E.g., display awards / diplomas; clothing