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Chapter 11

Communication
Prof. Christy Zhou Koval
Spring 2017

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Learning objectives

• Basic concepts
• Communication process model
 Communication barriers
• Nonverbal communication
• Cross-cultural communication

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Communication
• The process by which information is transmitted
and understood between two or more people

• Transmitting the sender’s intended meaning is


the essence of good communication

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Direction of Communication
Direction of Communication in
Organizations

Downward

Lateral

Upward

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Learning objectives

• Basic concepts
• Communication process model
 Communication barriers
• Nonverbal communication
• Cross-cultural communication

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Communication process model

Sender Channel Receiver


Transmit
Message Receive
Form Encode Decode
encoded
message message message
message

Noise

Decode Receive Encode Form


feedback feedback feedback feedback
Transmit
Feedback
Learning objectives

• Basic concepts
• Communication process model
 Communication barriers
• Nonverbal communication
• Cross-cultural communication

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Communication Barriers

Perception Language

Information
Filtering
Overload

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Communication barriers
• Perception: Our perceptual process are
imperfect

Selective attention
Attitudes
Interests

Needs
Expectations

Backgrounds

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Communication barriers
• Filtering:
• Willful distortion of information.
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zh6NzOHO
U8s

• In organizations, usually arise in upward


communication.
 Employees tend to pass only those messages
that create positive impression about them.

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Communication barriers
• Language
 Ambiguity
• The passerby helps dog bite victim
• John took off his trousers by the bank
• I rode a black horse in red pajamas

 Jargon

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Communication barriers
• Language
 Ambiguity
 Jargon
 Actual language spoken (e.g., English vs.
Cantonese)
• Examples of language based miscommunication?

Lost in Translation

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Communication barriers
Information Overload
Episodes of
information
overload

People’s
information
processing
capacity

Information Load

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Time
Communication Barriers
• Information Overload:

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Learning objectives

• Basic concepts
• Communication process model
 Communication barriers
• Nonverbal communication
• Cross-cultural communication

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Communications 101

• A message is delivered using….


 Words
 Non-Verbal
• Correct tone and inflection
• Body Language

• Words = 7%
• All the rest = 93%

Actions DO speak louder than words.


Non-verbal Communication
• Nonverbal Communication Channel
 Actions, facial expressions, gestures, voice intonation, physical
distance, silence

• Nonverbal behavior expresses


 Like and dislike
 Dominance or submissiveness (status)
 Amount of reaction (interest)

• Expressed through
 Voice intonation
 Eye contact
 Etc.
Learning objectives

• Basic concepts
• Communication process model
 Grounding
 Communication barriers
• Nonverbal communication
• Cross-cultural communication

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Cultural context
• High-context cultures

Cultures that rely heavily on


nonverbal & subtle situational cues in communication

• Low-context cultures

Cultures that rely heavily on


word to convey meaning in communication

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High- vs. Low- Context Cultures

Anticipate the
need of the
others!
More perspective
taking!

Video on High vs. Low context Cultures


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qKViQSnW-UA
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Four rules enhance
cross-cultural communication

4 rules enhance cross-cultural communication :

1. Assuming differences until similarity is proven

2. Emphasizing description (factual)

rather than interpretation / evaluation (subjective)

3. Practicing empathy
- Try to imagine yourself in the recipient’s shoes

4. Testing your interpretations

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