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FRIT 7231 Instructional Design

Design Document

Marie Roberson

Dr. Hodges
Fall 2016
Identification of Learning Problem

My target audience will be 19 first grade students at Fayetteville Elementary school in

Fayetteville, GA. The students range in age from six to eight years old. 68%, or 13 of the

children are African American, 21%, or 4 are Caucasian, and 5%, or 1 is Asian. Fayetteville

Elementary is a Title I school with approximately 53% of the student body qualifying for free or

reduced meal rates. All the students in the classroom attended kindergarten at Fayetteville

Elementary School.

Three times a year my district requires teachers to complete Dibels Next testing in

reading for each student. First graders are tested on nonsense words (correct letter sounds and

whole words read) as well as oral reading fluency. The expectation is that each student will read

sixty-nine words of grade level text in a one minute. This test aided me in determining the

problem area for the above first grade class. The class had 89% of students not meeting the goal

of 69 words per minute for oral reading fluency. This is 17 out of 19 students in the class that

are not reading at a rate of 69 words in one minute. In previous years, between 40-50% were not

meeting the oral reading standards at this point in the school year. This deficiency is based on

county level expectations as well as the Common Core Standards. The Common Core Standard

for fluency is as follows: ELAGSE1RF4: Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support

comprehension. a. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding. b. Read on-level text

orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings. c. Use context to
confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. d. Read

grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.

My instructional goals

● Students will define fluency and know why it is important.

● Students will identify 200 Fry sight words within 3 seconds and read sight word phrases

within 5 seconds.

● Students will use phonics skills to decode unfamiliar words.

● Students will read grade level text at a rate of at least 69 words per minute with 90%

accuracy or better.

Learner Analysis

My target audience is 19 first grade students at Fayetteville Elementary school in

Fayetteville, GA. The students range in age from six to eight years old. 68%, or 13 of the

children are African American, 21%, or 4 are Caucasian, and 5%, or 1 is Asian. There are 4

students who are identified as gifted and are pulled out each Friday for services. There are 3

students who qualified for the Early Intervention Program in reading only. There are 13 students

living in two parent homes and 2 students live in a home with multiple generations. I have 2

students that are tier 3 for behavior and 3 students who are tier 2 in the Response to Intervention

pyramid. There are no students identified with learning disabilities.

The students in the target audience all attended Fayetteville Elementary as a kindergarten

students, and based on teacher grades, all were promoted to first grade. The teachers used

Georgia Standards of Excellence (GSE) for ELA and math, and Georgia Performance Standards

(GPS) for social studies and science. Students received grades on a scale from 1-4. A 1 is
working below grade level with accommodations, a 2 is working at grade level with

accommodations, a 3 is working at grade level, and a 4 is working above grade level. Grades

were based on benchmark results as well as EIP placement data. Kindergarten teachers give the

Georgia Kindergarten Inventory of Developing Skills (GKIDS) as well as Dibles Next. The

scores are entered into Infinite Campus where all future teachers have access to the scores.

There are no standardized test scores, but based on the tests given at the end of kindergarten,

only 16 percent of the students in the target audience are not working on or above grade-level.

The standards that all students must master before entering first grade for fluency are listed


● Recognize 50 sight words (3 second maximum for each word-Fayette County standard)

● Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences by producing

the primary or many of most frequent sounds for each consonant.

● Associate the long and short sounds with the common spellings (graphemes)for the five

major vowels.

● Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that


● Read common high-frequency words by sight. (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do,

does); read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.

I conducted a survey (happy face, straight face, sad face) to collect data on academic

areas (reading, math, writing) and overall motivation. I found that 63% of the class enjoyed

reading aloud in class (happy face), 16% were neutral (straight face), and 21% did not enjoy

reading aloud (sad face). However, 84% of the class thought of themselves as “good” readers.
The survey also found that students enjoyed when a story was read aloud to them, and only 50%

of them had stories read to them at home. When students take weekly spelling and sight word

checks (both relating to fluency), scores reflect if the student has practice at home through

homework. The survey also found that overall students enjoy school. There was one student

that did not like school, however, 95% circled the happy face when asked how they felt about

coming to school in general. The one student with a negative feeling is on a behavior plan and

has check in/outs as part of the RTI process. Students indicated that they enjoyed working with a

tablet or computer, as well as with a teacher in a small group.

Task Analysis

I conducted a task analysis using a topical and procedural analysis. Information from the

county benchmark Dibels showed students have a deficit in the area of reading fluency.

Task Analysis Outline

1. What is reading fluency?

1.1 Define fluency and why it is important.

1.2 Read grade level text with appropriate speed, accuracy, and prosody.

2. Types of words

2.1 Sight words

2.1.1 Sight words are the from the Fry list (0-200 for first grade) that you should recognize by


2.2 Nonsense words

2.2.1 Nonsense words are consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words that should be blended and

read as if it is a real word.

2.3. Phonics rule words

2.3.1 Phonics rule words are words that have a rule, such as vowel-consonant-e (sneaky e rule)

that students are able to sound out.

3. Repeated Readings

3.1 Sight word phrases

3.1.1 Sight word phrases ​build vocabulary and schema as well as help fluency

3.2 Sight word stories

3.2.1 Sight word stories have comprehension opportunities as well as promoting fluency.

3.3 Grade-level passages

3.3.1 Grade-level passages are stories that are appropriate in difficulty (length, vocabulary,


3.4 Timed repeated readings

3.4.1 Timed repeated readings are done 3-5 times and words per minute are recorded and

graphed if possible.

I, Marie Roberson, will serve as the SME for this instructional plan. I have a Bachelor’s

of Science degree in Social Sciences, with a minor in History. I completed a Teacher Alternative

Preparation Program (TAPP) through Clayton County Public Schools (CCPS). I taught 2​nd​ grade

in CCPS for three years, 2​nd​ grade at Fayetteville Elementary for one year, as well as 1​st​ grade for

seven years. My primary qualification to serve as the SME is the fact that I know the standards

thoroughly, as well as the target audience. I have taught fluency in both 2nd grade as well as

first grade, attended two Reading First conferences as well as several county level literacy

trainings on reading fluency.

Instructional Objectives

● Define reading fluency and have a clear understanding of why it is important.

● Given the 200 Fry word list, students will identify each word within 3 seconds and will

also demonstrate sight word knowledge by reading sight word phrase cards within 5


● Students will transfer the phonics and other strategies learned to decode unfamiliar words

in their reading.

a. Use word recognition strategies (phonetic and nonsense word strategies) to

identify unfamiliar words.

● Given a first grade reading passage, s​tudents will read text at a rate of at least 69 words

per minute with 90% accuracy or better.

Classification of objectives

The four objectives are in the cognitive domain.

Content Performance

Recall Application

Fact 1

Concept 2

Principles and rules 3a 3

Procedure 4



Lesson 1​: ​What is Fluency?

Goal: Student will define fluency.

Objective:​ ​Define reading fluency and have a clear understanding of why it is important by

viewing a PowerPoint with narration.

Differentiation: Through google classroom students will log on and take a quiz on google docs.

Students will have the ability to have the words read to them, through adaptive technology. A

free response will be added after each question for high achieving students to add reasons to

support their answer.


● Excels in understanding: Student completes assignments with 0 errors (100%)

● Demonstrates a clear understanding: Student completes assessment with 1 error (80%)

● Demonstrates some understanding: Students completes assessment with 2 errors (60%)

● Little to no understanding: Student complete assessment with 3-5 errors (0-40%)

Assessment (google form)

1. A fluent reader _____________

a. reads really quickly

b. reads with NO expression

c. reads with expression and pays attention to punctuation.

2. _______________ will help my fluency increase.

a. Playing games

b. Sight words and sight word phrase practice

c. Chapter books
3. Do you want to read as fast as you can and make many mistakes?

a. Yes

b. No

4. If I am a fluent reader, then I should be able to _______________.

a. read really slow like a robot

b. understand the story

c. know my math facts

5. Fluency is about reading the way that I ___________________.

a. play

b. read

c. talk

Below is a picture from the google form students will take. This test was created using ideas

from the pre-test at reading rockets (Fluency). The PowerPoint that will be housed in Google

Classroom is also shown below in a screen shot. The entire PowerPoint has teacher recorded

Lesson 2: Sight Words

Goal: Students will apply sight word knowledge to increase fluency.

Objective: 2. Given the 200 Fry word list, students will identify each word within 3 seconds and

will also demonstrate sight word knowledge by reading sight word phrase cards within 5


Differentiation: Students will start at different levels based on a pretest give at the beginning of

the year by the teacher. Some students may be able to skip the assessment altogether if they

know 200 words, or others may start at 100 instead of starting at 1-24 section.

Sight Word Rubric

1 Reads at least 25 Fry sight words, each word within 3 seconds

2 Reads 26-50 Fry sight words, each word within 3 seconds

3 Reads 51-100 Fry sight words, each word within 3 seconds

4 Reads 101-150 Fry sight words, each word within 3 seconds

5 Reads 151-199 Fry sight words, each word within 3 seconds

6 Reads ALL 200 Fry sight words, each word within 3 seconds


Students will take sight word assessment through Raz-Kids Plus subscription. The first

picture on the left is a screen shot of the sight word assessment(s) students will take after

completing the assigned work. The lessons will focus on identification of sight words, through a

PowerPoint. The PowerPoint, second picture, has narration however the narration starts after

three seconds to give the student time to identify the word first. Students are also exposed to

sight word phrases at the end of the PowerPoint. There is also a delay in the narration to give

students a chance to identify the phrase. The differentiation for this lesson is that each student

begins where the teacher places them. Some students may need to start at sight word 1, while

others can go straight to sight word 50. The PowerPoints and the assessments are divided go

help place students accordingly.

Lesson 3: Nonsense Words and Phonics

Goal: Students will identify nonsense words and phonemic unfamiliar words within 5 seconds.

Objective: Students will transfer the phonics and other strategies learned to decode unfamiliar

words in their reading.

a. Use word recognition strategies (phonetic and nonsense word strategies) to

identify unfamiliar words.

Assessment: 1-Students will take a nonsense word/real word sort on google docs.

2-Students will take county phonics assessment. They will use the record feature in ppt and

record their voices based on the words that presented on the screen.
Differentiation: Students will have the option to have narration for assessment 1, but not for

assessment 2.

Assessment 1 Rubric

● Exceeds in understanding: Student completes assignments with 0 errors (100%).

● Demonstrates a clear understanding: Student completes assessment with 1-2 errors


● Demonstrates some understanding: Student completes assessment with 3-4 errors


● Little to no understanding: Student complete assessment with 5-10 errors (0-50%).

Assessment 1

Students will complete google document shown below. They will complete this step

after viewing narrated PowerPoint on nonsense words. This will determine if they are ready to

move to the next section of the lesson phonics skills. The document will be in Google Classroom

and students will make a copy and it will be save to their google drive which will them be shared

with the teacher.

Assessment 2 Rubric

● Outstanding: Student identifies 45-50 words correctly.

● Clear Understanding: Student identifies 35-45 words correctly.

● Some understanding: Student identifies 26-34 words correctly.

● Little to no understanding: Student identifies 0-25 words correctly.

Assessment 2

Students will complete a PowerPoint called the phonics inventory created by the county

based on the phonics skills taught in each first grade classroom. The students will save a copy to

their google drive and like the previous assessments, record their voice on each slide for teacher

to review.

Lesson 4: Putting It All Together

Goal: Student will be read a first grade reading passage with appropriate fluency.

Objective: 4. Students will read at a rate of at least 69 words per minute with 90% accuracy or


Differentiation: Students are taught to record in technology, however there can be a visual slide

(and narration) housed in google classroom to walk students through the recording process. To
Students will record passage for teacher to listen to and score from ppt that is shared as a google

slide. For students that need a challenge, there will be a separate lesson based on the passage that

asks students to create a picture summary through ppt (again taught through technology class).


1 2 3 4

Prosody Reads word by Reads in small, Reads mostly in Consistently

word, no phrases cut up phrases. long phrases, reads in long

present. Inconsistent with some meaningful

No expression expression. shorter phrases. phrases.

Reading rate is Reads at varying Little expression. Read with

slow. rates, some Mostly reads at consistent

sentences are an appropriate expression.

slow, while rate. Reads at an

others are fast. appropriate rate.

Accuracy <75% 75%-79% 80%-94% >95%

Oral Reading <25 30-60 60-80 >80

Fluency (wpm)


Below is a Dibels (Good, Kaminski, & Dill) reading passage that each student will get on

a Powerpoint slide. After going throught the repeated reading instruction the students will read

this passage once, record it, and share it with their teacher.

The Ant Hill

Dad and I took a hike in the woods. We walked for a long time and stopped to take a rest. We sat

down on a log and had a drink of water. A big hill was nearby. Dad said, “Look, there’s an ant

hill.” I walked up to the hill and took a closer peek. At first it looked just like a dirt hill. Then I

noticed a few ants running around. I looked closer. I saw little ants carrying pieces of mushroom.

The pieces were almost as big as the ants. “What are they doing, Dad?” I asked. “They’re taking

food inside the hill. They probably have thousands of ants to feed inside.” Dad said, “Watch

this.” He gently poked a twig into a small hole on the hill. All of a sudden, many ants came out.

“The ants are on alert, trying to protect their hill,” he said. I bent down to look closer. Some ants

climbed on my shoes. “We should leave now,” Dad said. Dad and I walked and walked until we

were home. Now whenever I see one ant, I stop and think about the city of ants they might be

feeding and protecting.

Content Sequencing and Instructional Strategies

Sequence Description Objective

1 A presentation that focuses on what fluency is, and 1

why it would be important to readers.

2 Sight Words-Flashcards, PowerPoints, and games that 2

help students to master 200 Fry sight words as well as

the phrases.

3 Phonetic Strategies-Students will watch phonetic 3

videos that cover first grade phonic skills, as well as a

narrated PowerPoint to practice nonsense words.

4 Putting it all together-The students will use all the 4

above lessons to read a passage to see if their fluency

has increased.

The sequence of the lessons begins with allowing students to focus the meaning of

fluency and the importance of fluency in regards to comprehension. Next the students will be

introduced to the Fry sight words lessons because between 60-75% of the text they read in grades

K-2 are sight words. If students can master the sight words, they will be more confident in their

reading and then move to the next lesson of phonics strategies. Once the phonics strategies for

first grade are introduced, they will then read a grade level text and record themselves to see if

their fluency has improved.

Lesson 1 -What is Fluency?

Objective 1-Define reading fluency and have a clear understanding of why it is important.

Initial Instruction-The lesson will begin with students viewing a teacher created PowerPoint

presentation. The presentation reminds students of the definition of fluency and the overall goal,

which is to have fluency for comprehension. After the students have viewed the PowerPoint

they will watch a YouTube video of a student reading. Each time the student reads there is a

small commentary on if the student is reading fluently.

Generative Strategy-Example/nonexample- Students will then listen to a PowerPoint

presentation/game and click the appropriate thumbs up or thumbs down to if the person reading

is a fluent reader, or not a fluent reader (​Morrison, Ross, Kalman, & Kemp p. ​145).
Differentiation- The lesson will have narration for the PowerPoints that can be clicked on, or the

PowerPoint can be read independently.

Lesson 2 Sight Words

Objective 2-Given the 200 Fry word list, students will identify each word within 3 seconds and

will also demonstrate sight word knowledge by reading sight word phrase cards within 5


Initial Instruction-The students will begin the lesson with a PowerPoint that has timing rehearsed

to say the word after 3 seconds. The 3 second delay allows for students to attempt the word

before the word is given. The students will practice the assigned PowerPoint, based on teacher

placement, and then be allowed to go to This site will be linked in Google

Classroom and students will use their log in to log on and practice the sight words list given by

the teacher. The sight word lists are broken up in to sets of tens, so placement will likely be at 1

unless students have a stronger sight word vocabulary. Students will then have the options teach

me, play a game, flashcards, and vocabulary test. The students will pick the flash cards and then

the games. This gives students a chance to reinforce just 10 sight words and focus only on those

10 after being exposed to all 200 in the previous activity.

Generative Strategy-Rehearsal/practice of the 200 Fry words. Students would practice the

PowerPoint in the lesson to get the sight words within seconds (Morrison, Ross, Kalman, &

Kemp p.143).

Differentiation-Students have the ability to hear and read all the PowerPoint presentations. They

can also pick their starting point (1-10, 11-20, etc) to have a rote practice of the sight words. The

games bring in other media sources for students as well.

Lesson 3 Nonsense Words and Phonics

Objective 3-Students will transfer the phonics and other strategies learned to decode unfamiliar

words in their reading.

a. Use word recognition strategies (phonetic and nonsense word strategies) to

identify unfamiliar words.

Initial Instruction-Students will watch the phonics YouTube video in segments (cutting the video

after a few letter sound introductions). Each day students will see a phonics video and then also

complete a nonsense word PowerPoint. The nonsense word PowerPoint gives a three second

pause to allow students to read the “whole word” before the word is read to them.

Generative Strategy- Students will decode several words on a game. The game will give a word

and then they have to click nonsense or real word. Then if the word is real they will create a

sentence using the real word. Students can also have a word sort based on the sound they hear in

the words (long a, aw, ie, etc). They place the word under the correct heading based on the

sound they hear in the word.

Differentiation- Students have the presentation given in various forms, using pictures, words, and

videos. When students create the sentences, there can be a word bank for students to have as

well as extra space if students want to create a story using several words instead of just using one


Lesson 4 Putting It All Together

Objective 4-​Given a first grade reading passage, s​tudents will read text at a rate of at least 69

words per minute with 90% accuracy or better.

Initial Instruction- Students will read have a cold read based on a grade level passage. They will

record themselves reading the passage for later use. Then students will have that same passage

read to them while they follow along. After being read to, the student reads the passage with the

speaker, and then finally records their passage on their own.

Generative Strategy-After recording the cold read and the final read, students will compare their

voices and judge if it is a fluent read or not a fluent read. Then they will type in a blog format

(audio will be recorded for the teacher to hear) why they characterized their reading the way they


Differentiation-Reading level can be varied to support student success. If a students is not

successful with the appropriate grade level text, the text could be remediated and more repetition

and practice could be offered.

Instructional Design Summary

Lesson Goals Objectives UDL Assessments

Lesson 1: ● Students will Define reading The lesson will Through google

What is Fluency? define fluency fluency and have have narration classroom students

​Gain Attention:​​ A and know why a clear for the will log on and

presentation that focuses it is important understanding of PowerPoints that take a quiz on

on what fluency is, and to reading. why it is can be clicked google docs based

why it would be important. on, or the on fluency

important to readers. PowerPoint can PowerPoint.

Objectives:​​ The be read

objectives will be independently.

presented for the course

at the end of the

PowerPoint in kid

friendly terms.

Content Delivery:

Students will view a

PowerPoint presentation

that defines fluency as

well why it is important.

Then students will watch

a YouTube video of a

student reading and

classify them as fluent, or

not fluent.

Lesson 2: ● Students will Given the 200 Students have Students will take

Sight Words identify 200 Fry word list, the ability to a sight word

Gain Attention: ​Student Fry sight students will hear and read all assessment

will watch a quick sight words to help identify each the PowerPoint through Raz-Kids

word rap to get them improve word within 3 presentations. Plus subscription.

excited about sight overall seconds and will They can also

words. fluency. also demonstrate pick their

sight word starting point knowledge by (1-10, 11-20, etc)

SZpU reading sight to have a rote

Deliver Content: word phrase practice of the

Students will review cards within 5 sight words. The

Sight Words-Flashcards, seconds. games bring in

PowerPoints, and games. other media

State Objective: sources for

Students will see a kid students as well.

friendly objective slide

before the beginning og

the lesson.

Activate Prior

Knowledge:​​ Review 200

Fry sight words that will

aid with the Fry phrases.

Lesson 3: ● Student will be Students will Students have Assessment 1

Phonetic able to sort transfer the the presentation Students will

Strategies-Students will nonsense phonics and given in various complete a

watch phonetic videos words and real other strategies forms, using nonsense word/real

that cover first grade words learned to pictures, words, word sort through

phonic skills, as well as a ● Student will decode and videos. google docs.

use phonetic When students Assessment 2

narrated PowerPoint to skills to decode unfamiliar words create the Students will take

practice nonsense words. unfamiliar in their reading. sentences, there phonics inventory

words to help a. Use word can be a word PowerPoint.

improve strategies bank for students
fluency. and to have as well
word as extra space if
to identify students want to
words. create a story

using several

words instead of

just using one


Lesson 4: ● Student will be Given a first Reading level Students will read

Putting it all together read a first grade reading can be varied to a Dibels (Good,

The students will use all grade reading passage, s​tudents support student Kaminski, & Dill)

the above lessons to read passage with will read text at a success. If a reading passage

a passage to see if their appropriate rate of at least 69 students is not that each student

fluency has increased. fluency. words per minute successful with will get on a

with 90% the appropriate Powerpoint slide.

accuracy or grade level text, After going

better. the text could be throught the

remediated and repeated reading

more repetition instruction the

and practice students will read

could be offered. this passage once,

record it, and share

it with their


Formative Evaluation Plan

In this module I was the SME, however for the formative assessment I have asked

Michelle Castillo to review the module. Michelle serves as the Instructional Support Teacher for

ELA for our county. She has previously taught grades 2-5 and now works under the ELA

coordinator training teachers K-5 in all areas of reading and language arts. She is a wonderful

resource that I use on a daily basis. I know her feedback will be thorough and helpful which will

create a more useful learning module. Below is a copy of the survey Ms. Castillo will complete.

I chose a short answer so Ms. Castillo could expand on her answers when needed.

Content Appropriateness and Accuracy

1. How was the sequence of the module? Would you change the sequence, if so please


2. Is the differentiation apparent and appropriate? If no, please explain.

3. Is the time given appropriate within each lesson? If no, please explain.


1. Were objectives 1-4 met? If no, please list the objective(s) not met.

2. Is the unit user friendly in terms of technology?

3. Do you feel as though all lessons should be included? If so, please explain.

Usability and Appeal

1. Was the overall instruction easy to use? If no, please explain.

2. Did the graphics and layout add to the instruction? If so, please explain.

3. Were the PowerPoint presentations effective in delivering instruction? If no, please


4. Overall, what areas could the instruction be improved?

After completing the online module the learners will also complete a survey (sad face,

straight face, happy face) using google forms. The form will also have a “other” choice that

students or the SME could add any notes if they are able. I may need to also ask assistance with

this form and will ask Regina Yeargin, an informational technology specialist, to be a SME in

the area of technology (graphics, google classroom, google forms, etc.). The information in the

survey will help me to gauge if any revisions need to be made from the student perspective. I

believe adults can view the module multiple times, however students can give us feedback

through their eyes to help improve the instruction that adult eyes do not necessarily see. Below

is a screenshot the survey on Google forms and then the survey questions are below the pictures.
1. How long did it take you to complete the lessons? (only two choices on this question, pictured


2. Do you know what fluency is now? (happy face, straight face, frowny face pictured above).

3. Was using google classroom easy for the fluency lessons?

4. Did you understand each lesson?

5. Do you feel like your fluency got better than when you first started?

6. Were the fluency lessons fun?

7. What lesson did you like the most?

8. What was the best part of the instruction?

9. Is the voice clear on the PowerPoints?

10. How could I make this fluency unit better? (This is an open-ended questions for students to

type in their response).


Fluency: Pre-Test. (n.d). Retrieved October 10, 2016, from

Good, R. H., & Kaminski, R. A. , & Dill, S. (2007). DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency. In

R. H. Good & R. A. Kaminski (Eds.), Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (6th

ed.). Eugene, OR: Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement. Available:

Morrison, G.R, Ross, S.M., Kalman, H.K., & Kemp, J.E. (2012). Designing Effective

Instruction (7​th​ ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.