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Motorcycles Development

New Integral ABS from BMW Motorrad

By Markus Braunsperger, Siegfried Beulich and When applying the brakes on a single-track
vehicle, not even the experienced rider will
Hans-Albert Wagner be able to capitalise on the maximum brake
power available when acting in a state of
Twelve years after the presentation of the first anti-lock brake system shock [1]. Accordingly, average use of the
maximum stopping power available is only
for motorcycles, BMW Motorrad is now once again introducing a new 58%. Only real specialists such as test or rac-
brake system. ing riders are able to apply the brakes
smoothly and simultaneously on both the
Developed by BMW in cooperation with FTE automotive GmbH, the front and rear wheel with the considerable
new Integral ABS sets new standards in the area of brake technology change in wheel load caused by the dy-
and, accordingly, active safety in riding a motorcycle. namic load shift when braking.

Apart from the further refined ABS control function, this system offers Situations in which the rider, due to lack of
experience, fails to operate the brakes in
the usual combination of front and rear-wheel brake operation other- full and thus gives up crucial stopping dis-
wise found on passenger cars and, for the first time, features an elec- tance are just as relevant. There can be no
trohydraulic brake servo as well as adaptive brake force distribution. doubt, therefore, that the human being is

last 10 years. When the brakes are applied


1 Introduction in an emergency, however, the question is You will find the figures mentioned in
not only "what is the brake system able to this article in the German issue of
ATZ 3/01 beginning on page 200.
In terms of the technical performance of offer?", but also – and this is the decisive
brake systems, the running gear and tyres, point – "to what extent is the rider in a posi-
the development of motorcycles has by all tion, when applying the brakes in an emer-
means kept up with the increase in engine gency, to capitalise in full on the technical
output and road speed in the course of the potentials offered by the brake system?"
Das neue Integral ABS
von BMW Motorrad
ATZ Automobiltechnische Zeitschrift 103 (2001) 3
Development Motorcycles

the "weak point", as it were, in the brake Adaptive Brake Force Distribution the front and rear wheel with ABS operat-
system and that ABS technology is superior Brake force at the rear wheel is controlled ing at the wheel slip limit, BMW's new fully
to even the best rider when applying the by a self-learning, electronic brake force integral ABS only requires operation of ei-
brakes in full, especially on rapidly chang- distribution system. ther the footbrake or handbrake. Figure 5
ing road surfaces with sudden jumps in the shows the extra safety provided by this
frictional coefficient, for example on wet Brake Servo combination of front-wheel and rear-wheel
roads, slippery stretches of tar, gravel or This is a new, electrohydraulic system. brake application when operating only the
dirty surfaces, Figure 1 [2]. footbrake.
BMW Integral ABS also marks the debut of
BMW was the first motorcycle manufactur- the EVO (evolution) front-wheel brake, On the partly integral version, the hand-
er in the world to introduce an electrohy- which offers up to 20% more braking pow- brake lever acts on the front-wheel and
draulic anti-lock brake system in spring er under the same manual force exerted by rear-wheel brakes together, with the foot-
1988, immediately becoming a success in the the rider with his hand. brake lever acting only on the rear wheel
market. This initial system was followed in brake. This variant is particularly useful for
spring 1993 by the low-weight second-gen- In terms of its technical structure, BMW's In- the sports rider who brakes the rear wheel
eration ABS II. More than 250,000 customers tegral ABS is an almost completely new de- during a bend in order to stabilise the mo-
have opted so far for a BMW motorcycle sign without any components from former torcycle.
with ABS, proving that choosing the "right ABS units. All the control electronics and
motorcycle" involves a high standard of safe- electrohydraulic components are housed in
ty awareness and not, as is often assumed, one single element, the pressure modulator. 3 Operation and Action
the simple wish for optimum acceleration With the exception of the sensor rings and of BMW Integral ABS
and a very high top speed. The fact neverthe- sensors on the wheels, Integral ABS is made
less remains that even ABS cannot override up of the same structural elements as a con- Whenever the rider applies the brakes all-
certain laws of physics. Whether with or ventional brake system without ABS, that out, regardless of whether he is applying
without ABS, for example, the options to ap- is, the brake callipers, the main brake cylin- the front or rear-wheel brake, each wheel is
ply the brakes in a bend with the motorcycle der and the hydraulic lines, Figure 2. Al- slowed down to the greatest possible ex-
leaning over at an angle are clearly limited. though BMW Integral ABS has a much tent, depending on the road surface fric-
wider range of functions and significantly tion. To perform this control function, the
BMW's new Integral ABS uses all technical enhanced performance features versus ABS system changes the brake pressure.
possibilities available today to support the II, it is more than 20% lighter, with an over-
rider to the greatest possible extent, ensur- all weight of just 4.36 kg. Since it features lighter mechanical compo-
ing the shortest possible stopping distance nents and, as a result, requires a lower level
under all circumstances when the brakes The core elements of BMW Integral ABS are of activation energy and power uptake,
are applied in an emergency. the two control valves, one each for the BMW's new ABS is able to reduce brake
front and rear-wheel brake system. These pressure even more quickly whenever
control valves separate the overall brake there is a risk of the wheel(s) locking. Com-
2 BMW Integral ABS circuit into one circuit between the main pared with the second-generation ABS II,
at a Glance brake cylinder and the control valve and an BMW's new Integral ABS requires only 80
additional wheel circuit between the con- instead of 90 - 103 ms for this purpose.
The development of BMW's new Integral trol valve and the brake calliper, Figure 3.
ABS was based on the following objectives: BMW's new Integral ABS comes in two dif- On a homogeneous surface with the fric-
– to ensure a further reduction in stopping ferent versions: the fully integral and the tional coefficient remaining consistent, it is
distances partly integral version. On the fully integral not sensible to build up or reduce pressure
– to significantly reduce the brake operat- version featured initially in the BMW K even more quickly during operation of the
ing forces 1200 LT, Cover Figure, both the handbrake ABS system, since the wheels are unable to
– to come as close as possible to the ideal lever and the footbrake lever act simultane- respond even more quickly to changes in
brake force distribution on the front and ously on the front wheel and rear wheel pressure due to their mass inertia – al-
rear-wheel brakes brakes, Figure 4. though integral ABS would by all means be
– to take different load conditions into ac- in a position to modify the level of pressure
count The reason is that many motorcycle riders more quickly. Depending on the road sur-
– to reduce the weight of the system now switch over directly from their car to a face, BMW's new Integral ABS operates at
– to enhance the system's self-supervi- motorcycle and do not have the many frequencies between 0.6 Hz (homogeneous,
sion/self-diagnosis functions years of motorcycling experience riders of- dry asphalt) and 5 Hz (uneven surface such
ten had in the past. When applying the as cobblestones), Figure 6 and Figure 7. The
BMW's new Integral ABS uses the technical brakes in an emergency, such riders often latter high frequency, which reduces the
potentials of the new, further developed only apply the footbrake and thus give level of riding comfort, is normally not re-
third generation of ABS, combining these away far more than 50% of the braking quired and is therefore only applied by the
features with various additional functions: power potential. system when absolutely necessary.

Integral Brake System While the rider was formerly required to BMW's Integral ABS features a brake servo
Both the handbrake and footbrake lever act operate the hand-brake and footbrake in for each wheel, with two servo pumps pro-
simultaneously on both the front and rear- full when applying the ABS brakes in order viding the volume uptake required for the
wheel brakes. to build up maximum stopping power on two brakes. This allows a greater margin in

6 ATZ worldwide
Motorcycles Development

operating the brakes, that is, in the process This reveals the main advantage of the new
of fine-dosing the brake system. Interacting system in comparison with second-genera-
with the EVO front-wheel brake, the new tion ABS II. Since the components are much
system reduces the forces required for oper- lighter, the lower level of activation energy
ating the handbrake lever by up to 50%, enables BMW Integral ABS to respond even
Figure 8. faster to an unstable wheel by first reduc-
ing the braking pressure and subsequently
The brake servo not only reduces operating by building up more braking pressure once
forces on the handbrake and/or footbrake again.
lever but also builds up maximum braking
pressure more quickly than a conventional 3.3 Integral Function
brake system. This again helps to shorten
the stopping distance, since a reduction in The brake circuits for the front and rear
the time required for building up brake wheel are subdivided in each case into a Principal functions of the fully integral version
pressure by 0.1 s shortens the stopping dis- control and a wheel circuit, thus providing
tance from a speed of 100 km/h by almost 3 a total of four separate fluid circuits. The
m. When applying the brakes, we experi- control circuit from the operating unit to
ence the following fundamental functions the pressure modulator is not subject to BMW Integral ABS is controlled electroni-
in the pressure modulator, Figure 9: any thermal load caused, for example, by cally by means of pressure sensors acting
hot brake discs. The wheel circuit, in turn, on the electromagnetic coil in the rear
3.1 Reinforcement accommodates the wear volume required wheel control valve. As with conventional
of Braking Power for the brake linings. ABS, brake pressure is reduced via the coil
in accordance with the ideal distribution of
When the main brake cylinder on the hand- Pressure in the control circuit generated brake forces.
brake or footbrake lever is actuated, the when operating the brakes is transferred
control piston is pushed back by hydraulic directly to the control valve on the appro- With brake force distribution being consis-
pressure transmitted via the control arm to priate wheel (hand lever for the front tently maintained at an almost ideal level,
a ball in the wheel cycle, Figure 10. At the wheel, footbrake lever for the rear wheel). the motorcycle remains more stable when
same time, the hydraulic pump of the brake the rider applies the brakes, since both
servo, which is driven by an electric motor, The control circuit accommodates a bypass tyres benefit from maximum lateral stabil-
starts up. The pressure that builds up as a that is able to exert pressure on the control ity. A further advantage is the smoother
result in the wheel cycle presses back onto rod of the "other" wheel circuit via an inte- and more consistent wear of the brake lin-
the control arm via the ball seat, thus creat- gral piston. With the integral function, the ings and tyres, and when the brakes are ap-
ing an equilibrium of forces. The ratio be- hydraulic pumps are activated via the brake plied on a bend the consistent use of the
tween the control piston and the ball seat light switch or – if the brake light switch is frictional coefficient available on both
area determines the degree of reinforce- defective – via the internal pressure sensor, wheels improves riding stability.
ment in boosting the brakes. allowing braking pressure to build up on
the front and rear wheel at a predefined Brake force distribution is able to "learn" in
Since the hydraulic pump also provides the geometric ratio. Current fed to the coil on an adaptive process by detecting the differ-
brake volume required in the brake system, the rear wheel circuit and controlled by the ent ratios of brake lock pressure on the
not only the force for operating the brake pressure measured in the front wheel cir- front and rear wheel when running under
lever but also the operating travel is re- cuit serves to adjust the braking pressure ac- different loads. A motorcycle carrying a
duced compared to a conventional brake cording to the ideal brake force distribution passenger and luggage, for example, is able
system. The pump is also in a position to for each motorcycle. to convey more braking power to the rear
compensate for the uptake of overheated wheel than a solo machine. Load conditions
brake fluid (with the formation of bubbles) 3.4 Adaptive Brake Force and, as a result, the braking power the mo-
whenever Integral ABS is operated actively. Distribution torcycle is able to convey to the road (with
a suitably adapted ideal brake force distrib-
3.2 ABS Function Vehicle-specific, dynamic and adaptive ution curve) are recorded by the electronic
brake force distribution is an entirely new control system when the brakes are applied
Integration of the ABS function into the feature on the motorcycle. The big advan- in an ABS process and are consistently ad-
control valves is far more simple and tage of this system is that it feeds exactly the justed. As a result, the rider is always able
straightforward than with second-genera- right level of braking pressure to the two to apply the brakes perfectly on his motor-
tion ABS II. Instead of the conventional wheels in accordance with the brake forces cycle regardless of load conditions, thanks
components – the plunger, friction clutch, the wheels are actually able to convey to the to BMW Integral ABS.
return spring, and electric motor – only an road. The ideal distribution of brake forces
electromagnetic coil is now required for on each kind of road surface and its friction-
modulating the braking pressure. This elec- al coefficient depend on the wheelbase and 4 Residual Brake Function
tromagnet acts on the control piston, centre of gravity (load!) of a vehicle [3]. With
pulling it back out of the main brake cylin- increasing stopping power, this distribution The control valves are designed to give the
der against the control pressure built up by follows a parabolic curve and is master- rider a residual brake function even when
the rider and thus reducing brake pressure minded individually for each vehicle by the the ignition is switched off and the system
accordingly. electronic control system, Figure 11. is not activated or when BMW Integral ABS

ATZ Automobiltechnische Zeitschrift 103 (2001) 3 7


Development Motorcycles

fails to operate, thus again providing the Table: A comparison of ABS II and Integral ABS
same safety function as in a car.
ABS II BMW Integral ABS
Although, when using the residual brake
Weight of modulator 5.223 kg 4.1 - 4.3 kg (horizontal/upright)
function, the rider has to move the brake
Weight of 2 sensor rings 720 g 260 g
lever further and apply higher forces than
would normally be the case with conven- Build-up of brake lock pressure 90 – 105 ms Generally 80 ms (faster control
(dry asphalt) - not sensible in physical terms),
tional brakes, he is still able to safely slow 0 bar/pressure build-up up to 30 ms possible in specific cases
the motorcycle down even without the Control frequency 0.6 – 5 Hz, 0.6 – 5 Hz, depending
brake servo working. This means that he is depending on road on road surface
able to apply the brakes without problems surface
when manoeuvring the motorcycle with the Integral brake No Yes, two variants
ignition switched off (and, accordingly, with Load-dynamic control valve No Yes, vehicle-specific
the brake boosting function deactivated). Detection of load conditions No With ABS control
1% / 8 ms after the first ABS cycle
In practice 1-3 sec until 100%
5 Integrated Safety Functions load is fully adapted
ABS control comfort No pulsation on the No pulsation on
brake lever the brake lever
Integral ABS fulfils the high standard of
safety required by BMW, for example by Reduction in manual forces 15% each time
with the EVO brake
warning the rider of all possible malfunc-
Reduction in manual forces 50% at 6 m/sec_ for R1100 S
tions, Figure 12. The system first performs a EVO + Integral ABS with Integral ABS versus
self-diagnosis when the rider switches on R1100 S with ABS II
the ignition, with the general warning Supervision of tail light No Defect warning when appropriate +
lamp (with its triangular symbol) coming dimming of brake light
on for about three seconds and then going Supervision of brake light No Defect warning
off again if the system is working properly. Electronic monitoring
The ABS indicator flashes on and off quickly of brake fluid level No Defect warning when below minimum
for about two seconds during self-diagnosis Wheel sensor operating range Gap 0.5 +/- Gap 0 – 1.7 mm
and then starts to flash more slowly until 0.05 mm
the wheel sensors have been checked for
their function at approximately 4 km/h.
This indicator then goes off and the system light will be dimmed to act as a replace- portant milestone in further improving ac-
is fully available. ment for the tail light (meaning that the tive riding safety on a motorcycle.
brake light will come on again in full as
For safety reasons, there is no self-diagnosis soon as the rider applies the brakes). Should
function whenever the rider operates a the brake light be defective, the system also References
brake lever while switching on the ignition. activates the general warning light, the [1] Horst Ecker, Achim Fischer: Bremsbe-
Once he lets go of the brake lever, however, only difference in this case being that the herrschung von Motorradfahrern – Ergebnisse
the self-diagnosis function can be complet- tail light cannot take over the function of aus einem Großversuch (Ability of Motorcycle
ed and BMW Integral ABS is fully available the brake light. The level of brake fluid in Riders to Properly Apply the Brakes - Results of
a Large-Scale Study)
about two seconds later. the brake circuits is monitored electronical- In: Sicherheit, Umwelt, Zukunft III, Institut für
ly by floats in the reservoirs, with the ABS Zweiradsicherheit, 2000.
Integral ABS constantly monitors itself indicator and the general warning lamp [2] Kann der Einsatz von Elektronik im Motorrad
Unfälle vermeiden? (Can the Use of Electronics
while the motorcycle is being ridden, in- flashing on and off alternately as soon as in the Motorcycle Prevent Accidents?)
forming the rider immediately of any mal- the fluid level drops below the minimum In: VDI Reports No 875, 1991
function. Should the ABS indicator flash on point. [3] A Weidele, B Breuer: Untersuchungen zum
Bremsverhalten von Krafträdern mit und ohne
and off quickly while the general warning ABS. (Examination of the Brake Behaviour of
light is permanently on (or without the Motorcycles with and without ABS.)
general warning light if the self-diagnostic 6 Summary In: VDI Reports No 657, 1987
process has not yet been completed), the
rider will know that he has only the resid- BMW's new Integral ABS is lighter and of-
ual brake function on at least one wheel. fers an even faster and more consistent
With the ABS indicator flashing slowly control function than ABS II, Table. When
while the general warning light remains the rider has to apply the brakes suddenly
switched on permanently, the rider knows on a straight road, Integral ABS shortens
that at least one wheel has no ABS func- the stopping distance and at the same time
tion. prevents the rider from falling due to a
locked wheel. The next point is that BMW
The ABS control unit monitors both the tail Integral ABS responds faster than the rider
light and the brake light. Should the tail can, especially when applying the brakes
light be defective, for example, the general all-out on abruptly changing road surfaces.
warning light will come on and the brake Accordingly, BMW Integral ABS is an im-

8 ATZ worldwide