Anda di halaman 1dari 5

BAB III

KESIMPULAN

Otak janin trimester ketiga tampaknya rentan terhadap kedua anestesi inhalasi dan
intravena diberikan selama trimester ketiga pada hewan pengerat dan primata non-manusia
terutama bila diberikan untuk jangka waktu lama. Kebanyakan agen anestesi intravena diselidiki,
dengan pengecualian dexmedetomidine, secara konsisten menghasilkan konsekuensi
perkembangan saraf yang merugikan, tapi bukti dicampur untuk agen inhalasi. Studi manusia
tegas; anestesi umum selama sesar tidak terkait dengan ketidakmampuan belajar, tetapi
menunjukkan hubungan yang mungkin dengan peningkatan risiko diagnosis autisme. Prevalensi
banyak pembaur variabel, termasuk faktor-faktor yang mendorong kebutuhan untuk anestesi
umum, menghalangi membuat tekad yang kuat.

15
16

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

1. Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Hartman RE, Izumi Y, et al. Early exposure to common anesthetic


agents causes widespread neurodegeneration in the developing rat brain and persistent
learning deficits. J Neurosci 2003;23(3):876–82.
2. Fredriksson A, Ponten E, Gordh T, et al. Neonatal exposure to a combination of N-methyl-D-
aspartate and gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor anesthetic agents potentiates
apoptotic neurodegeneration and persistent behavioral deficits. Anesthesiology
2007;107(3):427–36.
3. Paule MG, Li M, Allen RR, et al. Ketamine anesthesia during the first week of life can cause
long-lasting cognitive deficits in rhesus monkeys. Neurotoxicol Teratol 2011;33(2):220–30.
4. Stratmann G, Sall JW, May LD, et al. Isoflurane differentially affects neurogenesis and long-
term neurocognitive function in 60-day-old and 7-day-old rats. Anesthesiology
2009;110(4):834–48.
5. Clancy B, Darlington RB, Finlay BL. Translating developmental time across mammalian
species. Neuroscience 2001;105(1):7–17.
6. Dobbing J, Sands J. Comparative aspects of the brain growth spurt. Early Hum Dev
1979;3(1):79–83. Palanisamy A. Maternal anesthesia and fetal neurodevelopment. Int J Obstet
Anesth 2012;21(2):152–62.
8. Cheek TG, Baird E. Anesthesia for nonobstetric surgery: maternal and fetal considerations.
Clin Obstet Gynecol 2009;52(4):535–45.
9. Goodman S. Anesthesia for nonobstetric surgery in the pregnant patient. Semin Perinatol
2002;26(2):136–45.
10. Jancelewicz T, Harrison MR. A history of fetal surgery. Clin Perinatol 2009;36(2): 227–36,
vii.
11. Tran KM. Anesthesia for fetal surgery. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2010;15(1): 40–5.
12. Stourac P, Blaha J, Klozova R, et al. Anesthesia for cesarean delivery in the Czech Republic:
a 2011 national survey. Anesth Analg 2015;120(6):1303–8.
13. Jenkins JG, Khan MM. Anaesthesia for Caesarean section: a survey in a UK region from
1992 to 2002. Anaesthesia 2003;58(11):1114–8.
17

14. Berman RF, Hannigan JH. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the hippocampus: spatial
behavior, electrophysiology, and neuroanatomy. Hippocampus 2000; 10(1):94–110.
15. Cuzon VC, Yeh PW, Yanagawa Y, et al. Ethanol consumption during early pregnancy alters
the disposition of tangentially migrating GABAergic interneurons in the fetal cortex. J
Neurosci 2008;28(8):1854–64.
16. Uban KA, Sliwowska JH, Lieblich S, et al. Prenatal alcohol exposure reduces the proportion
of newly produced neurons and glia in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in female rats.
Horm Behav 2010;58(5):835–43.
17. Ang ES Jr, Gluncic V, Duque A, et al. Prenatal exposure to ultrasound waves impacts
neuronal migration in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006;103(34): 12903–10.
18. Li Y, Liang G, Wang S, et al. Effects of fetal exposure to isoflurane on postnatal memory
and learning in rats. Neuropharmacology 2007;53(8):942–50.
19. Dailland P, Cockshott ID, Lirzin JD, et al. Intravenous propofol during cesarean section:
placental transfer, concentrations in breast milk, and neonatal effects. A preliminary study.
Anesthesiology 1989;71(6):827–34.
20. Ngamprasertwong P, Dong M, Niu J, et al. Propofol Pharmacokinetics and estimation of fetal
propofol exposure during mid-gestational fetal surgery: a maternal-fetal sheep model. PLoS
One 2016;11(1):e0146563.
21. de Graaf-Peters VB, Hadders-Algra M. Ontogeny of the human central nervous system: what
is happening when? Early Hum Dev 2006;82(4):257–66.
22. Ben-Ari Y. Excitatory actions of gaba during development: the nature of the nurture. Nat Rev
Neurosci 2002;3(9):728–39.
23. Wang DD, Kriegstein AR. Defining the role of GABA in cortical development. J Physiol
2009;587(Pt 9):1873–9.
24. LoTurco JJ, Owens DF, Heath MJ, et al. GABA and glutamate depolarize cortical progenitor
cells and inhibit DNA synthesis. Neuron 1995;15(6):1287–98.
25. McCarthy MM. Estradiol and the developing brain. Physiol Rev 2008;88(1): 91–124.
26. Tsutsui K. Progesterone biosynthesis and action in the developing neuron. Endocrinology
2008;149(6):2757–61.
27. Tyzio R, Cossart R, Khalilov I, et al. Maternal oxytocin triggers a transient inhibitory switch
in GABA signaling in the fetal brain during delivery. Science 2006; 314(5806):1788–92.
18

28. Wang S, Peretich K, Zhao Y, et al. Anesthesia-induced neurodegeneration in fetal rat brains.
Pediatr Res 2009;66(4):435–40.
29. Rizzi S, Carter LB, Ori C, et al. Clinical anesthesia causes permanent damage to the fetal
guinea pig brain. Brain Pathol 2008;18(2):198–210.
30. Palanisamy A, Baxter MG, Keel PK, et al. Rats exposed to isoflurane in utero during early
gestation are behaviorally abnormal as adults. Anesthesiology 2011; 114(3):521–8.
31. Kong F, Xu L, He D, et al. Effects of gestational isoflurane exposure on postnatal memory
and learning in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2011;670(1):168–74.
32. Kong FJ, Tang YW, Lou AF, et al. Effects of isoflurane exposure during pregnancy on
postnatal memory and learning in offspring rats. Mol Biol Rep 2012;39(4): 4849–55.
33. Zheng H, Dong Y, Xu Z, et al. Sevoflurane anesthesia in pregnant mice induces
neurotoxicity in fetal and offspring mice. Anesthesiology 2013;118(3):516–26.
34. Zhao T, Li Y, Wei W, et al. Ketamine administered to pregnant rats in the second trimester
causes long-lasting behavioral disorders in offspring. Neurobiol Dis 2014;68:145–55.
35. Zhao T, Li C, Wei W, et al. Prenatal ketamine exposure causes abnormal development
of prefrontal cortex in rat. Sci Rep 2016;6:26865.
36. Dong C, Rovnaghi CR, Anand KJ. Ketamine exposure during embryogenesis inhibits cellular
proliferation in rat fetal cortical neurogenic regions. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand
2016;60(5):579–87.
37. Xiong M, Li J, Alhashem HM, et al. Propofol exposure in pregnant rats induces neurotoxicity
and persistent learning deficit in the offspring. Brain Sci 2014; 4(2):356–75.
38. Li J, Xiong M, Alhashem HM, et al. Effects of prenatal propofol exposure on postnatal
development in rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol 2014;43:51–8.
39. Slikker W Jr, Zou X, Hotchkiss CE, et al. Ketamine-induced neuronal cell death in the
perinatal rhesus monkey. Toxicol Sci 2007;98(1):145–58.
40. Brambrink AM, Evers AS, Avidan MS, et al. Ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis in the fetal
and neonatal rhesus macaque brain. Anesthesiology 2012;116(2): 372–84.
41. Creeley CE, Dikranian KT, Dissen GA, et al. Isoflurane-induced apoptosis of neurons and
oligodendrocytes in the fetal rhesus macaque brain. Anesthesiology 2014;120(3):626–38.
19

42. Creeley C, Dikranian K, Dissen G, et al. Propofol-induced apoptosis of neurons and


oligodendrocytes in fetal and neonatal rhesus macaque brain. Br J Anaesth 2013;110(Suppl
1):i29–38.
43. Koo E, Oshodi T, Meschter C, et al. Neurotoxic effects of dexmedetomidine in fetal
cynomolgus monkey brains. J Toxicol Sci 2014;39(2):251–62.
44. Sprung J, Flick RP, Wilder RT, et al. Anesthesia for cesarean delivery and learning
disabilities in a population-based birth cohort. Anesthesiology 2009;111(2): 302–10.
45. Chien LN, Lin HC, Shao YH, et al. Risk of autism associated with general anesthesia during
cesarean delivery: a population-based birth-cohort analysis. J Autism Dev Disord
2015;45(4):932–42.
46. Creagh O, Torres H, Rivera K, et al. Previous Exposure to Anesthesia and Autism Spectrum
Disorder (ASD): A Puerto Rican Population-Based Sibling Cohort Study. Bol Asoc Med P R
2015;107(3):29–37.