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Specimen Collection, Preserving and Preparing the Specimen for Laboratory Test:

1. How is specimen collection done for:
a. Tape worm
a. First place a strip of clear cellulose tape (adhesive side down) on a microscope
slide as follow.
b. Starting at 1.5 cm from one end of the slide, run tape toward the same end,
and wrap the tape around the slide to the opposite end. Tear the tape even with
the end of the slide. Attach a label to the tape at the end torn flush with the
c. Obtain a sample from the perianal area, peel back the tape by gripping the
labeled end, and, with the tape looped (adhesive side outward) over a wooden
tongue depressor that is held firmly against the slide and extended bout 2.5 cm
beyond it, press the tape firmly several times against the right and left perianal
d. Smooth the tape back on the slide, adhesive side down.
e. Label with patient first and last name, date of birth, hospital number (if
applicable), your initials and date and time of collection.
f. Submit the tapes and slides to the laboratory in a sealed plastic bag along with
a test requisition.
b. Hook worm
Microscopic identification of eggs in the stool is the most common method for
diagnosing hookworm infection. The recommended procedure is as follows:
1. Collect a stool specimen.
2. Fix the specimen in 10% formalin.
3. Concentrate using the formalin–ethyl acetate sedimentation technique.
4. Examine a wet mount of the sediment.

c. What is the reason for the collection done?

 The reason for the collection of tape worm is because the eggs and segments are passed
irregularly, the lab may need to collect two to three samples over a period of time to detect
the parasite. Eggs are sometimes present at the anus, so your doctor may use a piece of
transparent adhesive tape pressed to the anus to collect eggs for microscopic identification.

 Blood test. For tissue-invasive infections, your doctor may also test your blood for
antibodies your body may have produced to fight tapeworm infection. The presence of
these antibodies indicates tapeworm infestation.

 Imaging exam. Certain types of imaging, such as CT or MRI scans, X-rays, or ultrasounds
of cysts, may suggest invasive tapeworm infection.
And the reason for collection of hook worm

2. A patient collects his specimen at home, what would you teach the patient if he
needs to bring the specimen to the clinic for laboratory test and reason for this?
- I will teach my patient by telling him that place the lid on the container and label
it with your name, your doctor's name, and the date the stool was collected. Use
one container for each day's collection, and collect a sample only once a day
unless your doctor gives you other directions. Take the sealed container to your
doctor's office or the laboratory as soon as possible. You may need to deliver your
sample to the lab within a certain time. Tell your doctor if you think you may
have trouble getting the sample to the lab on time.

3. What is the implication of parasitic infestation to humans (specific to disease)?

Identify human diseases that can be caused by parasitic infections that can be a
deterrent to the growth of children?
4. Knowing the effects of parasitic infections to human, list the different hygiene
methods in which parasitic infections can be prevented or controlled:
Hygiene Category Hygiene Practice
Good Hygiene Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water after using
the bathroom and before eating.
Food precautions In an area where tapeworms are common, make sure to
wash and cook all fruits and vegetables with clean water.
Live stock Properly dispose of animal and human feces. Minimize
animal exposure to tapeworm eggs.
Kitchen Hygiene Make sure all work surfaces are regularly cleaned and

Infection Cycle/Stages
1. List the infection cycle and what is expected in each
Infection cycle/stages Characteristics/expected
Attachment The phage attaches to the surface of the
Penetration The viral DNA enters the host cell
Biosynthesis Phage DNA replicates and phage proteins
are made
Maturation New phage particles are assembled
Lysis The cell lyses, releasing the newly made

2. What is the meaning of prodromal period and its implication in the infectious
3. What is the difference of a sick and a non-sick carrier and its implication in the
infectious process?
4. What is a pathognomonic sign and its implication in the diagnosis of diseases?
5. When is the best time to provide health education in infectious diseases and why?
6. Tata Mario and Aling Elena and their 6 children live in Sitio Malabanan. The
community has a common water source which is about 10 meters from Tata Mario’s
house. The family uses a pit privy for toilet and open dumping and burning as waste
disposal method. The youngest of their children, Marvin who is 7 years old
contained polio and is currently recuperating.
a. Using the scenario, identify those at risk for infection and the reason for this
based on the method of transmission of the infection stage of the child
b. List methods to prevent and control the spread of infection to those at risk
At risk Reason for risk Prevention/control methods

Epidemiologic Control of Infection Spread


1. As a future nurse and having the knowledge that infectious diseases can be spread to whole
communities very easily, you should internalize your roles in the epidemiologic process.
Identify the steps for the epidemiologic process and the activities you are involved in for each:
Epidemiologic Process Steps Activity/ies
1.Prepare for field work and establish the
existence of an outbreak
2.Verify the diagnosis
3.Construct a working case definition
4.Find cases and record data
5.Analayze data as to time, person and place
6.Develop hypotheses
7.Test the hypothesis epidemiologically,
refine and re-evaluate as necessary
8.Check your hypothesis with laboratory
results and environmental study data
9.Plan and implement control measures
10.Maintain surveillance
2. You know that health education is important in preventing and controlling disease spread.
Give at least 5 specific health teachings you can give to communities to prevent the following
Disease Specific Health Teaching
Diarrheal disease,example thypoid
Childhood diseases,example measles
Colds and flu