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Social network analysis

Analysis Co-citation and bibliographic coupling

PageRank

HITS

Summary

Early search engines mainly compare content

similarity of the query and the indexed pages. I.e., Starting around 1996, researchers began to work on

They use information retrieval methods, cosine, TF-IDF, ...

the problem. They resort to hyperlinks.

In Feb, 1997, Yanhong Li (Robin Li), Scotch Plains, NJ, filed

From 1996, it became clear that content similarity a hyperlink based search patent. The method uses words in

alone was no longer sufficient. anchor text of hyperlinks.

The number of pages grew rapidly in the mid-late 1990’s. Web pages on the other hand are connected through

Try “classification technique”, Google estimates: 10 hyperlinks, which carry important information.

million relevant pages. Some hyperlinks: organize information at the same site.

How to choose only 30-40 pages and rank them suitably

Other hyperlinks: point to pages from other Web sites. Such

to present to the user? out-going hyperlinks often indicate an implicit conveyance of

Content similarity is easily spammed. authority to the pages being pointed to.

A page owner can repeat some words and add many

Those pages that are pointed to by many other pages

related words to boost the rankings of his pages and/or

to make the pages relevant to a large number of queries. are likely to contain authoritative information.

1

Introduction (cont …) Introduction (cont …)

During 1997-1998, two most influential hyperlink Apart from search ranking, hyperlinks are also useful

based search algorithms PageRank and HITS were for finding Web communities.

reported.

A Web community is a cluster of densely linked pages

Both algorithms are related to social networks. representing a group of people with a special interest.

They exploit the hyperlinks of the Web to rank

pages according to their levels of “prestige” or Beyond explicit hyperlinks on the Web, links in other

“authority”. contexts are useful too, e.g.,

HITS: Jon Kleinberg (Cornel University), at Ninth Annual

ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, January for discovering communities of named entities (e.g., people

1998 and organizations) in free text documents, and

PageRank: Sergey Brin and Larry Page, PhD students for analyzing social phenomena in emails..

from Stanford University, at Seventh International World

Wide Web Conference (WWW7) in April, 1998.

PageRank powers the Google search engine.

Social network analysis is the study of social entities

Introduction (people in an organization, called actors), and their

interactions and relationships.

Social network analysis

The interactions and relationships can be

Co-citation and bibliographic coupling represented with a network or graph,

each vertex (or node) represents an actor and

PageRank

HITS From the network, we can study the properties of its

Summary structure, and the role, position and prestige of each

social actor.

We can also find various kinds of sub-graphs, e.g.,

communities formed by groups of actors.

2

Social network and the Web Centrality

Social network analysis is useful for the Web

Important or prominent actors are those that

because the Web is essentially a virtual society, and are linked or involved with other actors

thus a virtual social network, extensively.

Each page: a social actor and A person with extensive contacts (links) or

each hyperlink: a relationship.

communications with many other people in

Many results from social network can be adapted the organization is considered more important

and extended for use in the Web context.

than a person with relatively fewer contacts.

We study two types of social network analysis,

centrality and prestige, which are closely related to The links can also be called ties. A central

hyperlink analysis and search on the Web. actor is one involved in many ties.

3

Examples Closeness Centrality

1 1 1/5 A 2 2 2/3

2 1 1/5 B 2 1 1/3

3 1 1/5 C 1 3 3/3

4 4 4/5 D 1 0 0/3

5 2 2/5

6 1 1/5

CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 13 CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 14

interact and actor i is on the path between j

and k, then i may have some control over the

interactions between j and k.

Betweenness measures this control of i over

other pairs of actors. Thus,

if i is on the paths of many such interactions, then

i is an important actor.

4

Betweenness Centrality (cont …) Betweenness Centrality (cont …)

Undirected graph: Let pjk be the number of

shortest paths between actor j and actor k.

The betweenness of an actor i is defined as the

number of shortest paths that pass i (pjk(i))

normalized by the total number of shortest paths.

p jk (i )

j k p jk

5

Example: Betweeness Centrality Prestige

Prestige is a more refined measure of prominence of

an actor than centrality.

Distinguish: ties sent (out-links) and ties received (in-links).

A prestigious actor is one who is object of extensive

ties as a recipient.

To compute the prestige: we use only in-links.

Difference between centrality and prestige:

centrality focuses on out-links

prestige focuses on in-links.

We study three prestige measures. Rank prestige

forms the basis of most Web page link analysis

algorithms, including PageRank and HITS.

CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 21 CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 22

1 1 1/5 = 0,2

2 1 1/5 = 0,2

3 1 1/5 = 0,2

4 3 3/5 = 0,6

5 1 1/5 = 0,2

6 0 0/5 = 0,0

6

Proximity prestige Proximity prestige (cont …)

The degree index of prestige of an actor i only

considers the actors that are adjacent to i.

The proximity prestige generalizes it by considering

both the actors directly and indirectly linked to actor i.

We consider every actor j that can reach i.

Let Ii be the set of actors that can reach actor i

(influence domain of actor i).

The proximity is defined as closeness or distance

of other actors to i.

Let d(j, i) denote the distance from actor j to actor i.

In the previous two prestige measures, an important

factor is not considered,

the prominence of individual actors who do the “voting”

In the real world, a person i chosen by an important

person is more prestigious than chosen by a less

important person.

For example, if a company CEO votes for a person is much

more important than a worker votes for the person.

If one’s circle of influence is full of prestigious actors,

then one’s own prestige is also high.

Thus one’s prestige is affected by the ranks or statuses of

the involved actors.

CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 27 CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 28

7

Rank prestige (cont …) Example:

Based on this intuition, the rank prestige PR(i) is

define as a linear combination of links that point to i:

Introduction

Social network analysis

Co-citation and bibliographic coupling

PageRank

HITS

Summary

8

Co-citation and Bibliographic Coupling Co-citation

Another area of research concerned with links is If papers i and j are both cited by paper k, then they

citation analysis of scholarly publications. may be related in some sense to one another.

A scholarly publication cites related prior work to The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their

acknowledge the origins of some ideas and to compare the relationship is.

new proposal with existing work.

When a paper cites another paper, a relationship is

established between the publications.

Citation analysis uses these relationships (links) to perform

various types of analysis.

We discuss two types of citation analysis, co-

citation and bibliographic coupling. The HITS

algorithm is related to these two types of analysis.

CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 33 CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 34

Let L be the citation matrix. Each cell of the matrix is Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle.

defined as follows: Bibliographic coupling links papers that cite the

Lij = 1 if paper i cites paper j, and 0 otherwise. same articles

Co-citation (denoted by Cij) is a similarity measure if papers i and j both cite paper k, they may be related.

defined as the number of papers that co-cite i and j, The more papers they both cite, the stronger their

n similarity is.

Cij L

k 1

ki Lkj ,

A square matrix C can be formed with Cij, and it is

called the co-citation matrix.

CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 35 CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 36

9

Bibliographic coupling (cont …) Difference between BC and CC.

The year 1998 was an eventful year for Web

Introduction link analysis models. Both the PageRank and

Social network analysis HITS algorithms were reported in that year.

Co-citation and bibliographic coupling The connections between PageRank and

PageRank HITS are quite striking.

HITS Since that eventful year, PageRank has

emerged as the dominant link analysis model,

Summary due to its query-independence,

its ability to combat spamming, and

Google’s huge business success.

10

PageRank: the intuitive idea More specifically

PageRank relies on the democratic nature of the A hyperlink from a page to another page is an

Web by using its vast link structure as an indicator of implicit conveyance of authority to the target page.

an individual page's value or quality. The more in-links that a page i receives, the more

prestige the page i has.

PageRank interprets a hyperlink from page x to

page y as a vote, by page x, for page y. Pages that point to page i also have their own

However, PageRank looks at more than the sheer prestige scores.

number of votes; it also analyzes the page that A page of a higher prestige pointing to i is more important

casts the vote. than a page of a lower prestige pointing to i.

Votes casted by “important” pages weigh more heavily and In other words, a page is important if it is pointed to by

help to make other pages more "important." other important pages.

This is exactly the idea of rank prestige in social

network.

According to rank prestige, the importance of We have a system of n linear equations with n

page i (i’s PageRank score) is the sum of the unknowns. We can use a matrix to represent them.

PageRank scores of all pages that point to i. Let P be a n-dimensional column vector of PageRank

Since a page may point to many other pages, its values, i.e., P = (P(1), P(2), …, P(n))T.

prestige score should be shared. Let A be the adjacency matrix of our graph with

The Web as a directed graph G = (V, E). Let the

total number of pages be n. The PageRank score 1

if (i, j ) E

of the page i (denoted by P(i)) is defined by: Aij Oi (14)

0 otherwise

P( j)

P (i ) Oj

, Oj is the number

of out-link of j

We can write the n equations with (PageRank)

T

( j , i )E

PA P (15)

CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 43 CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 44

11

Solve the PageRank equation Using Markov chain

P AT P (15) To introduce these conditions and the

This is the characteristic equation of the enhanced equation, let us derive the same

eigensystem, where the solution to P is an Equation (15) based on the Markov chain.

eigenvector with the corresponding eigenvalue of 1. In the Markov chain, each Web page or node in

It turns out that if some conditions are satisfied, 1 is the Web graph is regarded as a state.

the largest eigenvalue and the PageRank vector P is A hyperlink is a transition, which leads from one

the principal eigenvector. state to another state with a probability.

A well known mathematical technique called power This framework models Web surfing as a

iteration can be used to find P. stochastic process.

Problem: the above Equation does not quite suffice It models a Web surfer randomly surfing the

because the Web graph does not meet the conditions. Web as state transition.

CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 45 CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 46

Recall we use Oi to denote the number of Let A be the state transition probability matrix,,

out-links of a node i. A11 A12 . . . A1n

A21 A22 . . . A2 n

Each transition probability is 1/Oi if we . . .

assume the Web surfer will click the A .

. . .

hyperlinks in the page i uniformly at random.

. . .

The “back” button on the browser is not used and A Ann

n1 An 2 . . .

the surfer does not type in an URL.

Aij represents the transition probability that the surfer

in state i (page i) will move to state j (page j). Aij is

defined exactly as in Equation (14).

12

Let us start Back to the Markov chain

Given an initial probability distribution vector that a In a Markov chain, a question of common

surfer is at each state (or page) interest is:

p0 = (p0(1), p0(2), …, p0(n))T (a column vector) and

Given p0 at the beginning, what is the probability

an nn transition probability matrix A,

that m steps/transitions later the Markov chain will

we have n be at each state j?

p (i) 1

i 1

0 (16) We determine the probability that the system

n (or the random surfer) is in state j after 1 step

A

j 1

ij 1 (17) (1 transition) by using the following reasoning:

n

If the matrix A satisfies Equation (17), we say that

A is the stochastic matrix of a Markov chain.

p1 ( j ) A (1) p

i 1

ij 0 (i ) (18)

By a Theorem of the Markov chain,

a finite Markov chain defined by the stochastic

matrix A has a unique stationary probability

distribution if A is irreducible and aperiodic.

The stationary probability distribution means

that after a series of transitions pk will

converge to a steady-state probability vector

regardless of the choice of the initial probability

vector p0, i.e.,

lim pk π (21)

k

CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 51 CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 52

13

PageRank again Is P = justified?

When we reach the steady-state, we have pk

Using the stationary probability distribution

= pk+1 =, and thus

as the PageRank vector is reasonable and

=AT. quite intuitive because

is the principal eigenvector of AT with it reflects the long-run probabilities that a random

eigenvalue of 1. surfer will visit the pages.

In PageRank, is used as the PageRank A page has a high prestige if the probability of

vector P. We again obtain Equation (15), visiting it is high.

which is re-produced here as Equation (22):

P AT P (22)

CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 53 CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 54

Now let us come back to the real Web context A is the transition matrix of the Web graph

and see whether the above conditions are 1

satisfied, i.e., if (i, j ) E

Aij Oi

whether A is a stochastic matrix and 0 otherwise n

A

whether it is irreducible and aperiodic.

It does not satisfy equation (17) ij 1

None of them is satisfied. j 1

Hence, we need to extend the ideal-case because many Web pages have no out-links, which

Equation (22) to produce the “actual are reflected in transition matrix A by some rows of

PageRank” model. complete 0’s.

Such pages are called the dangling pages (nodes).

14

An example Web hyperlink graph Fix the problem: two possible ways

1. Remove those pages with no out-links during the

PageRank computation as these pages do not

affect the ranking of any other page directly.

2. Add a complete set of outgoing links from each

such page i to all the pages on the Web.

0 12 12 0 0 0 0 12 12 0 0 0

Let us use the

1 2 0 1 2 0 0 0 second way 1 2 0 12 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

A A

0 0 1 3 0 1 3 1 3 0 0 1 3 0 1 3 1 3

0 0 0 0 0 0

1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6

0 0 1 2 1 2 0 0

0 0 0 1 2 1 2 0

Irreducible means that the Web graph G is A state i in a Markov chain being periodic

strongly connected. means that there exists a directed cycle that

Definition: A directed graph G = (V, E) is the chain has to traverse.

strongly connected if and only if, for each pair Definition: A state i is periodic with period k >

of nodes u, v ∈ V, there is a path from u to v. 1 if k is the smallest number such that all

A general Web graph represented by A is not paths leading from state i back to state i have

irreducible because a length that is a multiple of k.

for some pair of nodes u and v, there is no path If a state is not periodic (i.e., k = 1), it is aperiodic.

from u to v. A Markov chain is aperiodic if all states are

In our example, there is no directed path from aperiodic.

nodes 3 to 4.

CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 59 CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 60

15

An example: periodic Deal with irreducible and aperiodic

Fig. 5 shows a periodic Markov chain with k = 3. Eg,

if we begin from state 1, to come back to state 1 the

It is easy to deal with the above two problems

only path is 1-2-3-1 for some number of times, say h. with a single strategy.

Thus any return to state 1 will take 3h transitions.

Add a link from each page to every page and

give each link a small transition probability

controlled by a parameter d.

becomes irreducible and aperiodic

After this augmentation, at a page, the

random surfer has two options

With probability d, he randomly chooses an out- 1 6 0 7 15 1 6 0 1 60 1 6 1 6 0

link to follow. 7 15 1 6 0 11 12 1 60 1 6 1 6 0

With probability 1-d, he jumps to a random page 7 15 7 15 1 6 0 19 6 0 1 6 1 6 0

E

(1 d ) dAT

Equation (25) gives the improved model, n 1 6 0 1 60 1 6 0 1 6 0 1 6 7 15

E 1 6 0 1 60 1 6 0 19 6 0 1 6 7 15

dAT ) P

P ((1 d ) (25) 1 6 0

1 60 1 6 0 19 6 0 1 6 1 6 0

n

where E is eeT (e is a column vector of all

1’s) and thus E is a nn square matrix of all with d = 0,9

1’s.

CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 63 CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 64

16

The final PageRank algorithm The final PageRank (cont …)

(1-d)E/n + dAT is a stochastic matrix

(28) is equivalent to the formula given in the

(transposed). It is also irreducible and

PageRank paper

aperiodic

P( j )

If we scale Equation (25) so that eTP = n, P (i ) (1 d ) d

( j , i )E O j

factor which can be set to between 0 and 1.

PageRank for each page i is d = 0.85 was used in the PageRank paper.

n

P (i ) (1 d ) d A

j 1

ji P ( j) (28)

Use the power iteration method Fighting spam. A page is important if the pages

pointing to it are important.

Since it is not easy for Web page owner to add in-links into

his/her page from other important pages, it is thus not easy

to influence PageRank.

PageRank is a global measure and is query

independent.

PageRank values of all the pages are computed and saved

off-line rather than at the query time.

Criticism: Query-independence. It could not

distinguish between pages that are authoritative in

general and pages that are authoritative on the

query topic.

CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 67 CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 68

17

Road map HITS

Social network analysis Search.

Co-citation and bibliographic coupling Unlike PageRank which is a static ranking

PageRank algorithm, HITS is search query dependent.

HITS When the user issues a search query,

Summary HITS first expands the list of relevant pages

returned by a search engine and

then produces two rankings of the expanded set

of pages, authority ranking and hub ranking.

many in-links.

The idea is that the page may have good or

authoritative content on some topic and

thus many people trust it and link to it.

Hub: A hub is a page with many out-links.

The page serves as an organizer of the

information on a particular topic and

points to many good authority pages on the topic.

18

The key idea of HITS The HITS algorithm: Grab pages

A good hub points to many good authorities, and

A good authority is pointed to by many good hubs.

Given a broad search query, q, HITS collects

a set of pages as follows:

Authorities and hubs have a mutual reinforcement

relationship. Fig. 8 shows some densely linked It sends the query q to a search engine.

authorities and hubs (a bipartite sub-graph). It then collects t (t = 200 is used in the HITS

paper) highest ranked pages. This set is called

the root set W.

It then grows W by including any page pointed to

by a page in W and any page that points to a

page in W. This gives a larger set S, base set.

HITS works on the pages in S, and assigns every

page in S an authority score and a hub score. Let the authority score of the page i be a(i),

Let the number of pages in S be n. and the hub score of page i be h(i).

We again use G = (V, E) to denote the hyperlink The mutual reinforcing relationship of the two

graph of S.

We use L to denote the adjacency matrix of the scores is represented as follows:

graph.

a (i ) h( j )

( j ,i )E

(31)

1 if (i, j ) E

Lij

0 otherwise h(i ) a( j )

( i , j )E

(32)

19

HITS in matrix form Computation of HITS

The computation of authority scores and hub scores

We use a to denote the column vector with all is the same as the computation of the PageRank

the authority scores, scores, using power iteration.

a = (a(1), a(2), …, a(n))T, and If we use ak and hk to denote authority and hub

use h to denote the column vector with all the vectors at the kth iteration, the iterations for

authority scores, generating the final solutions are

h = (h(1), h(2), …, h(n))T,

Then,

a = LTh (33)

h = La (34)

bibliographic coupling

Recall that co-citation of pages i and j,

denoted by Cij, is n

Cij L T

k 1

ki Lkj ( L L) ij

matrix C

bibliographic coupling of two pages i and j,

n

denoted by Bij is

Bij L T

k 1

ik L jk ( LL )ij ,

coupling matrix B

20

Strengths and weaknesses of HITS Road map

Strength: its ability to rank pages according to the Introduction

query topic, which may be able to provide more

relevant authority and hub pages. Social network analysis

Weaknesses: Co-citation and bibliographic coupling

It is easily spammed. It is in fact quite easy to influence PageRank

HITS since adding out-links in one’s own page is so easy.

Topic drift. Many pages in the expanded set may not be HITS

on topic. Summary

Inefficiency at query time: The query time evaluation is

slow. Collecting the root set, expanding it and performing

eigenvector computation are all expensive operations

Summary Summary

In this chapter, we introduced Links can also be used to find communities,

Social network analysis, centrality and prestige which are groups of content-creators or

Co-citation and bibliographic coupling people sharing some common interests.

PageRank, which powers Google Web communities

HITS Email communities

Yahoo! and MSN have their own link-based Named entity communities

algorithms as well, but not published. Focused crawling: combining contents and

Important to note: Hyperlink based ranking is not links to crawl Web pages of a specific topic.

the only algorithm used in search engines. In fact, it Follow links and

is combined with many content based factors to Use learning/classification to determine whether a

produce the final ranking presented to the user. page is on topic.

CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 83 CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 84

21

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