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CBRC

GENERAL ENGLISH
DEVELOPMENTA READING
LITERATURE

5 MACROSKILLLS
READING
WRITING
LISTENING
SPEAKING
VIEWING(NEW)

LEVELS OF USAGE (VARIETIES OF ENGLISH)

1.STANDARD ENGLISH used by most educated speakers

A.FORMAL ENGLISH (giving speech).uses standard of correctness .Complex structure and extensive
vocabulary)
B.INFORMAL ENGLISH (casual conversation among friends).conversational in tone,smaller vocabulary and
shorter sentences.

2.NON STANDARD ENGLISH used by certain social, regional or ethnic group

Dialect (mainly spoken language)

Slang-includes words or ecpressions often understood only by cetain groups of people. (musician “gig”_

Grammar –set of rules/symbolic in nature

semantic(meaning) synonyms, antonyms


Pragmatics(context) How to used, when do u used
Sytax(structure) Subject verb agreement
Phonology(sounds) Vowels,consonants,accent
Morphology(formation of words) Affix,suffix,morphemes

A noun comes from latin word nomen which means name.

A noun is the of a person, place o thing.( can be seen and can be touch or vice versa)

Collective nouns name groups of people or things form a special category

Types of compound nouns

Separated Hyphenated Combined


Bubble bath Daughter-in-law Shipwreck

Station wagon Hand-me-down handstand

COMMON NOUNS PROPER NOUNS


Writer Emily Dickenson
Country United States, Philippines, Japan
Building SOGO, MalacanangPalaca

Pronouns are words that stand for nouns or for words that take the place of nouns.

Antecedents of pronouns

Antecedents are nouns (or words that take the place of nouns) for pronouns stand. Comes from a Latin word meaning
“to go before”, usually appears before its pronouns.

Michael said he lost his watch.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS
Singular Plural
First Person I, me, mine, my We, us, our, ours
Second Person You, your, yours You, your, yours
Third Person He, him, his They, them, their, theirs
She, her, hers
It, its

REFLEXIVE AND INTENSIVE PRONOUNS


Singular Plural
First Person Myself Ourselves
Second Person Yourself Yourselves
Third Person Himself, herself, itself themselves

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS always adds information to a sentence.

Joy helped herself to some turkey.

INTENSIVE PRONOUNS simply adds emphasis. If you omit an intensive pronoun, the sentence will contain same
basic information.

Frank fixed the refrigerator himself.


Verb is a word that expresses time while showing action, a condition , or the fact that something exists.

Visible action Mental action


Write Hope
Cry Worry
Run Think

Transitive Intransitive
Paul met him at school. Alice left after dinner.
Met whom? Left what?
Him No answer

Transitive Intransitive
If it directs action toward someone or something If it does not direct action toward someone or
named in the sentence. something named in the sentence.
(Ask whom and what after the verb`)

Linking verb is a verb that connects a word at near the beginning of a sentence with a word at a near or at the
end.

Doris is the winner.

He was glad.

The form of be
Am Am being
Are Are being
Is Is being
Was Was being
Were Were being

PRESENT PAST PAST PARTICIPLE

BAKE BAKED BAKED


DREAM DREAMED DREAMT

EAT ATE EATEN

Adjectives is a word used to describe a noun or pronoun or to give a noun or pronoun more specific meaning.

The process by which n adjective describes a word or makes it more specific is called modification.

Red house
Silver jewelry
Six flowers
Enough space
Few letters
Wonderful evening

Sequencing adjective

Number Three, a bundle (opinion)


Quality Intillegent,honest
Size Small,huge
Age 36 y/o,young,old
Shape Circle,sphere,square
Color Blue,gree,red
Origin National
Material Cotton,wood
Purpose
Noun

Three adjectivesthe,a,anare called articles

The-definite articles indicates that the noun it modifies refers to specific person,things or place

An/-indefinite articles indicates that the nouns they modify refer to anyone of a class of people,placesot things

A baseball

A history lesson

An apple

An ugly dog
• Conjunctions is a word used to connect other words or groups of words

• Coordinating conjunctions(FANBOYS)

– For

– And
– Not

– But

– Or

– Yet

– So

SENTENCE STRUCTURE TYPE WHAT IT CONTAINS EXAMPLE

SIMPLE 1 INDEPENDENT CLAUSE I LIKE GRAMMAR.

COMPUND 1 INDEPENDENT CLAUSE+ OR MORE I LIKE GRAMMER BECAUSE I FIND


INDEPENDENT CLAUSES LANGUAGE INTERESTING.

COMPLEX 1 INDEPENDENT CLAUSE+1 OR MORE BECAUSE I LIKE GRAMMAR


DEPENDENT CLAUSES
,I HAVE SPENT A LOT OF TIME STUDYING
SENTENCE STRUCTURE.

COMPOUND-COMPLEX 2 INDEPENDENT CLAUSES+ 1 OR MORE I HAVE NEVER BEEN A GREAT


DEPENDENT CLAUSES STUDENT,BUT BECAUSE I LIKE GRAMMAR,
,I HAVE SPENT A LOT OF TIME STUDYING
SENTENCE STRUCTURE

Direct object vs indirect object

Direct object are nouns,pronouns,clauses and phrases. Allow transitive verbs( action verb that require something or someone to receive the action.

Subject + verb +who or what= direct object

Dennis and Susan ate omelets for breakfast.

Subject verb direct object(ate what)

• Both I and me are first person singular pronouns, which means that they are used by one person to refer to himself or herself.

• I is a (subject),used for the one doing the verb.

• Me is an (object), or receiver of the action of the verb.

• Confusing words

• Advice-recommendation(noun)
• Advise-to recommend (verb)
• Altogether-completely
• All together-everyone/together as a group
• Bring-to carry from a distant place to a nearer one
• Take-to carry from a near place
• Bring those books here, please.
• Take these forms to the principal’s office

• Adapt means to change


• Adopt To take as one’s own
• Affect to influence
• Effect result
• Meter-a measuring device
• Metre- a metric unit/rhythm in verse
• Moral-distinguishing right from wrong
(lessson of a fable or story)
• Morale attitude or outlook usually of a group
• Quiet-silent;calm
• Quite-very(its quite difficult)

• Idioms(poetic device)

• Are words, phrases or expression which are commonly used in everyday conversation; often metaphorical and make the language more
colorful.

Idioms meaning

Make up your mind Decide something

Every cloud has its silver lining Everything has its blessings

Butterfly in your stomach Feel nervous

On cloud nine Very happy or excited

Hold your horses Be patient ;wait a minute

Over the hill Old or too old to do something.

Piece of a cake easy

Run-on (incorrectly combine)

• The debate is over, now. It is time to vote now.

• The debate is over. Now , it is time to vote.

Comma splice

I am sleepy, I have to go to work.

I am sleepy, but I have to go to work.

Faulty parallelism

I like swimming better than to dive.

I like swimming and diving.


GERUND PARTICIPLE

Gerunds are nouns Participles modify nouns

Running can be great exercise. The running water was cold.

1.Gerund as subject

• Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences.(traveling is the gerund)

2.Gerund as direct object

• They do not appreciate singing.(the gerund is singing)

3.Gerund as subject complement

My cat’s favorite activity is sleeping.(the gerund is sleeping)

4.Gerund as object of preposition

The police arrested him for speeding. (the gerund is speeding)

JARGON SLANG

Refers to the technical vocabulary of a particular A variety of language used by restricted part of population, usually young
profession, group or trade people ,teenagers, or less respectable groups

Unintelligible writing or talk Its vocabulary is not long-lasting ( not “in fashion” anymore)

Specific dialects resulting from a mixture of several Slang usually means rude or very informal language.
languages

• Medical jargon YOLO

Agonal LOL

BP TGIF

NPO Corny

• Teacher jargons PETMALU

lesson plan LODI

teaching strategy

subject matter
ONE WHO IS OUT TO SUBVERT A GOVERNMENT ANARCHIST

ONE WHO IS RECOVERING FROM ILLNESS CONVALESCENT

ONE WHO IS ALL POWERFUL OMNIPOTENT

ONE WHO IS PRESENT EVERYWHERE OMNIPRESENT

ONE WHO HAS NI MONEY PAUPER

ONE WHO LOVES MANKIND PHILANTHROPIST

ONE WHO CAN SPEAK TWO LANGUAGES BILINGUAL

SYNONYMS
• IMPERTINENT-IRRELEVANT
• TRANSMUTED-CHANGE
• CARNAL-WORDLY
• APLOM.B-COMPOSURE
• APOCALYPTIC-PROPHETIC
• HIATUS-LAPSE
• SOPHISTICATED-FASHIONABLE
• CULPABLE-GUILTY
• LOQUACIOUS-VERBOSE
• CANDOR-HONESTY
• SOPHOMORIC-IMMATURE
• PENCHANT-FONDNESS
• PULCHRITUDE-LOVELINESS
• HERALD-PROCLAIM

Kinds Specs

1.SKIMMING GIST/ OVERVIEW/ MAIN IDEA

2. SCANNING GLANCING for PARTICULAR INFO

3. IDEA READING Rapid reading for MAIN IDEA

4. EXPLORATORY Aims to get fairly accurate picture of a whole presentation of ideas. There are
HEADINGS/ CUES

5. STUDY READING Get MAXIMUM UNDERSTANDING of the main ideas and their relationships.
Example: SQ3R
6. CRITICAL READING Stops to consider the FACTS carefully. Not necessary to read fast otherwise might
lead to FALSE CONCLUSION

7. ANALYTIC Demands careful ATTENTION to each word. Reading MATHEMATICAL THEOREMS,


SCIENTIFIC FORMULA

8. DEVELOP Refinement of VOCA, COMPREHENSION, LITERARY APPRECIATION, and STUDY


SKILLS
MENTAL

Lingusitic Approach to Reading

BLOOMFIELD APPROACH ADVOCATE THAT THE CHILD SHOuLD BE


ACQUIANTED WITH THE LETTERS OF THE
(LEONARD BLOOMFIED and CLARENCE BARNHART) ALPHABET AT THE VERY START.THE CHILD SHOULD
BEGIN WITH CAPITAL LETTERS AND THEN GO TO
SMALL LETTERS.

FRIES APPROACH LEARNING TO READ IN ONE’S NATIVE LANGUAGE IS


LEARNING TO SHIFT, TO TRANSFER LANGUAGE
(CHARLES FRIES) SIGNALS.THE AIM IS TO DEVELOP HIG SPEED
RECOGNITION RESPONSES TO TO ENGLISH SEAKING
PATTERNS.

ECLECTIC APPROACH 1. READING AS INTEREST

2. READING AS LANGUAGE PROCESS

3. READING AS CULTURE

4. READING AS LEARNED PROCESS

barrowing Piano, robot,yogart

BLENDING motorbike

CLIPPING Exam

ACRONYM SCUBA
ABBREVIATION Dr. Atty.

AFFIXATION Unimaginable

REDUPLICATION Bye-bye

INFLECTION Pure (purity, purify, purification)

Strategy Description

THREE MODELS OF READING STRATEGIES

Strategy Description

1. BOTTOM-UP (Text-based) Begins with LETTERS on the page that


thereafter must organize as WORDS,
SENTENCES, and MEANINGFUL PARAGRAPHS

2. TOP-DOWN (Reader-based) Begins with READER’S MIND SET to


hypothesize STORIES based on PAST
EXPERIENCES with LANGUAGE and the WORLD

3. INTERACTIVE Readers use TEXT FEATURES and


BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE to understand
print

LEVELS OF READING COMPREHENSION

LEVEL SPECIFICATION

LITERAL Reading the lines, answering QUESTIONS on KNOWLEDGE

INTERPRETATIVE Reading between the line, Making INFERENCES and


COMPREHENDING them
CRITICAL ANALYSIS EVALUATION, Answers OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS

APPLIED Reading beyond the lines, Involves APPLICATION, ANALYSIS,


SYNTHESIS

• Reading problems

– Inadequate instruction

– Lack of appropriate materials

– Big unmanageable class

– Poor attitude toward reading

- Conflict with interest

0 Imitation

Immergent Larning to recognize alphabet

Birth to 6 Picture(big book) for share reading

Pre-reading

I Sounding words from print

Beginner Blend together simple words

6-7

Initial reading or decoding

2 Fluency/accuracy

Transitional Real reading stage

7-8 Good at reading and spelling

Rereading or regression

3 Reading for learning the new stage

Intermediate Acquisition of facts

9-13 y/o
4 Thinking, remembering,

Advance judging,predicting

14-18

Highschool

Multiple viewpoint stage

5 Mastery and proficiency

College Ability to defend their stand on specific issues

18 and above

Construction and re construction stage

• IRI-INFORMAL READING INVENTORY

• 1. INDEPENDENT 95% accuracy has mastery without assistance

• 2. INSTRUCTIONAL 90-94% has mastery with assistance

• 3. FRUSTRATION 90% BELOW no mastery even with assistance

• Reading in the line- literal

• Between the line- interpretative

• Beyond the line- creative

CURRICULAR CLASSROOM LESSON

CO-CURRICULAR EXPERIENCES RELATED TO CLASSROOM LESSONS

EXTRA-CURRICULAR EXPERIENCES NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO CLASSROOM LESSONS

Kinds of Sound Device Meaning Example


ALLITERATION It is a repetition of the Fall fathom five thy father
same consonant sound. lies.
ASSONANCE It is the repetition of the She combs her hair with a
same or similarcombvowelthat is golden.
sound.
CONSONANCE It has identical consonants Spilled-spelled, starred-
but different vowels. stirred, gone-gun
ONOMATOPOEIA The sound of the word Crash, murmur, hiss,
suggests its meaning. cackle, scratch, cough

Figures of Speech Meaning Example


SIMILE It is a direct comparison of two unlike objects His face was as red
by the use of like or as. as a desert sunset.
METAPHOR It is an implied comparison. Life is dream.
PERSONIFICATION It gives the characteristics of human being to The mountain sat
inanimate objects. upon the plain in his
tremendous chair.
APOSTROPHE It addresses an absent person as if present, Goodbye, proud
dead person as if alive, an inanimate objects world; I’m going
as if animate home.
HYPERBOLE It is deliberate and extravagant exaggeration Before me stood a
usually humorous. mountain of man.
IRONY It expresses an idea and mean the other. Silent as politician.
METONOMY It replaces the name of the object which is He is addicted to
closely associated with it. the battle.
ANTITHESIS It is a contrast in words or clauses, as well as in Love is so short,
ideas, in order to emphasize both parts of the forgetting is so long.
contrast. Man proposes, God
disposes.
LITOTES It emphasizes its subject by conscious War is not healthy
understatement. for children and for
living things.
OXYMORON Two contrasting words are jammed or put Found missing, silent
together. scream, living dead
UNDERSTATEMENT It is the opposite of hyperbole. It’s a little warm
today.
ALLUSION A reference, explicit or implicit, in previous There is no “open
history or literature. sesame” to the
treasure of learning.
PARADOX A contradictory or incomplete elements Mine eyes, when
statement which at first, it seems absurd but opened, with thy
at a closer reading, it can communicate real beauty fill-
truth. But when they’re
closed they see
thee better still.
EPIGRAM It is a witty, short, concise statement which The fastest colors
has the nature of a proverb. are those who will
not run.
CLIMAX It is which a series of thoughts or statements He sacrificed his
are arranged in the order of increasing business, his home,
importance. and his honor for
political gain.
ANTICLIMAX It results when the climatic order is reversed. It He lost his wife, his
is often used in humorous writing. child, his household
goods, and his dog
at one full swoop.
EPITHET It is a word generally an adjective, used to Alexander the
impart strength or, ornament to diction. Great; Aristides the
just; Richard the Lion
Hearted.

Literature

• Refer to any form OF WRITING

• BODY OF LITERARY WORK RELATING TO A SPECIFIC CULTURE

• ORIGINATED FROM LATIN WORD, LITTERA- “LETTER” – “ACQUainTANCE WITH LETTER”

TWO TYPES

• 1. PROSE- GREATER VARIETY of rhythm and has closer resemblance to everyday speech

• From latin, prosa, meaning straightforward

• Unadorned with obvious stylistic devices

• 2. POETRY- written in verse

• Particular with higher quality, great beauty, emotional sincerity, or profound insight

• Used for aesthetic qualities instead of its literal meaning

Prose

FICTION NON-FICTION

NOT REAL STORIES ACCOUNT OR REPRESENTATION OF A SUBJECT

NOT BASED ON FACTS PRESENTED AS FACT

IMAGINATIVE FORM OF NARRATIVE CAN GIVE EITHER A TRUE OR FALSE ACCOUNT OF THE SUBJECT

HAS ABILITY TO EVOKE HUMAN EMOTIONS GENERALLY ASSUMED TO BE TRUTHFUL AT THE TME OF THEIR COMPOSITION

Poetry

LYRIC NARRATIVE DRAMATIC


IS OF A PERSONAL NATURE (author’s GENRE that TELLS A STORY DRAMA written in VERSE TO BE spoken
own feelings, states of mind, and or sung
perceptions) that may or may not be set
to MUSIC

Prose fiction

Types Detail/s

1. FABLE Features ANIMALS

2. PARABLE Illustrates MORAL or RELIGIOUS LESSONS

3. FOLKTALE/ FOLKLORE Body of EXPRESSIVE CULTURE (tales, jokes, music, dance, beliefs, customs)

4. LEGEND About someone that did exist, passed on from generation to generation

5. MYTH Sacred story about ORIGINS of the WORLD

6. FAIRYTALE Features FOLKLORIC CHARACTERISTICS (goblins, elves, witches, giants)

7. SHORT STORY More concise and to the point

8. NOVEL Long written having a COMPLEX PLOT, divided into CHAPTERS

9. NOVELETTE Piece of short prose, word count 7,500-17,500 in length

10. NOVELLA Longer than novelette but shorter than novel, word count between 17,500
and 40,000

Prose nonfiction

Types Detail/s

1. ESSAY SHORT PIECE OF WRITING, from PERSONAL POINT OF VIEW (can be


arguments, criticism, recollections, etc.)

2. BIOGRAPHY Account of somebody’s life written by another person

3. AUTOBIOGRAPHY Account of somebody’s life written by the person


4. DIARY/ JOURNAL Personal record of events with personal thoughts and observations

5. DOCUMENTARY MOVIE or TV Program presenting FACTS and INFO (ON POLITICAL,


SOCIAL, and HISTORICAL ISSUES)

LYRIC POETRY

Types Detail/s

1. SONG Musical composition with lyrics for singer/s

2. SONNET 14 lines with strict rhyme and structure

3. NURSERY RHYME Traditional for children

4. LIMERICK 5-line poem popularized by Edward Lear (this is WITTY, HUMOROUS, and
OBSCENE)

5. COUPLET Consists of TWO LINES that rhyme and have same meter

6. CINQUAIN Any stanza or short poem with FIVE LINES

7. ODE Long with serious and dignified subject to celebrate an event, person, being or
power-or for private meditation

8. ELEGY MOURNFUL or REFLECTIVE POEM, a LAMENT for someone who has DIED

9. HAIKU Japanese poetry with 17 syllables, often describes NATURE or SEASON

NARRATIVE POETRY

Type Detail/s

1. BALLAD Poem usually set to MUSIC, STORY IN A SONG

2. EPIC Lengthy poem, details of a HEROIC DEEDS and EVENTS of a culture or nation
3. METRICAL TALE Told in first person

4. FREE VERSE Written without strict meter or rhyme

5. BLANK VERSE Has a regular rhythm and line length but no rhyme

6. IDYLL Short, depicting PASTORAL or RURAL SCENES and the life of country folk

7. EPIGRAM Short, expressing a SINGLE IDEA that is SATIRICAL and has a CLEVER TWIST at the end

8. ACROSTIC Number of lines of writing especially a poem or word puzzle, combination of letters from each
line spells a word or phrase

Dramatic poetry

Type Detail/s

1. TRAGEDY SERIOUS PLAY with a TRAGIC THEME , often involving a HEROIC


STRUGGLE and the DOWNFALL of the MAIN CHARACTER

2. COMEDY COMICAL PLAY with a HUMOROUS THEME or also making fun at other
people or STEREOTYPES.

• Formal poetry measures

1. Iambic (unstressed followed by stressed syllable)

2. Trochaic( stressed followed by unstressed)

3. Anapaestic( two unstressed followed by stressed)

4. Dactylic( stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllable)

5. Spondaic( two successive syllables with approximately equal strong stresses)

6. Pyrrhic ( two successive unstressed syllables or lightly stressed syllables)

• poetic forms

1. Blank verse Succession of unrhymed iambic pentameter lines

2. Couplet two lines of verse, couplet by rhyme

3. Tercet stanza by three lines linked by a single rhyme

4. Quatrain stanza of four lines, rhyme or unrhymed

5. Rhyme royal seven line iambic pentameter stanza rhyming ababbcc

6. Ottava rima eight line stanza with rhyme scheme abababcc

• Specific forms

1. Sonnet traditionally a poem of fourteen iambic pentameter lines.


• Italian Sonnet: abba abba cde cde

• English/shakespearian sonnet: abab cdcd efef gg

• Spenserian Sonnet: ababbcbccdced ee

2. Sestina poem consisting six stanzas of six lines

• ABCDEF

• FAEDBC

• CFDABE

• ECBFAD

3. VILLANELLE nineteen line poem( French form)

4. Ballad poem of in determine length, composed of four line stanzas quatrain.

Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? A

Thou art more lovely and more temperate: B

Rough winds do shake and darling buds of May, A

And summer’s lease hath all too short a date: B

Sometimes too hot the ye of heaven shines, C

And often is his gold complexion dimm’d D

And every fair from air sometimes declines C

By chance, or nature’s changing course untrimm’d D

But thy eternal summer shall not fade E

Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st F

Nor shall death brag thou wander’st in his shad, E

When in eternal lines to time grow’st F

So long as men can breathe,or eyes can see G

So long lives this, and this gives life to see. G

• The 3 pigeon holes in literary theory

 The imitative theory- LITERATURE IS A REPRESENTATION OF LIFE’S REALITIES

 THE EXPRESSIVE THEORY- Literature is an expression of FEELINGS.

 THE AFFECTIVE THEORY HOLD THAT LITERATURE AROUSES PARTICULAR EMOTION of a reader.
OLD TESTAMENT NEW TESTAMENT

NUMBER OF BOOKS 39 27

CHAPTERS 929 260

VERSES 23,114 7,957

WORDS 602,585 180,552

LETTERS 2,278,100 838,380

MIDDLE BOOK PROVERBS 2 THESSALONIANS

MIDDLE CHAPTER JOB 20 ROMAN 8,9

SOME SALIENT POINTS


LITERARY WORKS and authors

• The ILIAD-
• Written by HOMER
• 20 BOOKS
• The ODYSSEY-
• Written by HOMER
• 24 BOOKS
• The AENEID- GREAT EPIC OF ROME
• Written by VIRGIL
• 24 BOOKS
• ABOUT AENEAS ABLE TO FOUND THE CITY OF ROME
• BEOWULF- OLDEST EPIC OF ENGLAND
• ABOUT HEROIC DEEDS TO SAVE HEOROT
• The SHAH NAMAH- great epic of persia
• Written by ABDUL KASIM MAUSUR aka FIRDAUSI “SINGER OF PARADISE”
• Struggles of Persians to overthrow their enemies
• The song of roland- great epic of france
• Struggles of Christian knights under Charlemagne against the moors
• The cid- great folk epic of spain
• Tells the deeds of Rodrigo in his wars with the moors
• The divine comedy- great epic of italy
• Written by dante
• Three parts: inferno, purgatorio, and paradiso
• Purpose: salvation of the soul

Philippine Literature

Literature (from the Latin Littera meaning 'letters’ and referring to an acquaintance with the written word) is
the written work of a specific culture, sub-culture, religion, philosophy or the study of such written work
which may appear in poetry or in prose.In order to know the history of a nation’s spirit, one must read its
literature. Hence it is, that to understand the real spirit of a nation, one must “trace the little rills as they
course along down the ages, broadening and deepening into the great ocean of thought which men of the
present source are presently exploring.” Brother Azurin, said that “literature expresses the feelings of people
to society, to the government, to his surroundings, to his fellowmen and to his Divine Creator.” The
expression of one’s feelings, according to him, may be through love, sorrow, happiness, hatred, anger, pity,
contempt, or revenge.

In PANITIKING PILIPINO written by Atienza, Ramos, Salazar and Nazal, it says that “true literature is a
piece of written work which is undying. It expresses the feelings and emotions of people in response to his
everyday efforts to live, to be happy n his environment and, after struggles, to reach his Creator.”

Why We Need to Study Philippine Literature

We study literature so that we can better appreciate our literary heritage.

We cannot appreciate something that we do not understand.

Through a study of our literature, we can trace the rich heritage of ideas handed down to us from our
forefathers.

Then we can understand ourselves better and take pride in being a Filipino.

Our writers have yet to write their OPUS MAGNUMS. Meanwhile, history and literature are slowly
unfolding before us and we are as witnesses in the assembly lines to an evolving literary life. Time frames
may not be necessary in a study of literature, but since literature and history are inescapably related it has
become facilitative to map up a system which will aid us in delineating certain time

1. The Period of Re-orientation: 1898-1910

2. Period of Imitation: 1910-1925

3. Period of Self-Discovery: 1925-1941

4. Japanese Period: 1941-1945

5. The Rebirth of Freedom: 1946-1970

6. Period of Activism: 1970-1972

7. Period of the New Society: 1972-1981

8. Period of the Third Republic: 1981-1985

9. Contemporary Period: 1986

Literature and History Literature and history are closely interrelated. In discovering the history of a race, the
feelings, aspirations, customs and traditions of a people are sure to be included... and these feelings,
aspirations, customs and traditions that are written is literature.

Literature and history, however, also have differences. Literature may be figments of the imagination or
events devoid of truth that have been written down, while history is made up of events that really happened.
Literary Compositions that Have Influenced the World.
Among them are:

1. The Bible or the Sacred Writings

2. Koran

3. The Iliad and the Odyssey

4. The Mahab-harata

5. Canterbury Tales

6. Uncle Tom’s Cabin

7. The Divine Comedy

8. El Cid Compeador

9. The Song of Roland

10. The Book of the Dead

11. The Book of the Days

12. One Thousand and One Nights or The Arabian Nights

General Types of Literature Literature

Poetry vs. Prose

Poetry Prose

Definition It is defined as the most


general form of written
It is defined as the form of art in which language that is not used for
language is used for its evocative and aesthetic formal patterns of a verse.
qualities in addition to its apparent meaning.

Origin It originates from the Latin word ‘poeta’ that The word ‘prose’ comes the
means ‘poet’. Latin term which mean
‘straight forward’.
Primary goal It has the primary goal of selling the language It has the primary goal of
itself as music. sharing information.

It is It is best words in the best order. It is words in their best order.

Lines and sentences Lines are considered to be basic units of Sentences are considered to be
poetry. basic units of prose.

Characteristics  It is a lyrical form of writing.  It is the typical form of


 It has structure, format and rhyming in the writing.
sentences.  It has no structure, format
 It is usually divided into lines or phrases. and rhyming in the
 It is more expressive and attractive. sentences.
 It serves to excite the readers.  It is not usually divided
 It is imaginative. into sentences.
 It is dull.
 It is simple and common.
 It is quite ordinary.
Used It is used in writing songs and poems. It is used in different articles,
stories and letters, etc.

Image Courtesy: howtohaveitall.net, mersihagadzo.com

Prose consists of those written within the common flow of conversation in sentences and paragraphs, while
poetry refers to those expressions in verse, with measure and rhyme, line and stanza and has a more
melodious tone.

I. PROSE
There are many types of prose.
a. Novels. A long narrative divided into chapters and events are taken from true-to-life stories.

Example:WITHOUT SEEING THE DAWN by StevanJavellana

b. Short story. This is a narrative involving one or more characters, one plot and one single
impression.

Example:THE LAUGHTER OF MY FATHER by Carlos Bulosan

c. Plays. This is presented on a stage, is divided into acts and each act has many scenes.

Example:THIRTEEN PLAYS by Wilfredo M. Guerrero

d. Legends. These are fictitious narratives, usually about origins.

Example:THE BIKOL LEGEND by Pio Duran

e. Fables. These are also fictitious and they deal with animals and inanimate things who speak and act like
people and their purpose is to enlighten the minds of children to events that can mold their ways and
attitudes.
Example:THE MONKEY AND THE TURTLE

f. Anecdotes. These are merely products of the writer’s imagination and the main aim is to bring out lessons
to the reader.

Example:THE MOTH AND THE LAMP

g. Essay. This expresses the viewpoint or opinion of the writer about a particular problem or event. The best
example of this is the Editorial page of a newspaper.

h. Biography. This deals with the life of a person which may be about himself, his autobiography or that of
others.

Example:CAYETANO ARELLANO by Socorro O. Albert

i. News. This is a report of everyday events in society, government, science and industry, and
accidents, happening nationally or not.

j. Oration. This is a formal treatment of a subject and is intended to be spoken in public. It appeals to
the intellect, to the will or to the emotions of the audience.

II. POETRY There are three types of poetry and these are the following:

A. Narrative Poetry. This form describes important events in life either real or imaginary. The different
varieties are:

1. Epic. This is an extended narrative about heroic exploits often under supernatural control.

Example:THE HARVEST SONG OF ALIGUYON translated in English by Amador T. Daguio

2. Metrical Tale. This is a narrative which is written in verse and can be classified either as a ballad or
a metrical romance.

Examples:BAYANI NG BUKID by Al Perez HERO OF THE FIELDS by Al Perez

3. Ballads. Of the narrative poems, this is considered the shortest and simplest. It has a simple structure and
tells of a single incident.

There are also variations of these: love ballads, war ballads, and sea ballads, humorous, moral, and historical
or mythical ballads. In the early time, this referred to a song accompanying a dance.

B. Lyric Poetry. Originally, this refers to that kind of poetry meant to be sung to the accompaniment of a
lyre, but now, this applies to any type of poetry that expresses emotions and feelings of the poet. They are
usually short, simple and easy to understand.

1. Folksongs (Awiting Bayan). These are short poems intended to be sung. The common theme is love,
despair, grief, doubt, joy, hope and sorrow.

Example:CHIT-CHIRIT-CHIT

2. Sonnets. This is a lyric poem of 14 lines dealing with an emotion, a feeling, or an idea.

These are two types: the Italian and the Shakespearean.

Example:SANTANG BUDS by Alfonso P. Santos


3. Elegy. This is a lyric poem which expresses feelings of grief and melancholy, and whose theme is death.

Example:THE LOVER’S DEATH by RicaredoDemetillo

4. Ode. This is a poem of a noble feeling, expressed with dignity, with no definite number of syllables or
definite number of lines in a stanza.

5. Psalms (Dalit). This is a song praising God or the Virgin Mary and containing a philosophy of life.

6. Awit (Song). These have measures of twelve syllables (dodecasyllabic) and slowly sung to the
accompaniment of a guitar or banduria.

Example:FLORANTE AT LAURA by FrancisoBalagtas

7. Corridos (Kuridos). These have measures of eight syllables (octosyllabic) and recited to a martial beat.

Example:IBONG ADARNA

C. Dramatic Poetry

1. Comedy. The word comedy comes from the Greek term “komos” meaning festivity or revelry.
This form usually is light and written with the purpose of amusing, and usually has a happy ending.

2. Melodrama. This is usually used in musical plays with the opera. Today, this is related to tragedy
just as the farce is to comedy. It arouses immediate and intense emotion and is usually sad but there is a
happy ending for the principal character.

3. Tragedy. This involves the hero struggling mightily against dynamic forces; he meets death or ruin
without success and satisfaction obtained by the protagonist in a comedy.

4. Farce. This is an exaggerated comedy. It seeks to arouse mirth by laughable lines; situations are too
ridiculous to be true; the characters seem to be caricatures and the motives undignified and absurd. 5. Social
Poems. This form is either purely comic or tragic and it pictures the life of today. It may aim to bring about
changes in the social conditions.