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The Effects of Poor Classroom Management on Teacher Self-Efficacy

Literature Review

Eric Zachary

California State University, Monterey Bay

December 15, 2017

IST 511 Writing Workshop

Dr. Sarah Tourtellotte


The Effects of Poor Classroom Management on Teacher Self-Efficacy

The attrition rate of beginning teachers is a persistent issue in the realm of public

education. Statistics show us that approximately ten percent of beginning teachers leave

after the first year, and around twenty percent will leave the profession before completing

five years (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2015). There are many factors that

contribute to this high level of turnover. Aloe, Amo, Shanahan (2013) suggest that

teacher burnout is a major contributor to the early departure of beginners from the

teaching field and explain that a leading cause of burnout can be attributed to poor

classroom management self-efficacy (CMSE).

Aloe et al.’s (2013) summary article, reviewed sixteen studies comparing the

relationship of CMSE and the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI).

Aloe et al. (2013) found that there were negative relationships between CMSE and

emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and (lowered) personal accomplishment. Based

on the results of the review, the authors recommended greater emphasis on traditional

classroom management training in teacher preparation programs.

Hoglund, Klingle, and Hosan (2015) studied the levels of teacher burnout in high

needs elementary schools over the course of a school year. The authors conducted their

study using observation and surveying the teachers and students. Like Aloe et al. (2013),

teacher burnout was assessed based on the three levels of the MBI. The study focused on

two main areas: the relationship between burnout and classroom quality and the

relationship between burnout and teacher interaction with students that demonstrated

externalizing behaviors.

Hoglund et al. (2015) describe classroom quality in a way that is similar to what

other studies refer to as classroom management, in that it refers to classroom organization

and student engagement. Furthermore, externalizing behaviors are described as students

who are often disengaged and disruptive. The results of the study showed a greater

degree of teacher burnout in classrooms where there were more instances of externalized

behaviors. In relationship, the study also found that there were more cases of disruptive

behavior in classes that had lower classroom quality. This indicates that although teacher

burnout stems from dealing with difficult behaviors in the classroom, the difficult

behaviors were a direct result of poor management by the teacher. Hoglund et al. (2015)

suggest that schools should provide preservice and ongoing training to assist teachers

with classroom organization strategies.

Martin, Sass, and Schmitt (2012) conducted a study to determine the relationship

between instructional management, burnout, student stressors, and teachers’ intent-to-

leave the profession. Martin et al. (2012) describe a pattern that shows predictability in a

teacher's eventual intent-to-leave. Student stressors, which include negative behavior,

lack of interest, and poor performance lead to emotional exhaustion. The emotional

exhaustion led teachers to plan instruction that limits stressors and creates classroom

control through assignments and activities that are monotonous. This causes teacher

depersonalization and ends up having the opposite effect by increasing problematic

behavior. All of these components contributed to lower job satisfaction, which

consequently, lead to burnout and ultimately, intent-to-leave.

Brouwers and Tomic (1999) also studied the effects of perceived self-efficacy in

classroom management in relation to teacher burnout. The study revealed that poor

classroom management is the first link in a chain that eventually leads to teacher burnout.

Teachers who ineffectively deal with classroom disruptions lose confidence in their

ability to manage their classrooms and often give up on trying to fix the problem. The

decreased feeling of self-efficacy causes teachers to doubt their ability to do their job.

This in turn causes emotional exhaustion, which leads to to depersonalization. Brouwers

and Tomic (1999) describe depersonalization as a negative attitude towards work and the

people with whom the worker interacts. Based on the result of the study, once teachers

have reached the depersonalization stage, they give up and often stop trying to solve the


Brouwers and Tomic (1999) offer more specific suggestions than some of the

other studies to reduce the effects of teacher burnout. In order to counteract the effects of

burnout, teachers must believe that they are able to make a positive impact. The authors

suggest that these teachers need to have experiences of success. This success may come

through providing strategic skills with training, providing positive feedback, and

practicing in a simulated environment. Once teachers feel a sense of mastery, and feel

more confident in their ability, they will be more apt to implement the classroom

management methods into their classrooms.

There is a clear connection between CMSE and teacher burnout. These studies

provide insight as to the importance of a teacher’s ability to view his or her job as

impactful and important. Understanding that a teacher’s overall self-efficacy directly

relates to attrition allows for greater efforts to be made to prevent it. By better preparing

educators to manage their classrooms, progress can be made toward increased teacher



Aloe, A. M., Amo L. C., & Shanahan M. E. (2014). Classroom Management Self-

Efficacy and Burnout: A Multivariate Meta-Analysis. Educational Psychology

Review, 26,101-126.

Brouwers, A., & Tomic D. (2000). A Longitudinal study of teacher burnout and

perceived self-efficacy in classroom management. Teaching and

Teacher Education, 16, 239-253.

Hoglund, W. L. G., Klingle, K. E., & Hosan, N. E. (2015). Classroom risks and

resources: Teacher burnout, classroom quality and children’s adjustment in high

needs elementary schools. Journal of School Psychology, 53, 337-357.

Martin, N., Sass D. A., & Schmitt, T. A. (2012). Teacher efficacy in student engagement,

instructional management, student stressors, and burnout: A theoretical model

using in-class variables to predict teachers’ intent-to-leave. Teaching and

Teacher Education, 28, 546-559.

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Educational Statistics, (2015). Public School

TeacherAttrition and Mobility in the First Five Years: (NCES Publication No.

2015-337). Retrieved from