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# Lab Report # 4

Orthographic Drawing

## SUBMITTED BY ABUZAR ALI

Roll No = 211
PURPOSE-:
The purpose of this lab task was to practice orthographic drawings and to have further
understanding of orthographic views.

Introduction-:
There are six main features of the object which are front, rear, left, right, top and bottom. That
side which has the larger horizontal dimension is fixed as the front side in machine drawing and
front side of building is that which has the main entrance.

## Orthographic projection is the method of representation the exact shape of an

object by carrying perpendicular rays from two or more sides of the object to picture planes
generally at right angle to each other. We shall focus only on orthographic drawing in this
chapter.

Definitions-:
Some of the important definitions are following -:

Projection-:
Projection is the process of causing an image to be formed by rays of sight emerging from an
object taken in a perpendicular direction from the object to a picture plane.

Length-:
It is the perpendicular distance between two profile planes.

Width-:
It is the perpendicular distance between two frontal planes.

Height-:
It is the perpendicular distance between two horizontal planes.

## First angle projection-:

In the arrangement of orthographic views we draw top view at the bottom of paper then we
draw front view above it and end view is drawn on that side of the front view which is opposite
to the side from which we are looking at the object relative to the front.
3rd angle Projection-:
In 3rd angle projection front view is always drawn at the bottom , top view just above the front
view , and end view is drawn on that side of the front view from where we are looking at the
end of the object relative to the front.

Procedure-:
 We were given 3 drawings and were asked to draw their orthographic views
 We drew top view, front view and one side view.
 The reason we drew one side view is that because object was symmetric and had
identical left side and right side views.
 All the drawings had proper dimensions. No free hand sketching this time.
 We used 3rd angle projection to draw all the orthographic views.
 We also used scale in problem no 3.9.

Improvements-:
1. Before drawing on proper sheet students should have been asked to practice the
figures with proper dimensions.
2. Students should have been recommended to practice scale adjustment properly
as it a bit critical thing.
3. No one had any issue in solving first two problems as they had only straight lines
and few inclined lines.
4. After interacting with few class fellows I observed that majority(including myself)
had issues with drawing curves. Majority had no clue how to find center to draw
curve. There were also some issues while measuring length of inclined lines.
5. We should allocate an additional lecture to solve problem 3.9 or 3.11 from
exercise which has both of these curves and inclined lines. In order to remove
confusions and grasp proper concept of inclined and curves.